Chapter 10 Cookies.
After reading this chapter, you should be able to
* describe the functions of each ingredient in cookies as a tenderizer, a toughener, or an inclusion.
* identify the effects of different mixing methods.
* explain the causes of cookie spread and be able to control the factors that contribute to it.
* describe what affects the main characteristics of a cookie: crispness, softness, chewiness, sandiness.
* make a selection of cookies using the methods outlined in this chapter.
DEFINITION AND SCOPE OF COOKIES
Whether they're a treat for special celebrations, a midnight snack with milk, or a goodie for any occasion in between, cookies are enjoyed around the world. The history of the cookie is thousands of years old; however, cookies as we know them today are adapted from recipes and techniques created during the Middle Ages.
Cookies are made from a batter or dough that may be similar to some types of cake batter. A cookie is, essentially, a smaller, dryer version of a cake--the main difference between the two is the liquid content. The texture of cookies may be soft, chewy, hard, brittle, light, or dense. There are endless flavor combinations, due to a vast selection of base ingredients that include butter, sugar, eggs, flour, nut meals, and inclusions. Inclusions are ingredients that add different flavor and texture components to cookies. They do not have a structural function and are usually added into the dough near the end of the mixing process. Examples of inclusions are chocolate chips, rolled oats, nuts, and dried fruits.
INGREDIENT FUNCTIONS FOR COOKIES
The ingredients used in a cookie formula can be classified into two major groups: tenderizing ingredients and toughening ingredients. Both ingredient groups play a major role in the formation of cookie characteristics such as softness, chewiness, crispness, and spread. Tenderizing ingredients soften the cookie, enable spread, and prevent the cookie from becoming crisp and chewy. Toughening ingredients create a viable structure for the dough that reduces spread, retains a firmer shape, and creates an end product that is easily recognized as a cookie (Matz,1987, p.151).
The major toughening ingredients include flour, water, cocoa powder, salt, egg whites, whole eggs, milk, and nonfat milk solids. Primarily consisting of starches and proteins, these ingredients help to hold the cookie together before and after the baking process.
Protein in flour becomes a toughening component because when it is hydrated with water the gluten is formed. The type of flour used for cookies depends on the type of cookie being produced. In the baking industry, typical flours used for cookies include pastry flour (7 to 9 percent protein) and low-protein bread flour (10.5 to 12 percent protein). Higher-protein flours are not suitable because they create an excessive amount of toughening action that results in a coarse crumb and the possibility of surface cracks.
Water acts as a toughening agent by hydrating and potentially toughening the gluten. Salt toughens the dough by reinforcing the strength of the gluten, but usually there is not a significant amount of salt in cookie formulas to create a noticeable difference. Salt is generally added in smaller quantities only to enhance flavor. The protein in whole eggs and egg whites provides essential structure and creates volume: As the cookie bakes, the proteins coagulate and help it to set. Milk and milk powders provide a degree of toughening because the protein binds water. A mix of approximately 5 percent dried milk powder, based on flour weight, will provide a slight toughening effect and will also improve crust color and shine.
The tenderizing ingredients that balance toughening ingredients and create a softer cookie texture are primarily sugars and fats. The main tenderizers include granulated sugars, liquid or inverted sugars, natural and manufactured fats, egg yolks, starches derived from corn or wheat, and leavening agents.
Sugar is hygroscopic, which means that it attracts and retains moisture. The size of the sugar granule will affect the spread of the cookie and, consequently, its tenderness. Evidently, the smaller the sugar granule, the more the cookie will spread with less mixing. Conversely, the larger the sugar grain, the longer mixing will have to occur to produce more spread. Lower concentrations of sugar granules in cookie dough encourage more water to be bound to the flour, allowing the gluten to develop which in turn retards the spread of the dough (Matz,1992, p. 110). If the sugar granules are smaller in size, but of the same weight, they disperse in the dough at a higher concentration: They are located closer to each other, preventing gluten from forming strong bonds, and spread is encouraged.
Inverted or liquid sugars, such as Trimoline or corn syrup and glucose, may also be added to cookie formulas in small quantities to help maintain softness. The effect of too much inverted sugar is an early for mation of the crust, and lighter color of the crust. Ten to fifteen percent inverted or liquid sugar, based on the weight of the flour, may be substituted in place of sucrose. An excessive amount of inverted or liquid sugar can cause an unpleasant hardness on the crust and too much sweetness in the finished product.
Fat tenderizes cookies by interfering with starch and gluten-forming proteins in the wheat. Butter and vegetable shortenings are the major fats used in cookie formulas; lard and liquid oils are used less often. Since butter is expensive compared to other fats, margarine or vegetable shortening can be substituted in cases when its flavor does not contribute greatly to the final product. Additionally, the large ratio of fat in egg yolks adds both richness in color and softness in texture. Lecithin, one of the fatty acids present in egg yolk, is a natural emulsifier and helps to generate a better distribution of liquids and fats, creating a more tender product.
Starches derived from wheat and corn act as tenderizing agents because they absorb moisture and create filler but no structural strength. Products derived from corn include cornmeal, corn flour, and cornstarch. Cornmeal is usually coarse ground corn kernels and comes in several textures, which give flavor and crunchy texture to cookies. Cornstarch does not have a corn flavor, and it is added to formulas to create a light, crumble-textured cookie. Cornstarch does not have a significant effect on spread. Potato flour, which is made from cooked, dried, and ground high-starch-content potatoes, is sometimes used in formulas to create soft and spongy, almost mealy texture. Both corn and potato starch have a high starch content, and they are very low in protein, when compared to wheat flour, which has about 8 to 15 percent protein.
Chemical Leavening Agents
Chemical leavening agents act as tenderizing ingredients because carbon dioxide is created during the baking process and gives rise to the cookies and provides a tender texture. Major leavening agents used in cookie formulas are baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) and double acting baking powder, which is a mixture of baking soda, acid salts, and cornstarch.
When the acid salts in a chemical leavening system are exposed to heat, they react with the sodium bicarbonate and begin the release of the carbon dioxide. Different acid salts can begin their reaction at different temperatures. Examples of the acid salts that react at low temperatures are cream of tartar (potassium hydrogen tartrate) and monocalcium phosphate. A high-temperature reacting acid salt, such as sodium aluminum sulfate, creates a larger amount of gas during baking, enabling the cookie to leaven in the oven.
When double acting baking powder is used, carbon dioxide is produced in two stages: when it is exposed to moisture and when it is exposed to heat. During mixing, a small amount of gas is created by the acid salts reacting with the dissolved sodium bicarbonate. The second reaction happens in the oven, guaranteeing a sufficient amount of leavening. Single acting baking powder contains only low-temperature reacting acid salt, but it is not largely manufactured in today's industry.
Baking soda can be used only when a formula contains an acidic ingredient, such as cocoa powder or buttermilk. This is because the baking soda needs an acidic component to trigger the reaction to create the carbon dioxide. When too much baking soda is used, an alkaline flavor may reside in the finished product because not all of the baking soda was able to react with the available acidic ingredients. Additionally, too much baking soda or powder can result in a slightly coarse texture and dark crust color.
Baking ammonia (ammonium bicarbonate) is a chemical leavening agent that is not often used in bakeshops today. When baking ammonia comes in contact with moisture and is exposed to high heat, it quickly breaks down into ammonia, carbon dioxide, and water, which all assist in leavening baked goods. Baking ammonia is appropriate to use in spiced products, such as gingerbread, or in cookies and crackers that will be baked until very dry, eliminating the chance for off flavors. Baking ammonia helps to maintain uniformity and spread in cookies by reacting very quickly. When it is used properly, in formulation, as well as in the baking process, there will be no residue of ammonia odor.
TYPES OF COOKIES
The eight classifications of cookies are primarily based on their method of formulation and production. (See Figure 10-1.) Because makeup and baking guidelines vary considerably from cookie to cookie, be sure to follow any instructions in the formula for specialized makeup techniques and baking times. Regardless of the type of cookie, it is important to portion them evenly so that they bake evenly.
* Dropped cookie: The name of this cookie classification comes from the portioning and releasing action of the dough. Dropped cookies, also known as wire-cut cookies, are made from thicker dough. Cookies are mixed, portioned using a scoop or cookie depositor, and baked, or they can be frozen after being portioned. Portion control can be maintained by the size of the scoop or the dye plate on the portioning unit. Chocolate chip and oatmeal raisin cookies are typical examples of dropped cookies.
* Piped cookie: Although piped cookies are made from softer dough than dropped cookies, they are still able to hold their shape. This type of cookie formula may sometimes contain almond meal or almond paste. Piped cookies are portioned using a piping bag, cookie press, or depositor and are often created in decorative shapes. Spritz cookies and sables a la poche are examples of piped cookies.
* Cut-out cookie: Cut-out cookies are formulated to limit spread during baking, so that their original shape may be retained. They are cut from rolled-out dough that has similar rheological properties to the dough used for dropped cookies. This dough must be able to handle the stress of rolling out without losing strength and breaking, yet it must also maintain a soft and crumbly texture. It is important that this dough is not overworked because excessively developed gluten causes shrinkage and a tough texture. Any scrap should be carefully kneaded together with fresh dough and rolled out to minimize waste. Sugar cookies or gingerbread cookies are examples of cut-out cookies.
* Sheet cookie: This classification represents a diverse range of products that are usually baked on a sheet pan and then portioned into individual-sized servings. The process of making sheet cookies is closely tied to the formula. Examples of sheet cookies include brownies, lemon bars, toscani, and granola bars.
* Sliced cookie: A sliced cookie is made from a long piece of dough that is baked, and then cut into individual pieces. Dough consistency is typically close to that of dropped cookies. Two common examples of sliced cookies include fig bars and biscotti. Biscotti literally translates as "twice baked" and is dried out in the oven after being sliced.
* Icebox cookie: Because of the mixing process and formulation of the dough, icebox cookies have very little spread and retain their definition of shape and color throughout the baking process. Icebox cookies may be constructed using traditional methods to create intricate geometric or marbled designs, as well as multiple flavors. They are then formed into cylinders or blocks of dough that are refrigerated, sliced and baked, or frozen until needed.
* Stencil cookie: Typically thin and crisp in texture, stencil cookies are made primarily to be a component of, or garnish for, plated desserts. Often called tuile, they are made from a thin, basic batter that is mixed, rested, and spread free form or into a template and then baked. The name "tuile" is derived from the classic, thin, rounded cookies that are topped with sliced almonds. Once out of the oven and while still hot, the cookies are formed into curve shapes to resemble a "tuile" (roof shingle). Contemporary tuile garnishes include cocoa nibs, coconut, nuts, spices, and seeds. A formula for tuile is found in Chapter 20.
* Molded cookie: Molded cookies vary considerably in composition. It is important that the dough be properly mixed using the one-stage or sanding method, so that if intricate designs are used, they do not bake out or deform. Once mixed, the dough is deposited into dye plates, and then extracted for baking. Historically, the most common type of molded cookie was shortbread, produced from molds that were made of wood or metal. Today, molded cookies typically come from large-scale commercial bakeries with highly specialized equipment.
[FIGURE 10-1 OMITTED]
COOKIE MIXING METHODS
Cookie mixing methods are closely associated with cake mixing methods, the main difference being the quantity of liquid used. As with cake mixing, very little gluten development should occur because gluten will toughen the cookie.
Before making any cookie formula, it is important to have all ingredients properly scaled and, in general, all ingredients to room temperature. An exception is the sanding method because the butter must be cold. The temperature of ingredients is essential for proper ingredient incorporation and proper emulsification of the fats and liquids. What follows is a description of the four major methods for mixing cookies.
The most common technique for mixing cookie dough, the creaming method, is defined by the mixing of fats and sugars to incorporate air. Just how much air is incorporated depends on the desired characteristics of the cookie. The more the fats and sugars are creamed, the more the cookies will spread during the baking process. Furthermore, if the cookie is high in fat and low in flour, only a short mixing time of the fat and sugar is required. Overmixing in this situation will create excessive spread and will overheat the cookie dough, which results in melting some of the fat and causes undesirable texture and volume of the final product.
Once the fat and sugar have been sufficiently creamed, eggs are gradually added. The rate of adding the eggs, along with the proper temperature of ingredients, must be maintained to help prevent curdling. If the eggs are added too quickly, the mixture may lose its emulsion because the structure of fat and sugar matrix is unable to absorb all the liquid at once. The temperature of the eggs must be similar to that of the butter [60[degrees]F (16[degrees]C) to 65[degrees]F (18[degrees]C)]. If the eggs are too cold, they will solidify the butter particles that are dispersed with sugar and the mixture will curdle.
It is rare that a cookie will contain additional liquids. However, if any liquids are to be added, they are added after the eggs and all at once. Next, the dry ingredients are mixed in just until incorporated. It is very important to achieve even distribution of dry ingredients in order to prevent lumps and minimize gluten development.
Mixing is a crucial step of cookie production. All ingredients must be incorporated evenly and to the proper degree specified in individual formulas. Even so, a common mistake is uneven mixing of the butter-sugar mixture into the remaining dough. For example, when using the creaming method, the paddle attachment never touches the bowl, which leaves a thin layer of the butter/sugar mixture. To ensure even distribution of the butter/sugar phase, the bowl must be scraped down throughout the mixing process. Failure to do so will result in this portion of the mix getting into the dough which results in run out. This is when the butter-sugar phase melts and flows out of the cookie. (See Figure 10-2.)
[FIGURE 10-2 OMITTED]
If any inclusions are added, it is done just before the dough is fully mixed, to avoid overmixing and crushing the inclusion. Once complete, the dough may be portioned, made up, and baked, or it can be reserved under refrigeration or in the freezer until needed.
Creaming Method Process
* Scale all the ingredients and have them at room temperature.
* In the bowl of an electric mixer fitted with the paddle attachment, cream the butter and sugar. (See Creaming Method Figure 10-3, Step 1.)
* Slowly add the eggs and then the vanilla. (See Creaming Method Figure 10-3, Steps 2-3.)
*Scrape down the bowl and mix to reincorporate ingredients evenly. (See Creaming Method Figure 10-3, Step 4.)
* Add the flour and mix just until combined. (See Creaming Method Figure 10-3, Step 5.)
* If adding additional ingredients, only mix in the flour 50 percent, then add the additional ingredients and continue mixing to incorporation. (See Creaming Method Figure 10-3, Step 6.)
* Reserve in the refrigerator or freezer and portion; then bake as needed.
FIGURE 10-3 CREAMING METHOD [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  Cream the butter and sugar with a paddle. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  Slowly add the eggs in stages, scraping after each addition. [FIGURE OMITTED]  Add the eggs. [FIGURE OMITTED]  Blend the mixture until smooth, scraping well. [FIGURE OMITTED]  Place the dry ingredients, blend half-way, and then add the chocolate chips. [FIGURE OMITTED]  Mix until fully incorporated.
This method is used for softer textured cookies, such as some types of brownies and some types of macarons. Ladyfingers, generally considered as cookies in Europe, are made using the sponge method; however, in the United States, they are more commonly used as a base for cakes. A cookie made using the sponge method may use whole eggs, egg whites, and sometimes egg yolks to create foam that is stabilized by a portion of the sugar from the formula. As the egg foam incorporates air, it gains volume. The degree to which the egg product is whipped greatly depends on the product being made and the type of egg product being used.
The stiffness of meringue is classified into three stages: soft peak, medium peak, and stiff peak When the meringue has a smooth look and falls from the whisk without creating any peaks, it is called soft peak. If a peak forms when the whisk is lifted, but the top of the peak bends, this is medium peak. When meringue has been whipped to stiff peak, it has a glossy look and forms spikes when the whisk is lifted. Soft peak meringue is used for mousses and meringue pie fillings. Medium peak meringue is mainly used for cakes and cookies, and stiff peak meringue is usually used for baked meringue. For a full review of meringue and egg foams, refer to Chapter 15.
Once the egg product and sugar have been whipped to the desired stage, the sifted dry ingredients are folded in. If melted chocolate is being used, as in the case of brownies, it may be added before the flour. The batter may then be portioned and baked.
The sponge method is made up of two steps. First, egg products and sugar are whipped to a desired stage. Next, the sifted dry ingredients are folded in. From this basic procedure, there are three distinguishable variations wherein the egg foam may be based on whole eggs, egg whites and egg yolks, or just whites. For example, during the mixing of classic brownies, whole eggs are whipped with the sugar to ribbon stage, or until the mixture forms ribbon-like texture when the whisk is lifted. In the classic preparation of ladyfingers, egg yolks and whites are whipped separately and then combined to gain the maximum volume. For macarons, additional ingredients are folded into egg whites. An explanation of the three different methods follows.
FIGURE 10-4 MERINGUE METHOD FOR PARISIAN MACARONS [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  Add the desired colorant in the whipping egg whiters. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  Whip to a stiff peak. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  Incorporate the sifted dry ingredients. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  Blend the mixture until smooth, scraping well. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  Portion as desired, let skin form, and bake immediately.
Sponge Process--Whole Egg Method (Brownies)
* Scale all the ingredients and have them at room temperature.
* In the bowl of an electric mixer fitted with the whip attachment, whip the eggs and sugar until the ribbon stage.
* Add any additional ingredients such as vanilla, melted butter, or chocolate, and mix to incorporate.
* Add the sifted dry ingredients and fold just until combined, using the paddle attachment or a rubber spatula.
* Portion as needed and bake immediately.
Sponge Process--Separated Egg Method (Ladyfingers)
* Scale all the ingredients and have them at room temperature.
* In the bowl of an electric mixer fitted with the whip attachment, whip the egg yolk and sugar until ribbon stage.
* In the bowl of an electric mixer fitted with the whip attachment, whip the egg whites and sugar until medium peak.
* Gently fold meringue into the yolk mixture, using a rubber spatula.
* Add the sifted dry ingredients and fold just until combined, using the rubber spatula.
* Portion as needed and bake immediately.
Sponge Process--Meringue Method (Parisian Macarons)
* Scale all the ingredients and have them at room temperature.
* In the bowl of an electric mixer fitted with the whip attachment, whip the egg whites and sugar until stiff peaks are formed. Add colorant as needed. (See Meringue Method for Parisian Macarons Figure 10-4, Steps 1-2.)
* Add the dry ingredients, and mix to deflate the batter to the desired stage. (See Meringue Method for Parisian Macarons Figure 10-4, Steps 3-4.)
* Portion as desired, let a skin form, and then bake immediately. (See Meringue Method for Parisian Macarons Figure 10-4, Step 5.)
The sanding method, or sabler method (sable is the French term for "sandy"), produces products that can range from a crumbly and sandy texture to a crisper texture. Base ingredients used for these cookies include flour, butter, sugar, and eggs, with the option of adding additional flavoring or inclusions.
The process for this method starts off very differently from cookies that utilize the creaming method. The first step is to combine the flour, sugar, and any other dry ingredients such as salt or spices and then blend in cold butter using the paddle attachment on a stand mixer. To create the sandy texture of this cookie, it is necessary to coat most of the starch and protein content of the flour with fat. After the mixture looks like coarse cornmeal, eggs (or yolks) are added, and the dough is mixed until it comes together. The uncoated starch and fat will be hydrated by the egg and will ensure that cohesive dough is formed. Then, the dough can be portioned and made up as desired, baked right away, or reserved in the refrigerator or freezer for later baking. The sanding method is typically used for icebox cookies or cut-out cookies.
When utilizing the sanding method, a couple of precautions must be taken to ensure success. First, when incorporating the dry ingredients and the butter, it is essential to use cold butter. If the butter is warm, it will be absorbed by the flour and melt the sugar. Second, it is important not to overprocess the initial flour-sugar-butter mixture. If this happens, the three ingredients will form a dough prematurely, the cookie will not be able to absorb the egg, and the cookie texture will be too tender, because the starch is not hydrated to create the structure for the cookie.
* Scale all the ingredients, keeping the butter and eggs (or yolks) cold.
* In the bowl of an electric mixer, fitted with the paddle attachment, mix the dry ingredients with the butter until mealy. (See Sanding Method Figure 10-5, Step 1.)
* Add the eggs (or yolks) and mix until the dough comes together. See Sanding Method Figure 10-5, Steps 2-4.)
* Cover the dough with plastic wrap, and refrigerate until cool.
FIGURE 10-5 SANDING METHOD [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  Blend the cold fat and dry ingredients in a mixing bowl fitted with a paddle attachment and mix until mealy. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  Add the liquid ingredients at once. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  At 50 percent incorporation, add almond meal (if applicable). [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  At 100 percent incorporation, do not overmix.
The one-stage method is the most straightforward mixing method of all: The ingredients are all mixed together at once and are then portioned according to the consistency of the dough. Because all the ingredients are mixed in one stage, there is less control over the development of gluten, compared to other mixing method. Hence, the one-stage method is used less frequently.
Once all ingredients are scaled and brought to room temperature (if needed), they are placed in the bowl of a mixer with the paddle attachment and mixed until incorporation. Risks include overmixing the dough, which may toughen the cookie by overdeveloping the gluten. This method is used only when overdevelopment of gluten is not a considerable problem and when the dough is somewhat stiff, as with some types of chewy macaroons.
* Scale all the ingredients.
* Combine all the ingredients in the bowl of an electric mixer fitted with the paddle attachment.
* Mix until the dough comes together.
* Refrigerate the dough until cool; then portion according to its consistency and bake as desired.
COOKIES PROPERTIES AND CAUSES
To produce a wide selection of cookies, one must be able to manipulate their characteristics and textures. This requires an understanding of how the ingredients function, along with the formula processes and baking properties--any and all of which control whether a cookie is crisp, soft, chewy, or sandy.
Crispness is primarily controlled by limiting moisture in the cookie formula. The greater the amount of moisture, the softer the cookie will be. The following factors also contribute to crispness:
* A low or excessive amount of sugar content. When a very small amount of sugar is in the formula, the cookie becomes crispy. Sugar is hygroscopic and attracts moisture and promotes tenderness. If a cookie is low in sugar, it will not be moist or tender. However, when larger quantities of sugar are added or an alternative baking process is used, sugar will recrystallize during the longer baking processes as with biscotti. A shiny look from recrystallized sugar appears on the surface of biscotti, which is typically baked for a long time at a low temperature to dry out the cookie.
* The size of the cookie in relation to the baking temperature. A smaller, thinner cookie will bake to a dry texture faster than a larger cookie baked at the same temperature.
* A longer baking time at a lower temperature. This technique bakes the cookie beyond the point of setup and reduces the moisture content.
* Twice-baking to encourage excessive crispness, as with biscotti.
To retain their crisp qualities, cookies should be stored in an airtight container or packaging to avoid absorbing moisture from the air.
Softness is encouraged by factors in direct opposition to those that promote crispness.
* Higher moisture content, which creates a softer cookie and retards drying.
* A high fat content, since fat tenderizes and keeps moisture in cookies.
* Use of humectants, such as honey, molasses, corn syrup, inverted sugar, and glucose. These ingredients have hygroscopic properties, which attract moisture.
* Baking larger-sized cookies for shorter periods of time.
* Baking for briefer periods at higher temperatures.
* Covering soft-textured cookies will prevent staling and drying.
Moisture is necessary to create chewiness, and a fine balance of toughening and tenderizing ingredients are required for proper product development.
* A higher sugar content is required to create a softer texture.
* A higher degree of toughening ingredients such as higher protein flour or whole eggs or egg whites will provide needed body.
* A longer final mixing time increases the development of the gluten.
The key to producing a sandy texture is a dry dough that is formulated using a high percentage of tenderizing ingredients. Typically, more butter, less sugar, and less liquid are utilized, with egg yolk used as the primary liquid to ensure minimal gluten development and a crisp cookie texture. An example of sandy textured cookie is shortbread.
Not much liquid is used in shortbread because the flour has been coated with fat and cannot absorb much liquid. Just as with pie dough, it is critical that the fat-flour phase not be overmixed; this would com pletely mix the flour into the butter, creating a cookie that is too tender.
Cookie spread refers to a cookie's expansion outward from its unbaked state during the baking process. By understanding the factors that affect spread, including ingredient selection, formula processes, and baking conditions, formulas can be easily manipulated as desired.
Spread can be evaluated by using the spread factor, when flour is a variable in the formula. Spread factor can be determined by dividing the average cookie width (W) by the average cookie thickness (T), for both the baked and unbaked dough. When the two spread factors are compared, the spread factor of the variable product is divided by the original spread factor.
Spread Factor = WIT
%Spread Factor = (Spread Factor of Variable Product X 100)/Spread Factor (Matz, 1992, p. 348)
Control product (what you originally have)--Cookies with average width of 3 inches, average height of 0.7 inches
Variable product (what is compared)--Cookies with average width of 2.5 inches, average height of 1 inch
Spread Factor (Control) = 3 / 0.7 = 4.286
Spread Factor (Variable) = 2.5 / 1 = 2.5
Spread Factor = (2.5 X 100) / 4.28 = 58.32
The spread of variable product is 58.32 percent of the original product.
Control Product (what you originally have)--Cookies with average width of 3 inches, average height of 0.7 inches
Variable product (what is compared)--Cookies with average width of 3.5 inches, average height of 0.5 inches
Spread Factor (Control) = 3 / 0.7 = 4.286
Spread Factor (Variable) = 3.5 / 0.5 = 7.00
Spread Factor = (7.00 X 100) / 4.286 = 163.32
The spread of the variable product is 163.32 percent of the original product.
By knowing your spread factor you can control the size of the cookie by adjusting the height during depositing.
Cookie spread is heavily influenced by the type and amount of sugar used, along with the length of time spent creaming the fats and sugar. Based on the same quantity of mixing, smaller granules of sugar create more spread than larger sugar granules. Smaller granules are further dispersed in dough and prevent gluten from developing. The same weight of coarse sugar granules are more scattered throughout the dough, allowing the gluten to have more strength. A high level of creaming promotes spreading because it incorporates air into the dough, which expands outward when heated. Chemical leavening agents have a similar effect, releasing gases during the baking process to create a lighter cookie that spreads outward.
Other factors that encourage spread include a lower baking temperature, which delays the gelatinization of starch and coagulation of protein, and the temperature of the dough, with a warmer cookie dough spreading more than a colder one. In addition, a softer flour with a lower protein content will allow more spread, as will greasing the pan to decrease spread resistance.
The properties that deter spread are generally the opposite of the properties that promote it. Using larger granules of sugar is an effective approach, and less creaming of fats and sugars limits the incorporation of air into the dough. A similar effect is created by using less chemical leavening. Spread can also be limited by increasing toughening ingredients such as flour or by using stronger flour. A final technique, which is not recommended, is to use higher temperatures during the baking process, allowing the cookie to set up before it has a chance to spread too much. If employed, caution must be exerted to ensure the cookie does not burn on the outside before baking in the inside.
THE BAKING PROCESS
How and when to bake cookie dough largely depends on the formula as well as production needs. The baking guidelines for cookies vary incredibly, depending on the type and formulation. For example, some cookie doughs may be refrigerated or frozen for later use, depending on the chemical leavening agents present and the mixing process used. Cookie dough that contains baking powder has a high tolerance for storage in the refrigerator and freezer because the majority of the gas is created during exposure to heat. When only baking soda is used as the leavening agent and the acidic ingredient is within the dough, the storage tolerance is poor because the acidity triggers a reaction upon contact with moisture during mixing. The storage of cookie dough in the freezer is common in commercial bakeries, with large batches of dough mixed, portioned, and baked as needed throughout the week. Frozen cookie dough may be baked directly from the freezer without defrosting; however, the baking temperature should be lower and the baking time longer than if baking a cookie that is not frozen.
Although there are some general rules for the baking process, specific guidelines for each formulation should be followed. The first step of the baking process involves portioning and panning the cookies, with the size, shape, and quantity affecting baking time and temperature. Cookies are typically baked on parchment-lined flat sheet pans; however, they may be baked on silicone mats or even in tart molds. It is also important that cookies are portioned to accommodate spread during the baking process. The degree of spread will vary from product to product.
The second step of the baking process involves oven heat. Most cookies are baked as quickly as possible at a medium to high temperature in order to preserve desired qualities without drying out. Typical temperatures are 350[degrees]F (177[degrees]C) for convection ovens and 375[degrees]F (191[degrees]C) for deck or home ovens. Baking at too low of a temperature will dry the cookie and may encourage excessive spread and pale color. Baking at too high of a temperature may reduce spread and promote burning before baking the inside of the dough.
Several guidelines dictate when a cookie should come out of the oven, including the degree of doneness, crispness, or softness, as well as color, which may be light to golden brown. For a cookie to be edible, it needs to have some structure. Cookies often feel very soft coming out of the oven and then set up as they cool. To test doneness, lift the edge of the cookie while it is still in the oven. If it releases from the parchment paper, it is a good sign that it is done.
Once baked, cookies are very soft and susceptible to damage and should remain on the pan in which they baked until cool. If baked on a greased sheet pan, they should be transferred to a cool surface after being out of the oven for approximately 10 minutes. If stacked while warm, cookies may stick together, or warp if they do not remain level.
FORMULA CHOCOLATE CHIP COOKIE Chocolate chip cookies are not hard to like, even though some like them chewy while others prefer them crunchy, some like them with nuts but others can do without the nuts. Over half the cookies baked in American homes are chocolate chip, with an estimated seven billion consumed annually. The "Toll House Cookie" was invented by Ruth Graves Wakefield in the 1930s, when she and her husband Kenneth owned the Toll House Inn in Massachusetts. While cooking for her guests one day, Ruth had to substitute semi-sweet chocolate for baker's chocolate in a cookie recipe. She chopped the chocolate in bits, but when she took the cookies from the oven, the semi-sweet chocolate had not melted into the dough as the baker's chocolate usually did. These cookies with chocolate "chips" became an immediate hit with her guests. Eventually, Mrs. Wakefield sold the recipe to Nestle in exchange for a lifetime supply of chocolate chips, and the rest is history. Ingredients Baker's % Kilogram US decimal Butter 70.79 0.775 1.709 Sugar 44.21 0.484 1.068 Brown sugar 52.63 0.576 1.271 Eggs 31.58 0.346 0.763 Vanilla extract 1.58 0.017 0.038 Bread flour 100.00 1.095 2.415 Baking soda 1.11 0.012 0.027 Salt 1.68 0.018 0.041 Chocolate chips 110.53 1.211 2.669 Total 414.11 4.536 10.000 Ingredients Lb & Oz Test Butter 1 11 3/8 5 1/2 oz Sugar 1 1 1/8 3 3/8 oz Brown sugar 1 4 3/8 4 1/8 oz Eggs 12 1/4 2 1/2 oz Vanilla extract 5/8 1 tsp Bread flour 2 6 5/8 8 3/4 oz Baking soda 3/8 1/2 tsp Salt 5/8 1 tsp Chocolate chips 2 10 3/4 8 1/2 oz Total 10 0 2 lb Process 1. Cream the butter and the sugar. 2. Gradually add the eggs and then the vanilla. 3. Combine the bread flour, baking soda, and salt; mix to 50 percent incorporation. 4. Add the chocolate chips and mixjust until incorporated. 5. Scale into 2 lb 3 oz (1,000 g) pieces and roll into 17 inch (43 cm) logs (sheet pan width). 6. Wrap each log in parchment, and refrigerate until ready to bake. 7. Cut to the desired size [2 oz (50 g) to 4 oz (100 g)], place on parchment-lined sheet pans, and bake at 350[degrees]F (177[degrees]C) in a convection oven for 10 to 12 minutes. FORMULA OATMEAL RAISIN COOKIE When perfectly executed, the oatmeal raisin cookie is a delightful treat with an irresistible aroma. The key to achieving desired results is to avoid overbaking, as the texture of this cookie is essential. Earthy and humble, this classic American cookie demands a glass of milk as accompaniment. Ingredients Baker's % Kilogram US decimal Butter 68.75 0.607 1.339 Brown sugar 145.00 1.281 2.824 Eggs 32.50 0.287 0.633 Vanilla extract 3.50 0.031 0.068 Bread flour 100.00 0.883 1.947 Baking powder 3.50 0.031 0.068 Baking soda 1.75 0.015 0.034 Salt 1.00 0.009 0.019 Rolled oats 85.00 0.751 1.655 Raisins 72.50 0.640 1.412 Total 513.50 4.536 10.000 Ingredients Lb & Oz Test Butter 1 5 3/8 4 1/4 oz Brown sugar 2 13 1/8 9 oz Eggs 10 1/8 2 oz Vanilla extract 1 1/8 1 1/2 tsp Bread flour 1 15 1/8 6 1/4 oz Baking powder 1 1/8 1 1/2 tsp Baking soda 1/2 1/2 tsp Salt 1/4 1/2 tsp Rolled oats 1 10 1/2 5 1/4 oz Raisins 1 6 5/8 4 1/2 oz Total 10 0 2 lb Process 1. Cream the butter and the sugar on medium speed until mixed thoroughly, but not fluffy. 2. Gradually add the eggs and vanilla. 3. Combine the dry ingredients and add these to the bowl; mix to 50 percent incorporation. 4. Add the raisins and the oats and mix until incorporated. 5. Scale into 2 Ib 3 oz (1,000 g) pieces and roll into 17 inch (43 cm) logs (sheet pan width). 6. Wrap each log in parchment, and refrigerate until ready to bake. 7. Cut to the desired size [2 oz (50 g) to 4 oz (100 g)], place on parchment-lined sheet pans, and bake at 350[degrees]F (177[degrees]C) in a convection oven for 12 to 15 minutes. FORMULA PEANUT BUTTER COOKIE Today, over half the American peanut crop goes to making peanut butter, which was invented in the late 19th century by a St. Louis doctor who first introduced it as a health food at the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair. Crushed or chopped peanuts in baking were actively promoted by George Washington Carver, an African American educator, botanist, and scientist from Alabama's Tuskegee Institute, but peanut butter was not commonly used as an ingredient in cookies until the early 1930s. Now a staple in American bakeries and home baking, the peanut butter cookie, with its trademark crisscross pattern, is appreciated for its dense texture and rich taste. Ingredients Baker's % Kilogram US decimal Butter 60.71 0.748 1.650 Sugar 53.57 0.660 1.456 Brown sugar 52.68 0.649 1.431 Eggs 26.79 0.330 0.728 Vanilla extract 0.89 0.011 0.024 Peanut butter 68.75 0.847 1.868 Bread flour 100.00 1.233 2.717 Baking powder 3.93 0.048 0.107 Salt 0.71 0.009 0.019 Total 368.03 4.536 10.000 Ingredients Lb & Oz Test Butter 1 10 3/8 5 1/4 oz Sugar 1 7 1/4 4 5/8 oz Brown sugar 1 6 7/8 4 5/8 oz Eggs 11 5/8 2 3/8 oz Vanilla extract 3/8 1/2 tsp Peanut butter 1 13 7/8 6 oz Bread flour 2 11 1/2 8 3/4 oz Baking powder 1 3/4 2 tsp Salt 1/4 1/2 tsp Total 10 0 2 lb Process 1. Combine the dry ingredients and reserve. 2. Cream the butter and sugars. 3. Add the eggs and vanilla and then the peanut butter. 4. Add the dry ingredients and mix until well incorporated. 5. Scale into 2 Ib 3 oz (1,000 g) pieces and roll into 17 inch (43 cm) logs (sheet pan width). 6. Wrap each log in parchment, and refrigerate until ready to bake. 7. Cut to the desired size [2 oz (50 g) to 4 oz (100 g)], place on parchment-lined sheet pans, and bake at 350[degrees]F (177[degrees]C) in a convection oven for 12 to 15 minutes. FORMULA SNICKERDOODLE This whimsically named cookie could be from colonial New England times, when cooks were known for giving odd names to their creations. However, some food historians believe snicker-doodles were invented by the Pennsylvania Dutch, with their name derived from "St. Nick," or from the Germans and their schnechennudeln, a cinnamon-dusted sweet roll. Regardless of origin, these appealing cookies are notable for their soft texture and cinnamon sugar-dusted surface. Ingredients Baker's % Kilogram US decimal Butter 80.88 1.189 2.620 Sugar 99.26 1.459 3.216 Eggs 23.53 0.346 0.762 Vanilla extract 2.94 0.043 0.095 Bread flour 100.00 1.470 3.240 Baking powder 1.18 0.017 0.038 Salt 0.88 0.013 0.029 Total 308.67 4.536 10.000 Ingredients Lb & Oz Test Butter 2 9 7/8 8 3/8 oz Sugar 3 3 1/2 10 1/4 oz Eggs 12 1/4 2 1/2 oz Vanilla extract 1 1/2 1/4 oz Bread flour 3 3 7/8 10 3/8 oz Baking powder 5/8 1 tsp Salt 1/2 1/2 tsp Total 10 0 2 lb Process 1. Cream the butter and the sugar. 2. Gradually add the eggs and vanilla. 3. Combine the dry ingredients and add them, being careful not to overmix the dough. 4. Scale into 2 Ib 3 oz (1,000 g) pieces and roll into 17 inch (43 cm) logs (sheet pan width). 5. Wrap each log in parchment, and refrigerate until ready to bake. 6. Cut to the desired size [2 oz (50 g) to 4 oz (100 g)], roll pieces in cinnamon sugar (see ratio below), place on parchment-lined sheet pans, and bake at 350[degrees]F (177[degrees]C) in a convection oven for 10 to 12 minutes. Cinnamon Sugar Formula Ingredients Baker's % Kilogram Sugar 100 0.454 Cinnamon 4-6 0.018-0.027 Ingredients US decimal Lb & Oz Sugar 1.000 1 0 Cinnamon 3-5 tbsp 3-5 tbsp FORMULA GINGER MOLASSES COOKIE Ginger and molasses demonstrate how much they belong together in these irresistibly chewy, aromatic cookies. With coffee or a fresh glass of milk, nothing could be better on an autumn afternoon. Ingredients Baker's % Kilogram US decimal Butter 44.67 0.787 1.736 Brown sugar 71.32 1.257 2.771 Eggs 7.84 0.138 0.305 Molasses 26.65 0.470 1.035 Bread flour 100.00 1.762 3.885 Baking soda 2.51 0.044 0.098 Salt 1.10 0.019 0.043 Cloves, ground 0.63 0.011 0.024 Cinnamon 0.94 0.017 0.037 Ginger, ground 0.94 0.017 0.037 Nutmeg, ground 0.47 0.008 0.018 Allspice, ground 0.31 0.005 0.012 Total 257.38 4.536 10.000 Ingredients Lb & Oz Test Butter 1 11 3/4 5 1/2 oz Brown sugar 2 12 3/8 8 7/8 oz Eggs 4 7/8 1 oz Molasses 1 5/8 3 3/8 oz Bread flour 3 14 1/8 12 3/8 oz Baking soda 1 1/2 2 tsp Salt 5/8 1 tsp Cloves, ground 3/8 1/2 tsp Cinnamon 5/8 1/2 tsp Ginger, ground 5/8 1/2 tsp Nutmeg, ground 1/4 1/4 tsp Allspice, ground 1/4 1/8 tsp Total 10 0 2 lb Process 1. Cream the butter and sugar until well combined. 2. Add the eggs and then the molasses. 3. Add the dry ingredients and mix until well incorporated. 4. Scale into 2 Ib 3 oz (1,000 g) pieces and roll into 17 inch (43 cm) logs (sheet pan width). 5. Wrap each log in parchment, and refrigerate until ready to bake. 6. Cut to the desired size [2 oz (50 g) to 4 oz (100 g)], place on parchment-lined sheet pans, and bake at 350[degrees]F (177[degrees]C) in a convection oven for 12 to 15 minutes. FORMULA GINGERSNAP Characteristically crunchy and redolent, the diminutive ginger-snap has been a favorite treat since medieval times. Some claim the combination of exotic spices and stimulating texture makes these cookies uniquely addictive. Gingersnaps are a traditional cookie for St. Lucy (Lucia) day in Sweden. Ingredients Baker's % Kilogram US decimal Butter 67.06 1.037 2.286 Sugar 68.63 1.061 2.340 Eggs 19.61 0.303 0.669 Molasses 30.59 0.473 1.043 Bread flour 100.00 1.546 3.409 Baking soda 3.92 0.061 0.134 Salt 0.78 0.012 0.027 Cloves, ground 0.39 0.006 0.013 Cinnamon 0.78 0.012 0.027 Ginger, ground 1.57 0.024 0.054 Total 293.33 4.536 10.000 Ingredients Lb & Oz Test Butter 2 4 5/8 7 3/8 oz Sugar 2 5 3/8 7 1/2 oz Eggs 10 3/4 2 1/8 oz Molasses 1 5/8 3 3/8 oz Bread flour 3 6 1/2 10 7/8 oz Baking soda 2 1/8 2 tsp Salt 3/8 1/2 tsp Cloves, ground 1/4 1/4 tsp Cinnamon 3/8 1/2 tsp Ginger, ground 7/8 1 tsp Total 10 0 2 lb Process 1. Sift the dry ingredients together and reserve. 2. Cream the butter and sugar. 3. Add the eggs slowly. 4. Add the molasses and mix to incorporate. 5. Add the dry ingredients, and mix to incorporate. 6. Scale into 2 lb 3 oz (1,000 g) pieces, and roll into 17 inch (43 cm) logs (sheet pan width). 7. Wrap each log in parchment, and refrigerate until ready to bake. 8. Portion at 1.5 oz (45 g), roll into balls, and dredge in sanding sugar. 9. Place on parchment-lined sheet pans, 9 cookies per pan, and bake at 300[degrees] F (149[degrees]C) for 20 to 22 minutes.
FORMULA CHEWY COCONUT MACAROON The word "macaroon" is derived from the Italian word for paste: maccarone. The pure almond version is usually credited to a group of Italian Carmelite nuns from the late 18th century. Legend has it that the most famous macaroons of the time, Macaroons de Nancy from the town of Nancy in France, went stale quickly, which is why coconut was originally added to the recipe as a natural preservative. With their crisp, toasted coconut outer layer and moist, chewy centers, macaroons are delectable treats that become even more delicious when half of the cookie is dipped in chocolate. Because they are flourless and free of egg yolks, macaroons meet the standards of Jewish dietary requirements and are a tradition during Passover. Ingredients Baker's % Kilogram US decimal Macaroon coconut 92.71 1.686 3.718 Sugar 100.00 1.819 4.010 Egg whites 56.67 1.031 2.272 Total 249.38 4.536 10.000 Ingredients Lb & Oz Test Macaroon coconut 3 11 1/2 11 7/8 oz Sugar 4 1/8 12 7/8 oz Egg whites 2 4 3/8 7 1/4 oz Total 10 0 2 1b Process 1. Combine all the ingredients in a saucepan, place over medium heat, and stir constantly until mixture reaches 130[degrees]F (55[degrees]C). 2. Scoop the macaroons onto parchment-lined sheet pans. 3. Cookies should be approximately 2 inches (5 cm) in diameter and 13/a inches (4.5 cm) tall. 4. Bake at 325[degrees]F (163[degrees]C) in a convection oven until golden brown, approximately 15 minutes. 5. When completely cool, dip the bottoms in tempered chocolate and allow to set up on clean parchment.
FORMULA BISCOTTI Many countries have their own variations of this centuries-old cookie, but the biscotti we are most familiar with today probably originated during the 15th century with an Italian baker who originally served them with Tuscan wines. They became so popular that each province developed its own version. Biscotti are said to have been a favorite of Christopher Columbus and other sailors of the time because of their long shelf life. In Italian, the word biscotto means "biscuit" or "cookie." More specifically, biscotti are named according to their original method of baking. The root words bis and cotto literally mean "twice" and "baked." Their long and thin shape and crunchy texture make biscotti the ideal dipping cookie for beverages hot and cold. Double Chocolate Biscotti Formula Ingredients Baker's % Kilogram US decimal Butter 25.00 0.352 0.775 Sugar 72.00 1.013 2.233 Eggs 48.00 0.675 1.488 Vanilla extract 4.00 0.056 0.124 Bread flour 100.00 1.407 3.101 Almond meal 20.00 0.281 0.620 Cocoa powder 14.50 0.204 0.450 Baking powder 2.50 0.035 0.078 Salt 1.50 0.021 0.047 Chocolate chunks 35.00 0.492 1.085 Total 322.50 4.536 10.000 Ingredients Lb & Oz Test Butter 12 3/8 2 1/2 oz Sugar 2 3 3/4 7 1/8 oz Eggs 1 7 7/8 4 3/4 oz Vanilla extract 2 3/8 oz Bread flour 3 1 5/8 9 7/8 oz Almond meal 9 7/8 2 oz Cocoa powder 7 1/4 1 1/2 oz Baking powder 1 1/4 1 1/2 tsp Salt 3/4 1/2 tsp Chocolate chunks 1 1 3/8 3 1/2 oz Total 10 0 2 lb Process, Double Chocolate Biscotti 1. Cream the butter and sugar until well combined. 2. Add the eggs and vanilla. 3. Combine the dry ingredients. 4. Add the dry ingredients, and mix until 50 percent incorporation. Then add the chocolate chunks and mix until combined. 5. Form the dough into 2 lb 3 oz (1,000 g) logs. Place on parchment-lined sheet pans and flatten to 1 inch (2.5 cm) height. 6. Bake at 325[degrees]F (163[degrees]C) convection for 35 to 40 minutes, until firm to touch. 7. When completely cooled, cut on a bias and return slices to the sheet pan. 8. Rebake the biscotti at 250[degrees]F (121[degrees]C) until well dried. Orange Pecan Biscotti Formula Ingredients Baker's % Kilogram US decimal Butter 21.18 0.274 0.603 Sugar 80.59 1.041 2.295 Eggs 42.94 0.555 1.223 Vanilla extract 3.53 0.046 0.101 Bread flour 100.00 1.292 2.848 Cinnamon 1.76 0.023 0.050 Baking ammonia 1.18 0.015 0.034 Salt 1.76 0.023 0.050 Pecans, toasted 92.35 1.193 2.630 and chopped Orange zest 5.88 0.076 0.167 Total 351.17 4.536 10.000 Ingredients Lb & Oz Test Butter 9 5/8 1 7/8 oz Sugar 2 4 3/4 7 3/8 oz Eggs 1 3 5/8 3 7/8 oz Vanilla extract 1 5/8 2 tsp Bread flour 2 13 1/2 9 1/8 oz Cinnamon 3/4 1 tsp Baking ammonia 1/2 1/2 tsp Salt 3/4 1 tsp Pecans, toasted 2 10 1/8 8 3/8 oz and chopped Orange zest 2 5/8 1/5 oz Total 10 0 2 lb Process, Orange Pecan Biscotti 1. In a bowl with a paddle attachment, cream together the butter and sugar. 2. Gradually add the eggs and vanilla. 3. Sift the flour with the cinnamon, baking ammonia, and salt. 4. Add the dry ingredients to the butter and mix until 50 percent incorporation. 5. Add the pecans and orange zest, and mix until distributed. 6. Form the dough into 2 lb 3 oz (1,000 g) logs. Place on parchment-lined sheet pans and flatten to 1 inch (2.5 cm) height. 7. Bake at 325[degrees]F (163[degrees]C) in a convection oven for 35 to 40 minutes, until firm to touch. 8. When completely cooled, cut on a bias, and return slices to the sheet pan. 9. Rebake the biscotti at 250[degrees]F (121[degrees]C) until well dried. FORMULA SABLES A LA POCHE These tender and crumbly cookies get their name from a French phrase, which translates in English to "sand in your pocket" Rich in butter and flavored with cinnamon, sables a la poche are more likely to end up in mouths than in pockets, but their name is charming nonetheless! Ingredients Baker's % Kilogram US decimal Butter, softened 88.89 1.691 3.728 Powdered sugar 33.33 0.634 1.398 Egg whites 13.33 0.254 0.559 Cinnamon 1.11 0.021 0.047 Bread flour 100.00 1.902 4.194 Baking powder 0.89 0.017 0.037 Salt 0.89 0.017 0.037 Total 238.44 4.536 10.000 Ingredients Lb & Oz Test Butter, softened 3 11 5/8 11 7/8 oz Powdered sugar 1 6 3/8 4 1/2 oz Egg whites 9 1 3/4 oz Cinnamon 3/4 1 tsp Bread flour 4 3 1/8 13 3/4 oz Baking powder 5/8 2/3 tsp Salt 5/8 1 tsp Total 10 0 2 lb Process 1. Cream the butter with the paddle and then add the powdered sugar. Add the egg whites slowly and mix until incorporated. 2. Add the dry sifted ingredients; do not overmix. 3. Pipe into shell shapes using a large star tip and bake at 325[degrees]F (163[degrees]C) in a convection oven for 15 minutes. FORMULA DIAMONDS Sparkling with a crisp sugar coating, diamond cookies live up to their name in both appearance and spirit, offering a luxurious treat to those who appreciate cookies as little treasures. Diamond cookies are very tender and also versatile, amenable to infinite flavor variations. Because the dough freezes well, bakers treasure diamonds for their ease of production. Chocolate Diamonds Formula Ingredients Baker's % Kilogram US decimal Butter 100.00 1.700 3.749 Powdered sugar 40.00 0.680 1.500 Eggs 12.50 0.213 0.469 Bread flour 100.00 1.700 3.749 Cocoa powder 12.50 0.213 0.469 Salt 1.75 0.030 0.066 Total 266.75 4.536 10.000 Ingredients Lb & Oz Test Butter 3 12 12 oz Powdered sugar 1 8 4 3/4 oz Eggs 7 1/2 1 1/2 OZ Bread flour 3 12 12 oz Cocoa powder 7 1/2 1 1/2 oz Salt 1 1 tsp Total 10 0 2 lb Vanilla Diamonds Formula Ingredients Baker's % Kilogram US decimal Butter 88.80 1.728 3.810 Powdered sugar 35.50 0.691 1.523 Vanilla bean Each 4 4 Egg yolks 8.80 0.171 0.378 Bread flour 100.00 1.946 4.290 Total 233.10 4.536 10.000 Ingredients Lb & Oz Test Butter 3 13 12 1/4 oz Powdered sugar 1 8 3/8 4 7/8 oz Vanilla bean 4 1 each Egg yolks 6 1 1/4 oz Bread flour 4 5 13 3/4 oz Total 10 0 2 1b Process, Diamonds (general) 1. Mix the soft butter, powdered sugar, scraped vanilla pod (vanilla only) and then add the egg yolks (whole eggs for chocolate) and mix until combined. 2. Add the sifted flour (and the cocoa powder and salt for chocolate) and mix to incorporation. 3. Portion into 7 oz (200 g) logs, 17 inch (43 cm) long (sheet pan width). 4. Refrigerate for a minimum of 4 hours. 5. Brush each log lightly with egg wash and roll in granulated sugar. Cut into slices, 0.4 inch (1 cm) thick, and place on a parchment-lined sheet pan. 6. Bake at 335[degrees]F (168[degrees]C) in a convection oven for 10 to 12 minutes. FORMULA CORNMEAL CURRANT COOKIE This deceptively simple cookie is a balance of sweet and savory elements. Cornmeal lends a sturdy texture, just between dry and tender, while rosemary and currants tantalize the palate and create a wonderful aroma during baking. Ingredients Baker's % Kilogram US decimal Bread flour 100.00 1.055 2.326 Yellow cornmeal 76.00 0.802 1.767 Sugar 66.67 0.703 1.550 Currants 66.67 0.703 1.550 Rosemary, fresh 2.00 0.021 0.047 Butter 95.33 1.006 2.217 Vanilla extract 1.33 0.014 0.031 Egg yolks 22.00 0.232 0.512 Total 430.00 4.536 10.000 Ingredients Lb & Oz Test Bread flour 2 5 1/4 7 1/2 oz Yellow cornmeal 1 12 1/4 5 5/8 oz Sugar 1 8 3/4 5 oz Currants 1 8 3/4 5 oz Rosemary, fresh 3/4 1 tsp Butter 2 3 1/2 7 1/8 oz Vanilla extract 1/2 1/2 tsp Egg yolks 8 1/8 1 5/8 oz Total 10 0 2 lb Process 1. Chop the rosemary very fine. 2. Combine the flour, cornmeal, sugar, currants, rosemary, and butter in the bowl of a mixer fitted with the paddle. 3. Blend until sandy, and then add the egg yolks and vanilla extract. Mix just until the dough comes together. 4. Scale into 2 lb 3 oz (1,000 g) pieces and roll into 17 inch (43 cm) logs (sheet pan width). 5. Wrap each log in parchment, and refrigerate until ready to bake. 6. Portion into 1.5 oz (45 g) slices, place on parchment-lined sheet pans, and bake at 325[degrees]F (163[degrees]C) in a convection oven for about 14 minutes. FORMULA CHOCOLATE INDULGENCE COOKIE In the wonderful land where brownie meets cookie, the chocolate indulgence cookie was born. Made with couverture-grade chocolate, this intensely rich cookie is soft and chewy, leaving the chocolate lover completely satisfied. Ingredients Baker's % Kilogram US decimal Semi-sweet chocolate 735.29 1.704 3.758 Butter 100.00 0.232 0.511 Eggs 529.41 1.227 2.706 Sugar 467.65 1.084 2.390 Vanilla extract 7.35 0.017 0.038 Cake flour, sifted 100.00 0.232 0.511 Baking powder 12.65 0.029 0.065 Salt 4.41 0.010 0.023 Total 1956.76 4.536 10.000 Ingredients Lb & Oz Test Semi-sweet chocolate 3 12 1/8 12 oz Butter 8 1/8 1 5/8 oz Eggs 2 11 1/4 8 5/8 oz Sugar 2 6 1/4 7 5/8 oz Vanilla extract 5/8 1 tsp Cake flour, sifted 8 1/8 1 5/8 oz Baking powder 1 1 tsp Salt 3/8 1/2 tsp Total 10 0 2 lb Process 1. Sift together the cake flour, baking powder, and salt; reserve. 2. Melt together the chocolate and butter. 3. Whip the sugar, eggs, and vanilla to the ribbon stage. When the chocolate reaches 90[degrees]F (33[degrees]C) add it to the whipped eggs. 4. Add the dry ingredients using the paddle attachment of the mixer or by hand with a spatula. 5. Using an ice cream scoop, portion onto parchment-lined sheet pans, and leave at room temperature for 30 minutes. 6. Bake at 325[degrees]F (163[degrees]C) in a convection oven for 12 to 15 minutes. (Insert a cake tester into a cookie. Remove from the oven when the tester shows some crumb structure and a slightly underbaked center.)
FORMULA PARISIAN MACARONS Macaron confections can be traced back to the 17th century, but we had to wait until the early 20th century for Parisian pastry makers to begin creating the chic versions we delight in today. French-style macarons typically involve two meringue-like cookies, with a delicate exterior and a soft, spongy interior, sandwiched together with ganache or other cream. Modern-day macarons excite the imagination with vivid colors and unexpected flavor combinations, while their sublime texture triggers culinary euphoria. Plain Parisian Macarons Formula Ingredients Baker's % Kilogram US decimal Egg whites 100.00 0.981 2.162 Granulated sugar 36.50 0.358 0.789 Egg white powder 9.40 0.092 0.203 Almond flour 117.60 1.153 2.543 Powdered sugar 199.00 1.952 4.303 Color, as desired ~ ~ ~ Total 462.50 4.536 10.000 Ingredients Lb & Oz Test Egg whites 2 2 5/8 6 7/8 oz Granulated sugar 12 5/8 2 1/2 oz Egg white powder 3 1/4 1 1/2 tbsp Almond flour 2 8 5/8 8 1/8 oz Powdered sugar 4 4 7/8 13 3/4 oz Color, as desired ~ ~ Total 10 0 2 lb Process, Plain Parisian Macarons 1. Sift the almond flour and powered sugar together. 2. Whip the egg whites, sugar, and egg white powder to stiff peaks. 3. Fold the almond sugar mixture into the meringue, color as desired, and pipe 1 1/2 inch (4 cm) circles onto silpat-lined perforated sheet pans. 4. Let a skin form (time will vary according to climate) and bake at 310[degrees]F (154[degrees]C) in a convection oven with the vent open for 9 to 11 minutes. Chocolate Parisian Macarons Formula Ingredients Baker's % Kilogram US decimal Egg whites 100.00 0.909 2.005 Granulated sugar 32.90 0.299 0.660 Egg white powder 5.00 0.045 0.100 Almond meal 126.60 1.151 2.538 Powdered sugar 216.60 1.970 4.342 Dark cocoa powder 17.70 0.161 0.355 Total 498.80 4.536 10.000 Ingredients Lb & Oz Test Egg whites 2 1/8 6 3/8 oz Granulated sugar 10 1/2 2 1/8 oz Egg white powder 1 5/8 2 tsp Almond meal 2 8 5/8 8 1/8 oz Powdered sugar 4 5 1/2 13 7/8 oz Dark cocoa powder 5 5/8 1 1/8 oz Total 10 0 2 lb Process, Chocolate Parisian Macarons 1. Sift the almond meal, powdered sugar, and cocoa power together. 2. Whip the egg whites, egg white powder, and sugar to stiff peaks. 3. Fold the almond sugar mixture into the meringue and pipe 1.5 inch (4 cm) circles onto silpat-lined perforated sheet pans. 4. Let a skin form (time will vary according to climate), and bake at 310[degrees]F (154[degrees]C) in a convection oven with the vent open for 9 to 11 minutes.
FORMULA ROCHER MERINGUE These superb little cookies get their name from their resemblance to a rock, or rocher in French, even though they are undeniably soft and chewy. Rochers are wonderfully diverse, allowing for an array of variations, including coffee, chocolate, and raspberry. Typically, a large batch of the meringue is prepared, and then varying flavors are folded into separate portions. Before baking, the meringue can be portioned onto a baking tray, or dropped from a spoon for a more rustic appearance. Ingredients Baker's % Kilogram US decimal Sugar #1 100.00 1.184 2.611 Water 33.00 0.391 0.862 Egg whites 100.00 1.184 2.611 Sugar #2 10.00 0.118 0.261 Powdered sugar 60.00 0.711 1.567 Sliced almonds, toasted 80.00 0.947 2.089 Total 383.00 4.536 10.000 Ingredients Lb & Oz Test Sugar #1 2 10 8 oz Water 14 3 oz Egg whites 2 10 8 oz Sugar #2 4 1 oz Powdered sugar 1 9 5 oz Sliced almonds, toasted 2 1 7 oz Total 10 0 2 lb Process 1. Mix together the powdered sugar and almonds. 2. Combine sugar #1 and the water in a saucepan to prepare an Italian meringue. 3. Once the sugar syrup is at 240[degrees]F (116[degrees]C), begin to whip the egg whites and sugar #2 to stiff peaks. 4. When the sugar syrup reaches 248[degrees]F (120[degrees]C), pour the syrup over the whipping whites to make an Italian meringue. Continue to whip until cooled to slightly warm temperature. 5. Fold the powdered sugar covered almonds into the meringue gently and divide the meringue to be flavored, as desired. Some flavoring suggestions include cocoa nibs, raspberry (jam), coffee (Trablit), cocoa powder, and chocolate chips. 6. Pipe or drop, using a large spoon, onto a parchment-lined sheet pan. Bake at 350[degrees]F (177[degrees]C) in a convection oven with the vent open for 25 minutes, or until dry to the touch.
FORMULA BROWNIES In 1897, the Sears, Roebuck catalog published the first known recipe for brownies, and it quickly became a popular American dessert. The origin of the chocolate brownie is unknown; however, it was probably created by accident, the result of a forgetful cook neglecting to add baking powder to chocolate cake batter. Brownies have evolved over the years to include recipes for the both cake-like and chewy variations, sometimes using nuts or chocolate chips. For those who love chocolate, there are few scents in the world as seductive as brownies baking in the oven. Ingredients Baker's % Kilogram US decimal Bittersweet chocolate 100.00 1.000 2.205 Butter 74.00 0.740 1.631 Eggs 74.00 0.740 1.631 Sugar 172.80 1.728 3.809 Salt 0.80 0.008 0.018 Vanilla extract 3.40 0.034 0.075 Pastry flour 100.00 1.000 2.205 Total 525.00 5.250 11.574 Ingredients Lb & Oz Test Bittersweet chocolate 2 3 1/4 9 1/8 oz Butter 1 10 1/8 6 3/4 oz Eggs 1 10 1/8 6 3/4 oz Sugar 3 13 15 3/4 oz Salt 1/4 1/2 tsp Vanilla extract 1 1/4 2 tsp Pastry flour 2 3 1/4 9 1/8 oz Total 11 9 1/8 3 lb Yield: 1 sheet pan Test: 1/4 sheet pan Process 1. Sift the flour and reserve. 2. Place the chopped chocolate and butter in a bowl and melt over a double boiler or in the microwave. 3. Let the mixture cool to between 80[degrees]F (27[degrees]C) and 90[degrees]F (32[degrees]C). 4. Warm the eggs and sugar to 90[degrees]F (32[degrees]C) and whip with the salt and vanilla until the ribbon stage. 5. Fold in the melted chocolate and butter until smooth. 6. Fold the flour into the whipped mixture. 7. Spread the batter onto a parchment-lined sheet pan. 8. Bake at 325[degrees]F (163[degrees]C) in a convection oven for 30 to 35 minutes. 9. When cool, remove from the pan, and cut into bars of desired size. FORMULA LEMON BARS With its crisp crust and supple filling, the lemon bar is an essential addition to any baker's repertoire. The combination of textures, along with a colorful presentation and tangy citrus bite, make this classic dessert a perennial favorite, particularly in the southern United States. Ingredients Baker's % Kilogram US decimal Sugar 722.58 2.448 5.398 Eggs 451.61 1.530 3.374 Lemon juice 216.13 0.732 1.615 Bread flour 100.00 0.339 0.747 Total 1490.32 5.050 11.133 Ingredients Lb & Oz Test Sugar 5 6 3/8 1 lb 33/8 oz Eggs 3 6 12 1/8 oz Lemon juice 1 9 7/8 5 3/4 oz Bread flour 12 2 5/8 oz Total 11 2 1/8 2 lb 8 oz Yield: 1 sheet pan Test: 1/4 sheet pan Mise en Place Pate sucree, 3.3 lb (1.500 kg) per sheet pan Process 1. Line a sheet pan with pate sucree and par bake. Cool and reserve. With pate sucree, patch any cracks or low points on the sides where the liquid filling could leak out. 2. Combine the sugar and eggs by hand; blend well. 3. Add the lemon juice and mix. 4. Let sit for about 20 minutes; skim off the white foamy layer. 5. Blend in the flour while mixing to avoid lumps. 6. Pour the batter into the prebaked short dough crust. 7. Bake at 300[degrees]F (149[degrees]C) in a convection oven for 30 minutes or until set. 8. When cool, dust with powdered sugar and cut into bars of desired size. FORMULA PUMPKIN PAVE As the weather cools and the holidays approach, the baker's selection of fresh ingredients changes. Most notably fall brings a new crop of crisp apples and other specialty vegetables such as pumpkin and squash. These classic fruits and vegetables are the foundation of many traditional American holiday treats. Pave, meaning "brick" or "slab," refers to the shape of this pastry. Fresh or canned pumpkin may be used, and an interesting variation may be made with fresh butternut squash. The nut meal in the streusel may be substituted; however, if nut pieces are used, the quantity of butter may need to be reduced by 15 to 20 percent. Hazelnut Streusel Formula Ingredients Baker's % Kilogram US decimal Pastry flour 100.00 0.739 1.630 Brown sugar 62.00 0.458 1.011 Hazelnut meal 50.00 0.370 0.815 Butter 76.00 0.562 1.239 Total 288.00 2.130 4.695 Ingredients Lb & Oz Test Pastry flour 1 10 1/8 7 oz Brown sugar 1 1/8 4 1/4 oz Hazelnut meal 13 3 1/2 oz Butter 1 3 7/8 5 1/4 oz Total 4 11 1/8 1 lb 4 oz Yield: 1 sheet pan Test: 1/4 sheet pan Process, Hazelnut Streusel 1. Place all the ingredients in the bowl of a mixer fitted with the paddle attachment, and mix until a streusel is formed. 2. Per formula, place half of the streusel onto a sprayed sheet pan with a pan collar. 3. Press the streusel down to form the bottom crust. 4. Bake at 350[degrees]F (177[degrees]C) in a convection oven for about 12 minutes, or until the crust starts to brown. 5. Reserve until cool. Pumpkin Filling Formula Ingredients Baker's % Kilogram US decimal Cream cheese 100.00 1.463 3.225 Vanilla bean Each 2 2 Allspice 0.96 0.014 0.031 Cinnamon 1.92 0.028 0.062 Sugar 74.65 1.092 2.407 Maple syrup 6.85 0.100 0.221 Pumpkin puree 54.79 0.801 1.767 Eggs 54.79 0.801 1.767 Total 293.96 4.300 9.479 Ingredients Lb & Oz Test Cream cheese 3 3 5/8 10 7/8 oz Vanilla bean 2 1/2 each Allspice 1/2 1/2 tsp Cinnamon 1 1 1/2 tsp Sugar 2 6 1/2 8 1/8 oz Maple syrup 3 1/2 3/4 oz Pumpkin puree 1 12 1/4 6 oz Eggs 1 12 1/4 6 oz Total 9 7 5/8 2 lb Process, Pumpkin Filling 1. Scale all the ingredients and have all the ingredients at room temperature. 2. Cream the cream cheese, vanilla bean, allspice, and cinnamon together in a mixer fitted with the paddle attachment. Scrape down the bowl. 3. Once smooth, add the sugar slowly and mix until well incorporated. Scrape down the bowl. 4. Next, add the maple syrup and mix until incorporated. 5. Add the pumpkin puree and mix until smooth. Scrape down the bowl. 6. Add the eggs slowly and mix just to incorporation. Scrape down the bowl again and mix briefly. Assembly 1. Pour the pumpkin filling over the prebaked hazelnut crust. 2. Sprinkle the remaining hazelnut streusel over the filling. 3. Bake at 300[degrees]F (149[degrees]C) in a convection oven for about 35 minutes or until the filling is set. 4. Cool overnight and portion the following day.
FORMULA PALMIERS These buttery delicacies are made from puff pastry. Sugar is laminated into the dough for the last two folds and then coated on the outside, which caramelizes during baking, adding an enticingly crispy texture. Mise en Place Puff pastry with the last two single folds completed with sugar, additional sugar. Process 1. Sheet the dough to 1/12 inch (2 mm) and unroll onto a table dusted with granulated sugar. 2. Sprinkle the surface of the puff pastry with granulated sugar. 3. Make a long and narrow band and double fold the two extremities of the band toward the center until the two bands meet in the center. 4. Fold each of the two pieces on top of each other. 5. Using a chef knife, cut 1/3 inch (1 cm) thick slices of the sugared and folded puff pastry. 6. Put the cut palmiers open faced on a sheet pan and bake at 350[degrees]F (177[degrees]C) for 20 minutes or until golden brown. FORMULA SACRISTANS These corkscrew shaped cookies are formed from twisted puff pastry coated in granulated sugar, with the optional addition of sliced almonds. Said to be named after the official in charge of the sacred vessels in the Roman Catholic Church, sacristans are certainly delicious enough to inspire a religious following. Mise en Place Puff pastry with six single folds sheeted to 1/12 inch (2.5 mm), granulated sugar. Process 1. Coat both sides of the puff pastry with sugar. Unroll the dough onto a table dusted with granulated sugar. Then, sprinkle the surface with granulated sugar. 2. Cut into bands 6 inches (15 cm) wide, and cut those into 1/2 inch (1 cm) strips. 3. Twist each strip twice before placing it on a parchment-lined sheet pan that has been lightly sprayed with water. The water helps to prevent the dough from shrinking. Push down on the ends to ensure proper shaping during the bake. 4. Refrigerate for a minimum of 30 minutes before baking. 5. Bake at 350[degrees]F (177[degrees]C) for 20 minutes until golden brown.
Cookies are one of the simplest forms of pastry and are a basic repertoire of many kitchens and bakeshops. Cookies can be prepared as individual pastries or as an element for intricate plated desserts. Techniques required for assembling cookies includes many basic skills that are essential for every baker and pastry chef. By knowing the basic foundations of cookie making, the aspiring baker and pastry chef can produce consistent results, troubleshoot formulas and processes, and create new formulas.
* Cookie spread
* Creaming method
* Cut-out cookie
* Dropped cookie
* Icebox cookie
* Medium peak
* Molded cookie
* One-stage method
* Piped cookie
* Ribbon stage
* Run out
* Sanding method
* Sheet cookie
* Sliced cookie
* Soft peak
* Sponge method
* Stencil cookie
* Stiff peak
* Tenderizing ingredients
* Toughening ingredients
1. What are tenderizing and toughening ingredients and what role do they play in the composition of a cookie?
2. What effect will under- or over-creaming have on the final product? Why?
3. What factors contribute to crispness of cookies?
4. List all factors that have an influence on spread of cookies.
5. What are the signs that cookies are done baking?