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Chapter 10 Laminated doughs.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

After reading this chapter, you should be able to:

* Define a laminated dough.

* List three different types of laminated doughs.

* Demonstrate the three-fold and four-fold folding techniques.

* Work with laminated doughs and prepare the recipes at the end of this chapter.

KEY TERMS

base dough

detrempe

four-fold or bookfold

laminated dough

plasticity

three-fold or letterfold

turn

In Chapter 8, you learned about yeast and its role in the preparation of straight yeast breads. In this chapter, rich sweet doughs known as laminated doughs are discussed.

Laminated dough is a category of very rich, fat-filled doughs used to make three main types of rich pastry: Danish pastry, croissants, and puff pastry. Only Danish and croissant doughs use yeast in their preparation. Other names used for laminated doughs are rolled-in doughs or layered doughs. Fats are incorporated into a base dough through a series of folds and turns that produce hundreds of flaky layers when baked. Pastries prepared using laminated doughs can be filled before or after baking using sweet or savory fillings.

This chapter explores the three different types of laminated dough, the differences between them, how to prepare them step-by-step, and their applications in various recipes.

Laminated Doughs Defined

All laminated doughs involve three steps: (1) preparing a base dough, (2) enclosing fat inside the dough, and (3) making a series of folds to produce thin layers of dough with fat in between them. Laminated doughs start out with a yeasted base dough for Danish and croissant doughs or a non-yeasted base dough for puff pastry that is rolled out to a rectangle. The fat (butter or solid shortening) is shaped into a rectangle and placed in the middle of the dough. In puff pastry doughs, the fat is mixed with some flour to give it more structure before it is folded into the dough.

All laminated doughs involve three steps:

1. Preparing a base dough

2. Enclosing fat inside the dough

3. Folding and layering

The dough is then folded around the fat. The "fat sandwich" is then rolled out to a rectangle and then folded again. This is referred to as a turn. The pastry is then wrapped and chilled for approximately 1 hour to relax any gluten that may have developed. The steps of rolling, folding, and chilling are repeated until very thin layers of "dough, fat, dough" are made. The number of turns the dough has received in between each rest should be recorded. This is traditionally done by pressing as many fingers into the dough as the number of turns completed. The dough can also be marked after wrapping it in plastic using a marker or pen.

After an overnight rest, the dough is ready to shape. The dough cannot be kneaded at this stage because any mixing would incorporate the butter into the dough, destroying any layering. Traditionally, a laminated dough is cut and rolled out to a specific length and width. Fillings can be added and the dough can be cut and rolled into various shapes to make such pastries as snails, bear claws, envelopes, tarts, twists, coffee cakes, and croissants. Because laminated doughs can be sweet or savory, they are very versatile. When a laminated dough has undergone all of its turns and it is cut in half, it resembles a book with thin "pages." These pages are actually very thin sheets of dough with sheets of fat evenly distributed between each one.

How many turns the dough receives is determined by the final product desired. Danish and croissant doughs generally receive three turns, whereas puff pastry dough receives four turns. Why the extra turn for puff pastry? Puff pastry contains no yeast or leavening ingredients; steam is its only leavening agent. The more turns that the dough undergoes, the more layers that are formed. The greater the number of layers, the greater the rise in the pastry.

Solid Fats and Plasticity

Before you learn how to enclose fat into the base dough, you need to learn about solid fats and which ones are appropriate for laminated doughs. The type of fat chosen to be enclosed into the base dough will affect the flakiness and flavor of the finished product. Ideally, the fat should be neither too soft nor too hard. If the fat is too soft, it can ooze out of the dough or the dough will absorb it and prevent any layering from occurring in the final product. If the fat is too hard, it will be broken into small pieces during the rolling out process and create tears in the dough with uneven layering of fat.

Solid fats are traditionally used in laminated doughs. The fats that are traditionally used for laminated doughs are butter, solid vegetable shortening, margarine, and special shortenings made especially for laminated doughs.

Solid vegetable shortening, margarine, and other special shortenings tend to be used for three reasons. First, they are inexpensive. Second, they have a higher melting point than butter. Lastly, they do not get as hard when refrigerated. The last two reasons refer to the fat's plastic quality or plasticity.

As you learned in Chapter 2, solid fats have a specific degree of plasticity. Plasticity is a physical property of fats and refers to how easily a particular fat can be molded or shaped. The degree of plasticity or how plastic a fat is depends upon the temperature surrounding it.

Fats with the highest plasticity are shortenings. This means that shortenings remain flexible, soft, and workable over a wider range of temperatures. They are used most often for laminated doughs in large-scale commercial bakeries. This is because they will not soften as each turn is being made and they remain closest in consistency to the base dough, even if kitchen temperatures vary.

Butter, on the other hand, becomes too soft to work with at warm room temperature because of its low melting point, and it becomes too hard to work with at refrigerated temperatures. However, butter contributes the best taste to laminated doughs, because it has a lower melting point and does not leave a greasy film on the tongue as do other fats. It is still the fat of choice in laminated doughs because of the rich flavor it provides.

Preparing a Base Dough

The first step in preparing a laminated dough is to make the base dough. The base dough is also known as the detrempe. The base dough will vary depending upon which of the three pastries is being made.

When preparing the base dough, some bakers add a small amount of an acid such as lemon juice or vinegar to the ingredients. The acid relaxes gluten, thereby decreasing elasticity and making it easier to roll out the dough.

Danish Base Dough

Of the three types of laminated doughs, Danish doughs tend to have the richest base dough because of the addition of eggs, milk, and sugar. Yeast is also added.

Croissant Base Dough

Croissant base dough is less rich than a Danish dough in that it contains some milk, little sugar, and no eggs. It, too, contains yeast like a Danish dough.

Puff Pastry Base Dough

Puff pastry base dough traditionally does not contain sugar. Water is added to the dough, which ultimately creates steam in the oven. Because yeast is not added to puff pastry dough, the steam is its only source of leavening.

Enclosing Fat Inside the Dough

The next step in preparing the laminated dough is to enclose fat inside the base dough. It is important to note the temperature and consistency of the fat. If the fat is too cold, it will be too hard to be evenly distributed throughout the layers, possibly tearing the dough. If the fat is too soft, it can ooze out the edges of the dough. It is crucial that the dough and fat are of the same temperature and consistency. Ideally, the temperature of the dough and the fat should be approximately 60[degrees]F (16[degrees]C). However, the important lesson to remember is that neither the dough nor the fat should be too soft or too hard.

In order to work with the fat more easily, some bakers blend it with a small amount of flour so it has more structure. The flour absorbs some of the moisture in the fat, making it easier to work with when rolling out the dough. The added flour also prevents the fat from leaking out during the baking of the finished product.

There are several ways to enclose the fat inside the dough.

1. One technique shapes the base dough into one large ball. A large "X" is cut into it with a knife. Each of the four cut edges is pulled out, forming a four-leaf clover shape. One block of fat is placed directly in the middle and each "leaf" is gently pulled up over the butter, enclosing it. This technique can be cumbersome because the butter is in one large lump.

2. Another way to enclose the fat involves rolling out the base dough to a large square and then placing a square of butter diagonally in the center of it. Each side of the dough is folded in over the butter to form a square. It is then chilled for 30 minutes before any turns are started.

3. The technique used in this book involves placing the butter between two pieces of plastic wrap. Using a rolling pin, the butter is pounded to soften it and then rolled and shaped into a rectangle. It can be chilled if it gets too soft. The base dough is then rolled into a rectangle with the rectangle of butter placed across two thirds the length of the dough (Figure 10-1). The short end (with no butter) is brought over the center, sealing the ends closed. The buttered end of the dough is pulled up over the dough like a letter and sealed forming a "fat sandwich." This technique makes the most even layers.

At this point, the dough is rotated 90 degrees and rolled out again into another rectangle. This time the dough can be folded in a letterfold for Danish and croissant dough or in a bookfold for puff pastry. Make sure the short ends of the dough are the ends being folded inward.

It is important to keep the fat the same temperature and consistency as the base dough.

Folding and Layering

To create hundreds of layers, the dough is repeatedly rolled out and folded in a specific way. The sequence of rolling out the dough and folding it is known as a turn. Initially, enclosing the fat into the base dough is not counted as a turn. The more turns that the dough undergoes, the more layers that are created. The dough is then rested in between making each turn. There are two types of folding techniques used on a laminated dough to complete a turn. One technique is known as the three-fold or letterfold, in which the dough is rolled out into a rectangle and then folded like a letter into thirds (Figure 10-2).

[FIGURE 10-1 OMITTED]

The second technique is known as the four-fold or bookfold in which the dough is rolled into a rectangle with the shorter two ends folded in to meet each other in the middle; then the two halves are brought together in the middle to close like a book (Figure 10-3).

Danish and Croissant Doughs

Danish and croissant doughs are traditionally folded using the letterfold method. The dough is given three letterfold (or three-fold) turns for a total of three times. It is often referred to as a 3 x 3. After each turn, the dough is chilled and allowed to rest.

(Note: No matter which fold is used, the open ends are always folded in toward the center to ensure that fat stays enclosed.)

Puff Pastry Dough

Puff pastry dough is traditionally given a bookfold (or four-fold) turn for a total of four times. It is referred to as a 4 x 4. Because no yeast or other leavening agent is used, puff pastry is dependent on the increased number of layers formed within the dough. One bookfold turn creates more layers than one letterfold turn. The more layers created, the greater the height in the final pastry. Puff pastry is also given a rest in between each turn.

To compare the three types of laminated dough, see Table 10-1, Three Types of Laminated Dough.

Why Resting the Dough Is Necessary

After each turn, laminated doughs are placed in the refrigerator to rest. Resting accomplishes two goals. First, resting allows any gluten that has formed to relax. Second, during rolling and folding, heat is generated. Often, the fat warms up and becomes soft (especially when using butter). Resting the dough allows the fat time to firm up just enough before the next turn. The resting period can last anywhere from 20 minutes to 1 hour between turns. The fat should not be allowed to get too hard. Some chefs place the dough in the freezer to speed this process.

[FIGURE 10-2 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 10-3 OMITTED]

How Laminated Doughs Puff Up and Rise

The rising power of Danish and croissant doughs is due to the yeast in the dough as well as steam. Puff pastry is steam leavened only, with no added advantage of yeast.

Similar to a flaky pie pastry, the many thin layers of fat within a laminated dough act as spacers. Once in the oven, each layer of fat melts, leaving a space between the dough above and below. These spaces fill with hot air and steam from moisture within the dough and fat layers, which expand, causing a pushing up against the dough layers, separating and lifting them to form many flaky layers. Laminated doughs are typically baked at 400[degrees]F (205[degrees]C) or higher to produce enough steam to help the layers rise.

Choosing a Flour for the Base Dough

Even though there are standard recipes for puff pastry and for Danish and croissant doughs, opinions differ in the type of flour to be used in the base dough. Some bakers choose all-purpose flour to decrease gluten and toughness. Some choose bread flour to give added structure to the risen layers. Using bread flour or other high-protein flour may not seem like the correct type of flour to use considering a tender, flaky product is desired. Yet laminated doughs need to have enough strength so that as they puff up their ultrafine layers do not break. The gluten strands should have enough resiliency to stretch, yielding paper-thin layers. The higher protein content of bread flour gives a certain amount of "give" or elasticity to the dough. Sometimes a combination of high-protein and low-protein flours is the best compromise for making tender, yet resilient, pastry.

Dimensions of the Base Dough

The exact dimensions of the rectangle made from the base dough are not important. There are two points to keep in mind, however. First, make sure the dough is not rolled too thin or the height of the baked pastry will be compromised. Second, a bookfold or four-fold turn requires the dough to be a longer length than does a letterfold or three-fold turn.

Tips for Successful Laminated Pastries

For the Base Dough

* Use a small amount of an acid such as lemon juice or vinegar to denature some of the proteins in the flour, thereby relaxing the gluten just enough to allow better rolling out of the dough, reducing shrinkage.

* Avoid overworking the dough to prevent too much gluten from forming.

For Enclosing the Fat

* Keep the fat and the dough the same temperature and consistency.

* For small batches, place the butter between two pieces of plastic and hit it with a rolling pin. The friction from hitting the fat will produce heat, softening it to the consistency of the dough. For large-scale operations, the fat can be softened in an electric mixer using the paddle attachment.

For Folding and Layering

* Always keep the work surface lightly floured.

* Roll the dough in one direction only for each turn to maintain the rectangular shape.

* Keep the edges of the dough straight by squaring off the dough with the rolling pin. This is to maintain the rectangular shape of the dough.

* When rolling the dough, if any fat becomes exposed, sprinkle flour on top of it and continue rolling.

* Before folding the dough to complete a turn, be sure to brush excess flour off the dough using a pastry brush.

* If at any time butter oozes out or is exposed before folding the dough, place the exposed side up so the next fold will encase the exposed fat back into the dough.

* Before each turn, rotate the dough 90 degrees so that when the short, open ends are folded in, the open sides exposing the fat are folded into the center, keeping the fat inside.

* After each turn, be sure the edges of the dough being folded over match the edges of the dough underneath to keep the layers intact.

* After a turn is completed, press a finger into the dough to designate how many turns have been completed. Once wrapped in plastic, a marker or pen can also be used.

* After all the required turns, chill the dough overnight to relax the gluten and facilitate the rolling out process before shaping.

For Shaping, Proofing, and Baking

* Brush off any excess flour before cutting and shaping the dough.

* Never proof the formed Danish pastry or croissants above 85[degrees]F (29[degrees]C) or the fat will melt and ooze out, destroying layers.

(Note: Because puff pastry dough does not contain yeast, proofing is not necessary.)

Freezing Laminated Doughs

After all turns have been completed, unbaked laminated doughs can be wrapped airtight and frozen for 2 to 3 months. If a Danish or croissant dough is frozen, it is recommended to use one fourth more yeast in the base dough because some yeast may die during freezing. The dough can be thawed for several hours in the refrigerator and then shaped, proofed, and baked.

The dough can also be rolled, cut, shaped, and then frozen as individual pieces. The pieces are thawed in the refrigerator, proofed, and then baked.

Fully baked Danish and croissants can be frozen by wrapping them airtight in plastic and placing them in a plastic bag before freezing. The baked pieces that freeze best are those that do not contain pastry creams, fruit fillings, or whipped cream.

RECIPES

Croissant Dough (This Chapter, page 207)

Danish Dough (This Chapter, page 203)

Puff Pastry Dough (This Chapter, page 209)
DANISH DOUGH

Makes approximately
2 pounds, 9 ounces
(1.16 kg) dough

Lessons demonstrated in this recipe:

* How to prepare a typical Danish dough using yeast as a leavening
  agent.

* Cardamom, a spice from a pod used in Middle Eastern and Indian
  cuisine, is related to the ginger family and is often used in Danish
  doughs because it gives off a pleasant, spicy, almost floral aroma.

* Using some bread flour allows better absorption of liquids and better
  gluten development to ensure thin, strong, flaky layers.

* Danish dough is given 3 three-fold turns or a 3 x 3.

* Allowing the dough to rest in between turns relaxes any gluten that
  develops.

                MEASUREMENTS

              U.S.                   METRIC

4 fluid ounces    1/2 cup            120 mL
4 fluid ounces    1/2 cup            120 mL

1/2 ounce         3 1/2 teaspoons     10.5 g
10 ounces         2 cups             285 g
9 ounces          2 cups             255 g
3 1/2 ounces      1/2 cup            100 g
1/4 ounce         1 teaspoon           6 g
                  3/4 teaspoon         1.5 g
1/2 ounce         1 tablespoon        15 g
2 each                                94 g
1 pound           2 cups             455 g

MEASUREMENTS                    INGREDIENTS

  BAKER'S %

     22%          lukewarm water (110[degrees]F; 43[degrees]C)
     22%          whole milk scalded and cooled to lukewarm
                  (110[degrees]F; 43[degrees]C) in a small saucepan
      1.9%        instant active dry yeast
     53%          bread flour, plus more if needed
     47%          all-purpose flour
     19%          granulated sugar
      1.1%        salt
      0%          ground cardamom
      3%          unsalted butter, softened
     17%          large eggs, room temperature
     84.0%        unsalted butter, cold but not hard (leave at
                  room temperature for 30 minutes to soften
                  slightly)
    270.1%        Total Danish Dough percentage

1. Danish Base Dough

   Add the water to the saucepan containing the scalded milk. Add the
   yeast and stir to dissolve.

2. In the bowl of an electric mixer using the paddle attachment,
   combine the flours, sugar, salt, and cardamom. Blend the dry
   ingredients on low speed until they are well combined.

3. On low speed, gradually add the warm yeast and milk mixture,
   softened butter, and eggs until a soft dough forms (Figure 10-4).
   Stop the machine and feel the dough. If it feels too sticky,
   sprinkle in a small amount of bread flour.

4. Remove the dough from the bowl and knead it until it feels smooth
   and elastic but still soft. Do not overwork the dough. Shape the
   dough into a rectangular disk. Wrap the dough in plastic wrap and
   chill it for 30 minutes (Figure 10-5).

5. Preparing the Butter to Be Enclosed

   Place the butter on a piece of plastic wrap that is at least two or
   three times its size on a clean, dry work surface. Cover the butter
   with another piece of plastic wrap the same size as the first.
   Using a rolling pin, hit the butter to soften it slightly and then
   begin to roll and push it into an even 6- by 12-inch (15- by 30-cm)
   rectangle (Figure 10-6). Do not overhandle the butter. It should,
   ideally, be the same consistency as the dough. Set it aside; do not
   chill.

6. Enclosing the Butter

   On a lightly floured work surface, roll the chilled dough into a
   9- by 18-inch (22.5- by 45-cm) rectangle. Place the rectangle of
   butter across two thirds of the rectangle and fold like a letter,
   bringing the unbuttered end up over to the middle of the butter,
   sealing the dough all long the edges (Figure 10-7A). Fold the
   remaining buttered portion of the dough on top, completely sealing
   the butter inside (Figure 10-7B). Be sure to stretch the corners
   of the dough to square it off, pressing it down to seal the edges
   together (Figure 10-7C). Using a pastry brush, dust off any excess
   flour (Figure 10-8).

7. Completing One Three-fold or Letterfold turn

   Rotate the dough 90 degrees so that when the dough is rolled out,
   the open ends will become the short sides of the rectangle (Figure
   10-9). It will be these short sides that are folded into the center
   to make sure the fat stays enclosed. Roll out the dough to a 9- by
   18-inch (22.5- by 45-cm) rectangle (Figure 10-10). Using a pastry
   brush, dust off any excess flour.

[FIGURE 10-4 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 10-5 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 10-6 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 10-7A OMITTED]

[FIGURE 10-7B OMITTED]

[FIGURE 10-7C OMITTED]

[FIGURE 10-8 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 10-9 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 10-10 OMITTED]

8. Take one short end of the dough and fold it one third of the way
   toward the middle, like a letter, pressing it down slightly. Take
   the other short end and pull it over the dough to meet the other
   side as if you are folding a letter. Press the dough down slightly
   so the edges remain sealed. This step completes one letterfold turn
   (Figure 10-11). Press one finger into the dough to show one turn is
   complete. Wrap the dough in plastic wrap and chill for 1 hour. A
   marker can also be used on the plastic to mark one completed turn
   (Figure 10-12).

9. Repeat rolling, folding, chilling, and marking the number of
   completed turns two more times for a total of three turns. After the
   third and final turn is complete, wrap the dough tightly in plastic
   wrap two times and chill it overnight in the refrigerator. The dough
   will expand in the refrigerator because of the yeast, so be sure it
   is swaddled securely within the plastic.

[FIGURE 10-11 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 10-12 OMITTED]

CROISSANT
DOUGH

Makes 2 pounds 4 ounces
(1 kg) croissant dough

Lessons demonstrated in this recipe:

* How to prepare a typical croissant dough giving the dough 3
  three-fold turns or a 3 x 3.

* Adding an acid such as vinegar to the base dough helps relax gluten,
  making it easier to roll out the dough.

* Using some high-protein flour creates stronger gluten sheets, which
  are able to expand without falling apart, to ensure thin, strong,
  flaky layers.

* Allowing the dough to rest in between turns relaxes any gluten that
  develops.

            MEASUREMENTS

           U.S.                  METRIC

1 1/2 ounces   2 tablespoons      40 g
1 ounce        2 tablespoons      30 g
12 fluid       1 1/2 cups        360 mL
ounces
1/2 ounce      3 1/2 teaspoons    10.5 g
10 ounces      2 cups            285 g
 9 ounces      2 cups            255 g
               1 teaspoon          5 mL
               2 1/2 teaspoons    15 g
12 ounces      1 1/2 cups        340 g

MEASUREMENTS   INGREDIENTS

 BAKER'S %

    7%         honey
    6%         light brown sugar, packed
   67%         milk, scalded and cooled to lukewarm
               (110[degrees]F; 43[degrees]C)
    2%         instant active dry yeast
   53%         bread flour
   47%         all-purpose flour, plus more for dusting
    0.9%       apple cider vinegar
    3%         salt
   63%         unsalted butter, cold but not hard (leave at
               room temperature for 30 minutes to soften
               slightly)
  248.6%       Total Croissant Dough percentage

 1. Croissant Base Dough

    In the bowl of an electric mixer using the paddle attachment on low
    speed, blend the honey, brown sugar, and lukewarm milk until well
    combined.

 2. Sprinkle the yeast over the milk mixture and blend on low speed
    (Figure 10-13).

 3. In another mixing bowl, whisk together both flours. On low speed,
    add the flours, the vinegar, and the salt to the milk and yeast
    mixture (Figure 10-14). Blend until a soft dough forms. If the
    dough feels too sticky, add another 1/2 to 1 ounce (15 to 30 g)
    all-purpose flour.

[FIGURE 10-13 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 10-14 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 10-15 OMITTED]

 4. Knead the dough on a lightly floured surface until smooth. Do not
    overknead. Using your hands, shape the dough into a rough rectangle
    about 1 to 2 inches (2.5 to 5 cm) thick. Wrap the dough in plastic
    wrap and chill it for about 30 minutes (Figure 10-15).

 5. Preparing the Butter to Be Enclosed

    Place a sheet of plastic wrap on a work surface and lay the butter
    in the center of it. Place another piece of plastic wrap on top.

 6. Hit the butter with a rolling pin until it softens. Once it has
    softened a bit, roll the butter into a 6- by 12-inch (15- by 30-cm)
    rectangle. Chill the butter while the dough is being rolled out.

 7. Enclosing the Butter

    On a lightly floured surface, roll the dough into a 10- by 15-inch
    (25- by 37.5-cm) rectangle. Peel one sheet of plastic off the butter
    and flip the butter onto the middle of the dough, lining up the
    butter with the dough so that the butter covers approximately
    two-thirds the length of the dough.

 8. Fold the unbuttered third of the dough up over to the center. Then
    fold the remaining buttered third over the top, just like a letter
    is folded. Be sure to pull the edges of the dough being folded
    over so they match the edges of the dough underneath. Press to make
    sure the edges are sealed. If the edges do not seal, brush a small
    amount of water on the bottom layer to act as glue.

 9. Completing One Three-fold or Letterfold Turn

    Rotate the dough 90 degrees so that when the dough is rolled out,
    the open ends become the short sides of the rectangle. Again, roll
    out the dough to a 10- by 15-inch (25- by 37.5-cm) rectangle and
    fold it in thirds like a letter. This completes one threefold
    turn. Using a pastry brush, brush off any excess flour. Press one
    finger into the dough to show one turn has been completed. Wrap the
    dough in plastic wrap and chill it for 1 hour. A marker can also be
    used to mark the plastic wrap to show the number of turns completed.

10. Repeat rolling, folding, and marking the dough with a finger to
    show the number of turns completed two more times for a total of 3
    three-fold turns, chilling the dough in between each completed
    turn. After three turns have been completed, wrap the dough twice
    in plastic wrap and chill it overnight in the refrigerator. Because
    the yeast in the dough will cause it to expand overnight, be sure
    to wrap the dough securely.

PUFF PASTRY
DOUGH

Makes approximately
2 pounds 8 ounces
(1.13 kg) puff pastry dough

Lessons demonstrated in this recipe:

* How to prepare a typical puff pastry dough giving the dough 4
  four-fold turns or a 4 x 4.

* Preparation of puff pastry relies on steam as the sole leavening
  agent.

* Adding an acid to the dough allows it to roll out more easily,
  relaxing gluten strands.

* Mixing flour into the butter to be folded into the dough helps
  prevent it from leaking out between the layers during baking.

* Using some high-protein flour allows the gluten sheets to remain
  pliable so they stretch and do not break during baking.

                     MEASUREMENTS                INGREDIENTS

         U.S.               METRIC   BAKER'S %

8 fluid     1 cup           240 mL     53%       cold water
ounces      1 teaspoon        6 g       1%       salt
            1 teaspoon        5 mL      1%       lemon juice or
                                                 apple cider vinegar
2 ounces    4 tablespoons    55 g      12%       unsalted butter,
                                                 melted
4 ounces    1 cup           115 g      25%       cake flour
10 ounces   2 cups          285 g      62%       bread flour
1 pound     2 cups          455 g     100%       unsalted butter,
                                                 softened slightly
2 ounces    1/2 cup          60 g      13%       bread flour
                                      267%       Total Puff Pastry
                                                 Dough percentage

Puff Pastry

1. Base Dough

   In the bowl of an electric mixer using the paddle attachment, blend
   the water, salt, lemon juice or vinegar, melted butter, cake flour,
   and enough of the bread flour to make a soft dough. Do not overmix.

2. Shape the dough into a rough rectangle, wrap it in plastic wrap, and
   chill it for 30 minutes.

3. Preparing the Butter to Be Enclosed

   In the bowl of an electric mixer using the paddle attachment, blend
   the 1 pound (2 cups; 455 g) of butter and the bread flour until the
   mixture is approximately the consistency of the base dough.

[FIGURE 10-16 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 10-17 OMITTED]

4. Lay a long piece of plastic wrap on a work surface. Using a rubber
   spatula, scrape the butter mixture onto the center of the plastic
   (Figure 10-16). Cover with another piece of plastic and, using a
   rolling pin, gently hit and roll the butter to spread it into an
   8- by 12-inch (20- by 30-cm) rectangle (Figure 10-17). Chill the
   butter until the base dough has been rolled out.

5. Enclosing the Butter

   Roll out the chilled dough to a 12- by 18-inch (30- by 46-cm)
   rectangle, and place the butter on the dough so that it covers the
   bottom two thirds of the rectangle.

6. Fold the top third of the unbuttered dough down to the middle,
   partially covering the butter. Now fold the bottom buttered portion
   of the dough over the center to meet the other side, so that a
   rectangle forms. Press down slightly, making sure the edges of the
   dough meet. The butter is now enclosed (Figure 10-18).

[FIGURE 10-18 OMITTED]

7. Completing One Four-Fold Turn or Bookturn

   Rotate the dough 90 degrees so that when the dough is rolled out,
   the open ends become the short sides of the rectangle. Roll the
   dough to a 9- by 18-inch (23- by 46- cm) rectangle. Fold the top
   edge of the dough to the center and the bottom edge up to the
   center (Figure 10-19A). The two edges should meet but not overlap.
   Now bring the two halves together as if you are closing a book
   (Figure 10-19B). This is one completed four-fold turn. Press one
   finger into the dough to show one turn is complete, wrap in plastic
   wrap, and chill for 30 minutes to 1 hour. The plastic wrap can also
   be marked with a dot to reduce any confusion as to how many turns
   have been completed.

8. Repeat rolling, folding, and marking the number of turns three more
   times for a total of 4 four-fold or bookturns, chilling the dough in
   between each completed turn. After the final turn is complete, wrap
   the dough twice in plastic wrap and chill it overnight in the
   refrigerator.

[FIGURE 10-19A OMITTED]

[FIGURE 10-19B OMITTED]

RASPBERRY
DANISH SPIRALS

Makes approximately eight
3 1/2-inch (9-cm) Danishes

(Note: for the following recipes it
is important to make a full recipe
of the laminated dough or else
sufficient layering will not be
achieved. Any of the fillings in
this section of the chapter can be
used interchangeably in any of
the other recipes in this section.)

Additional Ideas That Use the Recipes in This Chapter

STEP A

1. Prepare one recipe of Danish dough, using one half for this recipe
   and reserving the other half for another use.

STEP B: FORMING THE SPIRALS

                MEASUREMENTS          INGREDIENTS

U.S.                         METRIC

3 1/2 ounces    1/2 cup      100 g    granulated sugar
                1 teaspoon     1.5 g  ground cinnamon
3 1/2 ounces    1/2 cup      100 g    chopped walnuts
                                      1 large egg, lightly beaten
                                      (to be used as glue)
12 ounces       3/4 cup      340 g    seedless raspberry jam,
                                      preferably an "oven-proof"
                                      jam containing a gelling
                                      agent that will not melt
                                      out during baking

1. Roll out the dough on a lightly floured surface into a rectangle
   1/4-inch (6-mm) thick. Using a pizza cutter, trim the edges of the
   dough so they are straight (Figure 10-20). In a separate bowl, mix
   the sugar, cinnamon, and walnuts together.

2. Using a pastry brush, lightly brush the dough with the beaten egg
   and evenly sprinkle the sugar, cinnamon, and nut mixture over half
   of the dough. Using hands, spread the mixture evenly (Figure 10-21).

[FIGURE 10-20 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 10-21 OMITTED]

3. Fold the unfilled half of the dough over the sugar, cinnamon, and
   nut mixture and, using a rolling pin, lightly roll over the dough so
   both sides adhere (Figure 10-22A and B).

4. Using a pizza cutter, cut the dough crosswise into 1/2-inch
   (1.25-cm) thick strips.

5. Working with each strip separately, gently pull a strip lengthwise
   to stretch it slightly and twist it over and over until it is
   tightly wound (Figure 10-23). Coil the twisted dough around itself
   to form a spiral and place the coil on a parchment-lined sheet
   pan (Figure 10-24). Repeat with the remaining strips.

6. Allow the spirals to proof in a proof box at no higher than
   85[degrees]F (30[degrees]C) for approximately 30 minutes to 1 hour or
   until they appear puffy.

[FIGURE 10-22A OMITTED]

[FIGURE 10-22B OMITTED]

[FIGURE 10-23 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 10-24 OMITTED]

7. Make an indentation in the center of each coil and fill with some
   jam (Figure 10-25).

8. Preheat the oven to 400[degrees]F (205[degrees]C).

9. Bake the spirals for 10 to 12 minutes, or until they are golden
   brown.

STEP C: CONFECTIONERS' SUGAR ICING

          MEASUREMENTS                   INGREDIENTS

           U.S.                METRIC

4 ounces   1 cup               115 g     confectioners' sugar, sifted
           1 to                 15 to    milk, plus more if needed
           1 1/2 tablespoons    22.5 mL
           1 teaspoon            5 mL    vanilla extract

1. Whisk together the ingredients until a smooth, thick icing forms. If
   the mixture is too thick, add more milk.

2. While the spirals are still hot, drizzle each with the sugar icing
  (Figure 10-26).

[FIGURE 10-25 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 10-26 OMITTED]

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

PALM LEAVES OR
PALMIERS

Makes approximately two
dozen palm leaves

STEP A:

1. Prepare one recipe of puff pastry dough, using one half for this
   recipe and reserving the other half for another use.

STEP B: FORMING THE PALM LEAVES

           MEASUREMENTS                  INGREDIENTS

            U.S.         METRIC

3 1/2 ounces   1/2 cup   100 g    granulated sugar, plus more if needed

1. On a sugared work surface, roll out the dough to a rectangle
   measuring 10 by 12 inches (25 by 30 cm).

2. With the long side facing you, sprinkle some of the sugar over the
   dough. Fold the two long sides in to meet in the center. Press down
   gently to adhere (Figure 10-27).

3. Sprinkle some more sugar on top and fold the shorter sides in to
   meet at the center. Press down gently to adhere.

4. Fold the dough in half as if you are closing a book (Figure 10-28).
   Sprinkle more sugar over the dough on both sides.

5. Wrap the dough tightly in plastic wrap and chill it in the
   refrigerator for 1 hour or until it is firm enough to slice.
   Alternatively, the wrapped dough can be placed in the freezer for 20
   to 30 minutes to firm up more quickly.

Note: Do not leave the wrapped
dough in the refrigerator
overnight. The sugar will absorb
moisture, making the dough wet
and sticky.

6. Preheat the oven to 400[degrees]F (205[degrees]C). Using a sharp
   knife, slice the dough into 1/8-inch (3-mm) thick slices and place
   them cut side up on a parchment-lined sheet pan (Figure 10-29). Be
   sure to allow at least 2 inches (5 cm) in between each slice.
   Sprinkle the top of each palm leaf with granulated sugar.

7. Bake the palm leaves for approximately 12 to 14 minutes or until
   they are golden brown and crisp. They will crisp up even more as
   they cool.

[FIGURE 10-27 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 10-28 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 10-29 OMITTED]

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ALMOND
DANISH BRAID

Makes one loaf 15- by
5-inch (37.5- by 12.7-cm);
approximate weight
2 pounds 2 ounces (970 g)

STEP A

1. Make one recipe of Danish dough, using one half in this recipe and
   reserving the other half for another use.

STEP B: ALMOND FILLING

              MEASUREMENTS                       INGREDIENTS

                U.S.                 METRIC

5 ounces          1 1/4 cups          145 g      yellow or white cake
                                                 broken into pieces *
4 ounces                              115 g      almond paste
1 ounce           2 tablespoons        30 g      granulated sugar
2 ounces          4 tablespoons        55 g      butter, softened
3/4 fluid ounce   1 1/2 tablespoons    20 mL     water

* Cake crumbs can be made from the Two Stage Golden Cake, Chapter 14.

1. In a food processor, process cake pieces until finely ground.

2. Add the almond paste, sugar, and butter and process the mixture
   until well combined. With the motor running, add the water and
   process the mixture until a paste forms.

STEP C: ASSEMBLY

               MEASUREMENTS         INGREDIENTS

               U.S.       METRIC

1 3/4 ounces   1/2 cup    50 g      sliced almonds, lightly toasted
                                    1 large egg white beaten with 1
                                    teaspoon (5 mL) water (to be
                                    used as a glue and a wash)

1. Roll the Danish dough out to a 10- by 15-inch (25- by 37.5-cm)
   rectangle on a lightly floured surface. Brush off the excess flour
   from the dough. Pick up the dough and place it onto a
   parchment-lined sheet pan.

2. With a pizza cutter, lightly mark a line parallel to the long
   side approximately 3 inches (7.5 cm) in from the edge, going
   completely down the length of the dough without cutting through to
   the other side. Do the same on the opposite long side
   (Figure 10-30).

[FIGURE 10-30 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 10-31 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 10-32 OMITTED]

3. Spread the almond filling over the narrow rectangle that has formed.
   Scatter half the almonds over the filling (Figure 10-31). Using a
   pizza cutter, make 3-inch (7.5-cm) long cuts on an angle that are
   approximately 3/4 inch (2 cm) apart all the way down the length of
   the dough on both sides. These cuts should resemble fringe on both
   sides of the dough (Figure 10-32).

4. Lightly egg wash the fringed strips. Begin at the end of the dough
   where you started to cut the fringed pieces and fold the piece of
   dough on top of the narrow rectangle to come over the filling by 1
   inch (2.5 cm) (Figure 10-33). Fold in the strips alternating left
   and right sides and continuing down the full length of the dough so
   that it resembles a braid (Figure 10-34). Reserve the egg wash by
   covering it with plastic wrap and place it in the refrigerator.

5. Place the braid in a proof box at no higher than 85[degrees]F
   (29[degrees]C) for 30 minutes to 1 hour or until the braid appears
   puffy.

6. Preheat the oven to 375[degrees]F (190[degrees]C).

7. Using a pastry brush, brush the entire surface of the braid with the
   reserved egg wash.

8. Bake the braid for 25 to 30 minutes or until the braid is golden
   brown.

[FIGURE 10-33 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 10-34 OMITTED]

STEP D: CONFECTIONERS' SUGAR ICING

               MEASUREMENTS               INGREDIENTS

           U.S.                 METRIC

4 ounces   1 cup                115 g     confectioners' sugar, sifted
           1 to                  15 to    milk, plus more if needed
           1 1/2 tablespoons     22.5 mL
           1 teaspoon             5 mL    vanilla extract

1. Whisk the ingredients together until a smooth, thick icing forms. If
   the mixture is too thick, add more milk.

2. Cool the braid to lukewarm and drizzle with confectioners' sugar
   icing. Immediately scatter the remaining almonds over the top before
   the icing becomes firm.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

CROISSANTS

Makes approximately 12
4-inch (10-cm) croissants.

STEP A

1. Make one recipe of croissant dough, using one half in this recipe
   and reserving the other half for another use.

STEP B: ROLLING AND CUTTING CROISSANTS

1. On a lightly floured work surface, roll the dough into a 12- by
   16-inch (30- by 40-cm) rectangle. The dough should be approximately
   1/8 inch (3 mm) thick. Brush off any excess flour and square off
   the edges using a ruler and a pizza cutter.

2. Review plan on page 222, top. Using a pizza cutter and a ruler,
   remeasure the length of the dough and cut it in half crosswise. Do
   not separate the two halves. Cut down the length of the entire
   rectangle, dividing it into thirds beginning at one of the short
   sides (Figure 10-35). There should be a total of six rectangles.

3. Review plan on page 222, bottom. Separate the six rectangles and cut
   each one diagonally to form two triangles (Figure 10-36). There
   should be a total of 12 triangles. If at any point in rolling the
   dough it becomes too soft, gently place it on a sheet pan and chill
   it for 10 to 15 minutes.

[FIGURE 10-35 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 10-36 OMITTED]

[ILLUSTRATIONS OMITTED]

4. Using the pizza cutter, make a small 1/2-inch (1.2-cm) slit at the
   base of each triangle. Taking one triangle, gently roll over it with
   a rolling pin so its length is stretched about 50% longer than its
   original length (Figure 10-37). Do not press down hard with the
   rolling pin or the layers will be flattened. Using both hands,
   gently pull the base so that it widens out even more and begin to
   roll the triangle from the base, pulling the tip of the triangle to
   elongate it. Roll it into a tight crescent shape, making sure that
   the tip of the triangle is tucked underneath the crescent so it will
   not unroll during baking. Place the croissant on a parchment-lined
   sheet pan, curving the ends to resemble a crescent as it is placed
   on the baking sheet. Repeat slitting, rolling, and shaping the
   remaining chilled dough to make a total of 12 croissants,
   maintaining a space between each one. Place the croissants in a
   proof box set at no higher than 85[degrees]F (29[degrees]C) for 1
   hour or until they appear spongy and puffed.

5. Preheat the oven to 425[degrees]F (219[degrees]C).

6. Spritz the croissants lightly with water using a spray bottle before
   placing them in the oven. Once the croissants are in the oven,
   reduce the temperature to 400[degrees]F (205[degrees]C). Bake for 10
   minutes and then rotate the pan and continue baking the croissants
   for an additional 5 to 10 minutes more or until they are golden
   brown.

TIP

An egg wash made by
blending 1 large egg with 1
teaspoon (5 mL) water can
be brushed onto the
croissants instead of
spraying them with water
before baking.

TIP

Croissants can be baked
and frozen in plastic bags
and stored for 2 months.
Place the frozen croissants
on a sheet pan and bake
for approximately 10
minutes in a preheated
375[degrees]F (190[degrees]C) oven.

[FIGURE 10-37 OMITTED]

The previous method is just one way croissant dough can be cut and
shaped on a small scale. Another way to cut a small batch of croissant
dough is to use a metal tool known as a rolling cutter (Figure 10-38).
A rolling cutter resembles a row of small pizza cutters joined
together. It can expand and contract like an accordion to make
different sized cuts. The rolling cutter is opened to the width desired
for the croissant and rolled across the dough diagonally. The cutter is
then rolled from the other direction to form triangles. Bakers who make
croissants on a large-scale use a tool known as a croissant cutter
(Figure 10-39). The dough is rolled out and the croissant cutter is
rolled down the length of the dough cutting triangles and slits at the
same time.

[FIGURE 10-38 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 10-39 OMITTED]

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

PAIN AU
CHOCOLAT
COFFEE CAKE

Makes one 9-inch (23-cm)
round cake or 8 servings

STEP A

1. Make one recipe of croissant dough, using half in this recipe and
   reserving the other half for another use.

STEP B: CHOCOLATE FILLING

              MEASUREMENTS         INGREDIENTS

                U.S.      METRIC
13 1/2 ounces   3 cups    385 g    chocolate cake crumbs *
11 ounces       1/2 cup   310 g    warm chocolate ganache
                                   (Chapter 15, page 366)

* Cake crumbs can be made from the Fudgy Chocolate Cake, Chapter 14.

1. Mix the ingredients in a bowl until a thick and spreadable paste
   forms. Set aside.

STEP C: ASSEMBLY

               MEASUREMENTS       INGREDIENTS

               U.S.      METRIC

                                  1 egg white mixed with 1
                                  teaspoon (5 mL) water to be
                                  used as glue
1 3/4 ounces   1/2 cup    50 g    chopped walnuts
6 ounces       1 cup     170 g    miniature semisweet chocolate
                                  chips 1 whole egg mixed with
                                  1 teaspoon (5 mL) water to be
                                  used as a wash

1. Using a dough cutter, cut off one third of the croissant dough and
   keep the remaining two thirds of the dough chilled until needed.

2. Roll the dough into an 11-inch (27.5-cm) circle using the bottom of
   a 9-inch (22.5-cm) false bottom pan as a guide. Spray nonstick
   cooking spray into a 9-inch (22.5-cm) round false bottom pan and fit
   the circle of dough into the bottom. Press to fit (Figure 10-40).
   Place the pan onto a half sheet pan to catch any butter that might
   ooze out as it bakes. Set aside.

[FIGURE 10-40 OMITTED]

3. Roll the remaining two thirds of the dough into a 10- by 14-inch
   (25- by 35-cm) rectangle and, using a pastry brush, brush it with
   the egg white and water mixture. Spread the chocolate filling evenly
   over the dough right up to the edges. Sprinkle the walnuts and the
   chips evenly over the filling (Figure 10-41).

4. Starting at the long end, roll up the dough into a tight coil. Cut
   into eight equal pieces approximately 2 inches (5 cm) wide (Figure
   10-42).

5. Brush the reserved circle of dough with the egg mixture and place
   seven of the rolled pieces evenly around the outside edge of the pan
   with the cut side facing up. Place the last roll in the center
   (Figure 10-43). Cover the egg wash and reserve it in the
   refrigerator. Cover and allow the coffee cake to proof at no higher
   than 85[degrees]F (29[degrees]C) for approximately 1 hour or until
   the dough looks puffy.

6. Preheat the oven to 400[degrees]F (205[degrees]C).

7. Using a pastry brush, brush the reserved egg wash over the top and
   sides of the coffee cake (which is still on the half sheet pan)
   and bake for 40 minutes or until golden brown.

STEP D: CONFECTIONERS' SUGAR ICING

        MEASUREMENTS                     INGREDIENTS

           U.S.                METRIC

4 ounces   1 cup               115 g      confectioners' sugar, sifted
           1 to                 15 to     milk, plus more if needed
           1 1/2 tablespoons    22.5 mL
           1 teaspoon            5 mL     vanilla extract

1. Whisk the ingredients together until a smooth, thick icing forms.
   If the mixture is too thick, add more milk.

2. Remove the coffee cake from the oven and allow it to cool for 5 to
   10 minutes.

3. Remove the sides of the pan and drizzle the icing over the top while
   it is still warm. Cool completely.

[FIGURE 10-41 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 10-42 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 10-43 OMITTED]

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

APPLE
CRANBERRY
TURNOVERS

Makes approximately nine
7-inch (17.5-cm) long
turnovers

STEP A: PUFF PASTRY

1. Make one recipe of puff pastry, using half in this recipe and
   reserving the other half for another use.

STEP B: APPLE CRANBERRY FILLING

             MEASUREMENTS           INGREDIENTS

                U.S.      METRIC

1 1/2 pounds              750 g     Granny Smith apples
3 1/2 ounces    1 cup     100 g     fresh cranberries
3 1/2 ounces    1/2 cup   100 g     granulated sugar
1 ounce         1/8 cup    30 g     light brown sugar (packed if
                                    measuring by volume)
1 fluid ounce   1/8 cup    30 mL    apple cider or apple juice
1 tablespoon               15 mL    lemon juice
3/4 teaspoon                1.25 g  ground cinnamon

1. Peel, core, and chop two thirds of the apples (1 pound; 455 g) into
   1-inch (2.5-cm) pieces. Reserve the remaining apples.

2. In a large, heavy saucepan, place the apples, cranberries, both
   sugars, apple cider or juice, and lemon juice. Cook over medium-high
   heat for approximately 10 to 20 minutes or until the apples soften
   and the cranberries have burst open. Remove the pan from the heat
   and set aside.

3. Peel, core, and chop the remaining apples into 1/2-inch (12-mm)
   pieces. Add the apples and the cinnamon to the cooked
   apple-cranberry mixture.

4. Cool completely before using.

STEP C: ASSEMBLY

   MEASUREMENTS           INGREDIENTS

U.S.         METRIC

                          1 large egg mixed with 1 teaspoon (5 mL)
                          water to be used as a glue and wash
As desired   As desired   granulated sugar for sprinkling

1. Preheat the oven to 400[degrees]F (205[degrees]C).

2. Roll out the puff pastry to a square 18 by 18 inches (46 by 46 cm).
   Trim any rough edges to make sure they are even.

[FIGURE 10-44 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 10-45 OMITTED]

3. Cut nine 6-inch (15.25-cm) squares using a pizza cutter (Figure
   10-44).

4. Using a pastry brush, egg wash around the edges of each square and
   place 1.5 ounces (1 1/2 heaping tablespoons; 45 g) of
   apple-cranberry filling into the center of each one. Fold the
   squares diagonally to form triangles, sealing the edges well (Figure
   10-45). Using a sharp knife, make one or two slits through the top
   of each triangle to allow steam to escape. Transfer the filled
   turnovers onto a parchment-covered sheet pan. Using a pastry brush,
   egg wash the tops of each turnover and sprinkle each one generously
   with sugar.

5. Bake for 20 to 22 minutes or until the turnovers are golden brown
   and the fruit is bubbling through the slits.

   [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

PUFF PASTRY
TRIANGLES
WITH LIME
CREAM

Makes six to eight triangles,
7 inches (18 cm)

STEP A: PUFF PASTRY

1. Make one recipe of puff pastry, using half in this recipe and
   reserving the other half for another use.

STEP B: PUFF PASTRY TRIANGLES

MEASUREMENTS                         INGREDIENTS

U.S.                        METRIC

2 fluid ounces    1/4 cup   60 mL    heavy cream
                                     granulated sugar for sprinkling

STEP B: PUFF PASTRY TRIANGLES

          MEASUREMENTS                      INGREDIENTS

              U.S.           METRIC

2 fluid ounces    1/4 cup    60 mL    heavy cream
                                      granulated sugar for sprinkling

1. Roll out one half of the puff pastry dough into a large square
   1/4-inch (6-mm) thick. Trim the edges using a pizza cutter (squaring
   the edges off) and cut 5- by 5-inch (12.5- by 12.5-cm) squares. Cut
   each square in half diagonally and lay the triangles 1 inch (2.5 cm)
   apart on a sheet pan lined with parchment paper. Using a size 12 or
   14 plain round pastry tip, poke out random holes in the triangles
   (Figure 10-46A). Chill the triangles for 30 minutes. While the
   triangles are in the refrigerator, start the lime curd for the lime
   cream filling (Step C).

2. Preheat the oven to 450[degrees]F (230[degrees]C).

3. Brush the triangles with heavy cream and sprinkle each one
   generously with granulated sugar. Bake the triangles for
   approximately 7 to 9 minutes or until they are puffed and light
   brown. Cool and set aside (Figure 10-46B).

[FIGURE 10-46A OMITTED]

[FIGURE 10-46B OMITTED]

Makes 4 cups
(32 ounces; 907 g)

STEP C: LIME CREAM FILLING

           MEASUREMENTS                     INGREDIENTS

           U.S.                  METRIC

                                            Lime Curd
7 ounces          1 cup           200 g     granulated sugar
                                            1 pinch salt
6 fluid ounces    3/4 cup         180 mL    fresh lime juice
3 each                            140 g     large eggs
3 each                             60 g     large egg yolks
2 ounces          4 tablespoons    55 g     unsalted cold butter,
                                            cut into small cubes
                                            finely grated zest from
                                            3 limes 1 to 3 drops
                                            green food coloring,
                                            optional Whipped Cream
                  3/4 teaspoon      2 g     unflavored gelatin,
                                            softened in 1 1/2
                                            tablespoons (22.5 mL)
                                            cold water
12 fluid ounces   1 1/2 cups      360 mL    heavy cream, chilled

1. Place a medium heatproof bowl with a strainer over it into an ice
   water bath and set it aside.

2. In a heavy medium saucepan, place the sugar, salt, lime juice, eggs,
   and yolks.

3. Set the saucepan over medium-low heat and bring it to a simmer,
   stirring constantly, with a whisk. Do not allow the mixture to boil
   or the eggs will curdle. When a thermometer inserted into the
   mixture reads 160[degrees]F (71[degrees]C) and the mixture has
   thickened, remove it from the heat and stir in the cold butter
   (Figure 10-47).

4. Strain the mixture immediately into the prepared bowl set over the
   ice water bath (Figure 10-48). Stir in the zest and food coloring
   (optional). Place a piece of plastic wrap directly on top of the
   curd and chill it until cold.

5. To prepare the whipped cream, place the bowl of softened gelatin
   over a pan of hot water to melt it. It should feel warm to the
   touch. Do not allow it to get too hot or it will warm up the
   heavy cream and prevent it from beating up and thickening.

[FIGURE 10-47 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 10-48 OMITTED]

6. In the bowl of an electric mixer using the whip attachment, beat
   the heavy cream on high speed until soft peaks form (Figure 10-49).
   Slowly add the melted gelatin and beat until stiff peaks form
   (Figure 10-50).

7. Using a rubber spatula, fold the whipped cream into the cold lime
   curd (Figure 10-51). Chill the mixture until ready to use.

STEP D: ASSEMBLY

         MEASUREMENTS                   INGREDIENTS

       U.S.          METRIC
                                confectioners' sugar for dusting

1. On a dessert plate, arrange one puff pastry triangle. Place a
   spoonful of lime cream on top. Arrange another puff pastry
   triangle on top. Dust with confectioners' sugar. Serve at once.

[FIGURE 10-49 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 10-50 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 10-51 OMITTED]

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]


REVIEW QUESTIONS

1. Why does puff pastry dough need one more turn than Danish and croissant doughs and a different type of fold to produce its layers?

2. Why does the fat need to be the same consistency and temperature as the base dough before it can be folded into it?

3. Which two laminated doughs use yeast?

4. Which type of laminated dough starts with the richest base dough?

5. Describe a three-fold or letterfold turn.

6. Describe a four-fold or bookfold turn.

7. Name the three steps involved in preparing laminated doughs.

8. Why should overworking a laminated dough be avoided?

9. Why should formed pastries such as Danish and croissants be proofed at no higher than 85[degrees]F (29[degrees]C)?

10. Why might a high-protein flour be chosen to prepare a laminated dough when a flaky end product is desired?

11. Define plasticity and how it relates to fats in laminated doughs.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Professional Profile

BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION

Hilary DeMane, CEPC, CCE

Chef Instructor

Indiana University of Pennsylvania

Indiana, PA

1. Question: When did you realize that you wanted to pursue a career in baking and pastry?

Answer: Baking and cooking was always part of my family life growing up. We made everything from scratch and did all the special dishes for holidays. Then, when I was 16, I got my first job in a small bakery in my home town of Greenwich, CT.

2. Question: Was there a person or event that influenced you to go into this line of work?

Answer: The owner of that small bakery was an inspiration. She taught me a lot about baking and let me work on a lot of the types of things you would expect to find in such a place--muffins, breads. I wasn't ready for anything too elaborate but it was a good foundation.

3. Question: What did you find most challenging when you first began working in baking and pastry?

Answer: For me the challenge was understanding the science behind the process. When I was still at home I often made bread. One time I made it and the dough wouldn't rise. I kept watching it hoping for a miracle. I baked it and it came out like a brick. Later I realized I put in too much salt and the yeast couldn't work. Baking isn't about miracles; it is about balancing ingredients and knowing the science behind what happens.

4. Question: Where and when was your first practical experience in a professional baking setting?

Answer: After my training I worked at a resort in Hawaii and then I got a job on a cruise ship. I found that I was the first woman to hold this pastry position on the Holland America Line. There were 1600 passengers and the bakeshop consisted of four people and one helper. It was a lot of responsibility and a lot of work. Seventy-hour weeks were standard and 80-hour weeks were not uncommon.

5. Question: How did this experience affect your later professional development?

Answer: On the ship I was working with people from 10 different countries and I came in contact with people from all over the world. The big lesson I learned was the ability to work with people from all different backgrounds. The other important lesson was that organization was key. You can't handle that large an operation without good organizational skills.

6. Question: Who were your mentors when you were starting out?

Answer: One of the greatest influences has been Ewald Notter. I must have taken at least a dozen classes from him and I am sure I'll be taking more. He is just a wonderful teacher. He really is an inspiration.

7. Question: What would you list as your greatest rewards?

Answer: Participating and winning in professional competitions are very rewarding. When you finally win a gold medal in a highly competitive event it is so satisfying. If you are not involved in competitions I don't think you can understand the time and commitment that are necessary. And I wouldn't be in education if I didn't find teaching so rewarding.

8. Question: What traits do you consider essential for anyone entering the field? Answer: To be successful you must have discipline, drive, and maybe most of all, patience.

9. Question: If there was one message you would impart to all students in this field what would that be?

Answer: You have to love it and give it everything. If you love it then it's not work. You also have to care about every aspect of your job. You have to care that each step is done well, even if you are just cleaning up.
Table 10-1 Three Types of Laminated Dough

DANISH DOUGH                               CROISSANT DOUGH

1. Contains yeast, eggs, milk and sugar    1. Contains yeast, milk,
                                           little sugar, and no eggs

2. The dough is given 3 three-fold or      2. The dough is given 3
letterfold turns, also known as a 3 x 3    three-fold or letterfold
                                           turns also known as a 3 x 3

3. Yeast leavened                          3. Yeast leavened

4. The base dough is the richest of the
three types types

PUFF PASTRY DOUGH

1. Contains no yeast and a lot more water

3. The dough is given 4 four-fold or book-
fold turns, also known as a 4 x 4

3. Steam leavened
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Author:Sokol, Gail
Publication:About Professional Baking
Article Type:Recipe
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2006
Words:10200
Previous Article:Chapter 9 Preferments.
Next Article:Chapter 11 Working with fats in pies and tarts.
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