Chapter 1 Airline transportation 101.
LEARNING OUTCOMES At the end of this chapter, the student should be able to: 1. Define at least four important functions of the Airlines Reporting Corporation (ARC) as it relates to travel agency operations. 2. Decode, by memory, eleven major North American airline letter codes. 3. Discuss the major differences between scheduled airlines and charter airlines. 4. Explain the benefits of airline code sharing from both the airlines' and passengers' points of view. 5. Name and describe the three standard compartments on an airplane in terms of seating, comfort, meal service, and airport facilities. 6. Identify the three primary classes of service codes. 7. Interpret a seat map for an aircraft. 8. Answer these typical questions from clients regarding domestic airline travel: baggage allowance, special in-flight services, medical assistance, and unaccompanied children. 9. Discuss the airline practice of overbooking and how passengers can be affected. 10. Explain the airlines' responsibility to airline passengers when each of the following occurs: flight cancellations and delays; lost, damaged, or delayed baggage; lost tickets.
* airline club
* Airlines Reporting Corporation (ARC)
* business class
* CAS Qualifier
* civil aviation
* class of service
* coach class
* code sharing
* commission override
* commuter airline
* denied-boarding compensation
* economy class
* executive class
* first class
* Industry Agents' Handbook (IAH)
* major airline
* regional airline
* scheduled airline
* seat assignment
* seat map
* supplemental airline
* Ticketing Qualifier
* trunk airline
* yield management
TRAVEL AGENCY AND SUPPLIERS: RELATIONSHIPS
supplier Any company that provides or supplies a travel product such as airlines, tour companies, cruise lines, hotels, and car rental companies.
The travel agency holds a unique position in the travel industry. It serves as an unbiased representative or agent to various suppliers. A supplier is any business that provides or supplies the travel product such as airlines, tour companies, cruise lines, hotels, and car rental companies.
At the same time, the travel agency serves as a retail customer to these different suppliers. It receives payment in the form of commission taken from such products as airline tickets, cruises, tours, and accommodations that it sells on behalf of its suppliers (Figure 1-1).
Travel agencies can earn commissions above the standard amount by selling products from a preferred supplier list. Preferred suppliers are composed of certain airlines, cruise lines, and other travel companies whose products the agencies sell frequently to their clients.
commission override Higher commission amount paid to travel agencies by suppliers to provide them with an incentive to sell their products (see preferred suppliers).
These preferred suppliers award travel agencies higher commissions in order to provide them with an incentive to sell their products. These higher earnings are called commission overrides, which can be as high as 15 or 20 percent of the retail price of the travel product sold.
[FIGURE 1-1 OMITTED]
Travelers can book directly with many of these suppliers either over the telephone or the Internet. However, in most cases, the cost of the product to the consumer is the same whether it is booked directly or through the travel agency. So if an airline ticket costs the same amount no matter where it is purchased, what factor will influence the customer's decision? The answer is service and expertise. A traveler who wants the lowest fare to Chicago can spend a lot of time on the Internet or contact each carrier by telephone. Either way, the person is not guaranteed the lowest fare possible because each carrier quotes fares on its own flights only. The travel agent, who has access to practically all carriers' schedules and fares, is able to provide comparison shopping for travelers.
So the travel agent sells service first, not products. Also, travel agents are important partners with the airline industry. Why? According to a 1999 survey from the Airlines Reporting Corporation, there are more than 45,500 full-service travel agencies, corporate on-site locations, and other outlets in the United States. Also, the number of travelers who use travel agencies for their business and leisure travel shows signs of increasing.
The travel agency community remains an important sales force for the airlines.
THE AIRLINES REPORTING CORPORATION (ARC)
The Airlines Reporting Corporation (ARC) An independent organization composed of the majority of U.S. airline carriers that currently establishes standard practices and procedures concerning airline transportation and the sale of airline tickets.
The Airlines Reporting Corporation (ARC) establishes standard practices and procedures concerning airline transportation and the sale of airline tickets. Most U.S. (domestic) airline carriers belong to the ARC on a voluntary basis.
The ARC has many functions. Some of these functions as they directly relate to travel agencies are as follows:
* Establish standards and post requirements for all new travel agencies that wish to sell airline tickets on behalf of more than 100 domestic and international carriers.
* Print, distribute, and maintain inventory of airline-ticket stock that is used exclusively by travel agents for the sale of air transportation on ARC airlines.
* Establish standard practices and procedures relating to airline reservations, airfare calculation, and airline-ticket writing.
* Act as a clearinghouse to distribute money to the airlines for all travel-agency ticket sales.
Industry Agents' Handbook (IAH) A keystone industry publication by the Airlines Reporting Corporation, which provides the basic ticketing and reporting requirements for all ARC-approved travel agencies.
A keystone industry publication is the Industry Agents' Handbook (IAH), which is published by the Airlines Reporting Corporation. The IAH provides, among other things, the basic ticketing and reporting requirements for all ARC-approved travel agencies. It provides detailed instructions on how to complete all ARC documents for such transactions as standard tickets, refunds, and exchanges.
Requirements for Opening a New Travel Agency
A new travel agency must obtain approval from the ARC before it can begin selling airline tickets on behalf of its member airlines. ARC reviews and processes applications from travel agencies and provides certain standards and requirements that must be met before an agency location can be approved to sell airline tickets.
Some ARC requirements include personnel qualifications, location of agency, financial requirements, and ticket security.
Ticketing Qualifier The full-time person who acts as the owner, partner, or manager of a travel agency and who has a minimum two years' experience in the selling of travel.
Personnel qualifications. The agency must have at least one full-time person who acts as either the owner, partner, or manager, and that person must have at least two years' experience in the selling of travel. This person is called a Ticketing Qualifier. An agency has the option of having either a Ticketing Qualifier or a Certified ARC Specialist (CAS Qualifier) on staff.
Each type of qualifier is required to complete and submit a complete personal history form for review. The CAS Qualifier candidate must pass a CAS test developed by ARC. The CAS test is based entirely on the Industry Agents' Handbook. There are additional application procedures and requirements to get into the CAS program.
Certified ARC Specialist (CAS Qualifier) An employee of a travel agency who is required to complete and pass a CAS test developed by ARC, in addition to other application requirements. This person can be considered the ticket qualifier for a new travel agency (see Ticketing Qualifier).
Location. The agency must be located at a site that is open and easily accessible to the general public. It also must clearly identify itself as an office or agency dealing in the sale of airline tickets and other related services.
Financial requirements. ARC requires agencies to obtain and maintain a bond or irrevocable letter of credit. Currently, the minimum amount required is $20,000. This requirement serves two purposes: (1) assures the ARC carriers that the agency is creditworthy and, (2) protects ARC carriers from financial loss if a travel agency defaults on its ticket sales report or files for bankruptcy.
Ticket security requirements. The agency must maintain an off-premise bank safe-deposit box or a similar facility for storage of excess airline-ticket stock.
Agency Identification Number
A travel agency receives an identification number when the ARC grants approval. This eight-digit identification number is used in all of the agency's dealings with the airlines and other suppliers. The first two digits of the number identify the state in which the agency is located; the next six digits comprise the unique identification number of the travel agency.
The agency identification serves as proof that the agency is a legal and bona fide member of the travel agency community and is permitted to receive commission from the sale of airline tickets and other travel products.
The travel agency also receives an identification plate from each ARC carrier. The airline identification plate contains the name and accounting number of the airline. These plates are used to stamp or validate the ticket with the airline that is providing transportation. A travel agency cannot write airline tickets until it becomes approved by the ARC and receives these airline identification plates.
CHECK POINT 1-1
1. How do travel agencies earn money on the airline tickets they sell?
2. How can travel agencies earn higher amounts on the airline tickets they sell?
3. List four ARC requirements for opening a travel agency.
4. A new agency has to have one full-time person who serves as either the owner, partner, or manager.
This person is called a -- or a --.
STRUCTURE OF THE AIRLINE INDUSTRY
civil aviation All airline flights and services offered to the traveling public.
The United States has the largest civil aviation system in the world. Civil aviation refers to all airline flights and services offered to the traveling public. Civil aviation can be divided into two general categories: scheduled airlines and supplemental airlines or charters.
scheduled airline A carrier that offers regular schedules over prescribed routes and published timetables.
A scheduled airline offers regular schedules over prescribed routes and published timetables. The majority of passenger flights are on scheduled airlines. The scheduled airlines fall into three major categories: major carriers, regional carriers, and commuter carriers.
major airline Scheduled airline that concentrates on long-distance or long-haul routes and serves major cities within the United States in addition to international destinations. Also called trunk airline.
Major airlines. Major airlines, or trunk airlines, concentrate on long-distance or long-haul routes. They serve major cities within the United States in addition to international destinations. Examples of major or trunk airlines are American Airlines, United Airlines, Delta Air Lines, Northwest Airlines, Trans World Airlines, and Continental Airlines. The major airlines account for more than 95 percent of all airline passenger traffic in the United States.
trunk airline Scheduled airline that concentrates on long-distance or long-haul routes and serves major cities within the United States in addition to international destinations. Also called major airline.
Regional airlines. Regional airlines provide air service between smaller cities and also connect these small communities with major airports. They are called regionals because they operate between points within a specific area of the country. Examples of regional airlines are Midway Airlines, which serves the Northeast and Florida, and Aloha Airlines, which serves primarily throughout the Hawaiian Islands.
regional airline Airline that provides air service between smaller cities and also connects these small communities with major airports; operates between points within a specific area of the country.
Commuter airlines. Commuter airlines can be considered smaller versions of regional airlines. Commuters typically fly routes of 400 miles or less with aircraft that seat less than twenty-four passengers. Commuters operate shuttle services between smaller airports that cannot support the major airlines and equipment. Commuters also link passengers between the smaller airports to larger airports in order to connect with a major or larger regional airline.
commuter airline Small version of regional airlines that typically flies routes of 400 miles or less between smaller airports that cannot support the major airlines and equipment.
Supplemental airlines tend to fly routes and schedules that are not flown by the scheduled airlines. They are considered to provide additional or supplemental service to the major airlines. Supplemental airlines are also called charters. The formal definition of charter is to hire the exclusive use of any type of vehicle--aircraft, cruise vessel, motor coach, or train. Charter airline flights do not travel on any set schedule or have predetermined fare structures. Charter flights also operate under different rules than scheduled flights.
supplemental airline Airline that tends to fly routes and schedules that are not flown by the scheduled airlines (see charter).
A charter can be either private or public. A private charter is for the exclusive use of an individual or a particular group of people--a fraternal organization, a school group, or a company, for example. Affinity charter is another name for a private charter that is used by a certain group of people--such as members of an association or club--who are traveling together.
charter To hire the exclusive use off any type of vehicle such as aircraft, cruise vessel, motor coach, or train; charter airlines do not travel on any set schedule or have predetermined fare structures (see supplemental airline).
Seats on a public charter are often promoted and sold through travel agencies. The main attraction of public charters is the price; they are less expensive than scheduled transportation in most cases. However, the downside is the number of restrictions and a certain amount of risk that goes along with charter travel. Some of these risks include the following:
* In the case of delay or cancellation, the traveler cannot transfer the charter ticket to another carrier. The traveler has little or no control to make other arrangements and must depend on the charter company to resolve the problem.
* Charter tickets, once purchased, usually cannot be changed. The ticket is valid for one specific departure only. Also, if the passenger cancels a charter booking, the ticket is nonrefundable after a certain date.
There are hundreds of different airlines worldwide. In printed flight schedules and in the airline computer reservation systems, each airline is identified by a two-letter code. These airline codes also appear on passenger tickets to identify the carrier that is providing transportation.
In addition to letter codes, each airline is also identified with a three-digit or numeric code. The numeric airline codes are used generally for ticket accounting purposes.
A complete list of the airlines appears in Appendix B of this text. Figure 1-2 is a list of the major airline carriers serving North America with their two-letter and three-digit codes. Memorize the two-letter codes for all of these carriers (don't bother memorizing the number codes because they are used strictly for accounting purposes).
CHECK POINT 1-2
1. Major airlines concentrate on long-distance routes to major cities. What is another term for major airlines? --
2. The type of airline that typically flies short routes of 400 miles or less and operates small aircraft is called a -- airline.
3. The type of airline that concentrates its routes in a specific area is called a -- airline.
Decode the following by writing the full name of the airline.
4. AQ --
5. CP --
6. HP --
7. JI --
8. WN --
9. AC --
10. YX --
11. JM --
12. F9 --
13. FL --
14. PA --
Encode the following by writing the two-letter code.
15. US Airways --
16. Delta Air Lines --
17. Mexicana --
18. Bahamasair --
19. American Airlines --
20. Northwest Airlines --
21. United Airlines --
22. Trans World Airlines --
23. Continental Airlines --
24. Aeromexico --
25. Alaska Airlines --
ALL ABOUT AIRCRAFT
turbojet A major category of jet aircraft that is operated by the major carriers.
Passenger aircraft vary greatly in terms of length, wingspan, configuration of engines, velocity, and range. We call these technical details aircraft performance statistics. It isn't necessary to memorize the wingspan or velocity of every type of aircraft. What you do need to know are the general categories of aircraft and those factors with which your customers are concerned.
turboprop A major category of aircraft that uses a jet engine to turn the propeller and is operated by many small regional and commuter carriers. Also called propjet.
Let's start with the simplest truth in commercial passenger service: most aircraft use jet engines for propulsion. Jet aircraft can be divided into two major categories: turbojets (including the turbofans, an improved version of the turbojet), which are operated by the major carriers, and turboprops, or propjets. Turboprops use a jet engine to turn the propeller and are operated by many of the small regional or commuter airlines.
narrow-body Any type of aircraft that has one walking aisle down the middle.
All planes are divided into two broad categories: narrow-body and wide-body aircraft. What's the difference? It's quite simple. Narrow-body aircraft have one walking aisle down the center with two or three seats on each side. Wide-body aircraft have two walking aisles and thus a middle section of seats in addition to the two sets of seats on each side. The largest wide-body aircraft used for commercial purposes is the Boeing 747. The 747 is easy to spot because it has the characteristic "hump" or raised overhead (ceiling) that extends over the front part of the aircraft. The 747, also called the jumbo jet, is the only commercial jet that offers a second deck or floor of passenger seating.
wide-body Any type of aircraft that has two walking aisles and thus a middle section of seats in addition to the two sets of seats on each side down the length of the a/ircraft.
The major manufacturers of commercial aircraft are Boeing, McDonnell Douglas, Lockheed, and a European consortium called Airbus Industrie. Other manufacturers such as Saab and Beechcraft build smaller aircraft for the regional and commuter airlines.
Aircraft types are identified with three-character codes in printed airline timetables and the computer systems. Agents should be able to identify the codes that differentiate narrow- and wide-body aircraft.
Aircraft Remodeling and Versions
Aircraft designs change and evolve into newer and improved models over time, just like the family car! But unlike cars, aircraft don't change every year. Every few years or so the manufacturer improves on the previous model by doing any number of things: building it larger to carry more passengers, building it lighter for better fuel efficiency, or redesigning the wings for a smoother ride.
A particular aircraft can have any number of versions. In fact, the largest commercial jet, the Boeing 747 jumbo, has more than six different versions and more are on the way.
When a new version of an aircraft is rolled out, it is given a slightly different equipment code. Usually the first character remains the same as the standard version; that helps you to identify to which "family" of aircraft it belongs.
A common revision is to lengthen or build the aircraft larger to increase passenger capacity. We call this a stretch version of an aircraft. To identify stretch versions, the letter S replaces the last letter in the aircraft code. For example, 72S and 73S are the codes for the stretch versions of the Boeing 727 and 737, respectively.
Following are examples of some later versions and their codes of the Boeing 737 narrow-body aircraft:
737 Standard or original model
73S Stretch version of the 737
73M Mixed configuration (cargo and passenger)
733 Later stretch version of the 737
734 Largest version (highest passenger capacity)
735 Latest version built lighter for fuel efficiency and longer range
configuration The seating arrangement on an airplane.
Figure 1-3 shows a sampling of the major wide-body, narrow-body, and small turbojet aircraft (seventy-five passengers or less) that are operated by the major carriers. It also shows the passenger capacity for each, which varies widely between carriers, different models, and configurations. As a travel professional, you should be able to distinguish wide-body and narrow-body aircraft codes.
class of service A separate compartment on an aircraft that determines the location of passenger seating, level of in-flight service, and price; three standard classes of service are first, business, and coach.
Classes of Service
The seating arrangement on an airplane is called its configuration. The most common configuration shows a plane divided into two or three major compartments or seat sections. We can also call each compartment a class of service because where you sit on the airplane will determine the price your pay for your ticket and the level of service you receive during the flight and during airport check-in.
The three major classes of service are first, business or executive, and coach. Many of the major carriers offer all three on their long-distance and transcontinental routes. On shorter routes the carriers usually offer two classes of service-first and coach. Many of the smaller regionals or commuters offer all-coach seating. Walls separate compartments on an aircraft. These walls or partitions on airplanes are called bulkheads.
bulkhead Wall or partition on an airplane.
First Class. Seating in first class is located in the front of the aircraft directly behind the cockpit. In some cases, first-class seating may be located on the upper-deck level on the 747 jumbo jets. This is the most expensive seating accommodation on board the aircraft.
first class The most expensive seating accommodation on board an aircraft located directly behind the cockpit. pitch The front-to-rear measurement of space between airplane seats.
Compared to the other compartments, first-class seats are the widest and the most comfortable with heavier padding. There is also more legroom in first class because there are fewer seats. Each row of seats is set farther away from the one located immediately in front and in back. The front-to-rear measurement of space between seats is called pitch. Seat pitch in first class is the widest on an airplane. On most narrow-bodies, the seat pitch averages 40 inches; this increases up to 60 inches on wide-body aircraft. On many long-range flights, the first-class seats turn into sleeper seats.
On longer flights with entertainment (movies and video games), many airlines have built in an individual video unit so that the first-class passenger can watch in-flight entertainment at any time. Also, there is more personalized service because there are more flight attendants per passenger. In-flight meal service is more elaborate with a greater variety of choices. Meals are served on china with cloth napkins in most cases. First-class passengers are served free alcoholic beverages and do not pay for headsets. In most major airports, there are also separate and speedier check-in counters for passengers holding first-class tickets. First-class passengers can also use special airline lounge facilities at selected airports to wait and relax before boarding the aircraft.
business class Seats on an aircraft somewhere between first class and coach class in terms of comfort and level of service. Also called executive class.
Business or executive class. Business class or executive class is somewhere between first class and coach class in terms of comfort and level of service. Business class was introduced in the 1970s for those passengers who wanted upgraded service and more comfort than they would receive in coach but without paying the high cost of a first-class ticket. It was dubbed business class because it was aimed toward the frequent traveler or business traveler.
This compartment is not available on all flights. Business seating is available on most long-distance domestic and international flights.
executive class Seats on an aircraft somewhere between first class and coach class in terms of comfort and level of service. Also called business class.
The business compartment is located directly behind first class. Alcoholic beverages are usually free of charge, and the seats are wider with a quieter atmosphere than in the coach compartment. There is also a choice of meals (although not as many as in first class), and the meals are served on fine china.
On most planes, business-class seats are crafted with leather and sheepskin, tray tables that swing outward (giving the passenger more freedom of movement), and leg rests that adjust by pushing a button at the seat.
Similar to first class, there are also separate check-in counters and lounge facilities for business-class passengers at most airports.
coach class The location of the greatest number of seats on an aircraft. Most passengers who are paying discounted ticket prices are sitting in coach class.
Coach/economy class. The greatest number of seats on an aircraft are located in coach class. Most passengers who are paying discounted ticket prices are sitting in coach class. Seats are set closer together and are narrower than those in first- and business-class cabins. The average seat pitch in coach class is between 31 and 34 inches. Beverages and meals are served at no extra charge, although liquor, beer, and wine usually must be purchased.
On shorter flights, passengers in coach class may be served a lighter snack, whereas passengers in first or business class may be served a full meal. Coach seating on international flights is called economy class.
economy class The term for coach seating on international flights.
Class of Service Codes
Each class of service has a designated one-letter code. These class of service codes are used in airline schedules to denote the types of seating on board a specific flight. They are also used to identify the type or level of airfare on the passenger's airline ticket. There are two general categories of class of service codes: primary and controlled-inventory.
Primary. Following are the codes for the three primary classes of service:
F First class
C Business/executive class
Y Coach/economy class
The primary codes identify in which compartment the passenger is sitting. Primary codes are also used on an airline ticket to identify the type of fare. When a primary code stands by itself (with no additional letters or numbers attached to it), it identifies an unrestricted fare. Unrestricted fares are those that have no restrictions of travel: the passenger can travel at any time, can use the ticket for up to one year, and can change or cancel the ticket at any time for a full refund. You will study more about airfares and travel restrictions later in the text.
Controlled-inventory. There are literally thousands of different airfares available to sell. For example, between Chicago and Miami there are approximately eighty-five different prices from which to choose! How do we keep it all straight? Well, let's first divide all airfares into two general categories: unrestricted and restricted. You have just learned that unrestricted fares have no restrictions of travel. These unrestricted fares are priced higher compared to many other fares.
Restricted fares are those that have restrictions of travel: passengers must travel at certain times or days of the week, stay beyond Saturday before returning home, and pay a fee for any changes, and they may not get any refund if the ticket is canceled.
controlled-inventory Refers to a certain number of seats on a flight that can be sold at given discount price.
Another restriction is inventory control. Simply stated, inventory control refers to a certain number of seats on a flight that can be sold at a given discount price. We can say that most discounted fares are sold on a controlled-inventory basis. The airline, and not the travel agent, controls the number of seats. Because most discounted fares are based on coach class, many seats in this compartment are sold on a controlled-inventory basis.
For example, let's take a fictional flight on United 101 from Denver to New York. There are 15 seats in first class, 30 seats in business class, and 200 seats in coach class. There are no discounts in first class, so each of the 15 passengers in first class is paying the normal first-class fare of $800. There are also no discounts available in business class, so each of the 30 passengers is paying the normal business-class fare of $600.
United is offering three types of discount fares: the "Super-Saver" at $300, the "Super-Super Saver" at $200, and the "Mega-Saver" at $100. Based on historical data and a lot of other statistics, the airline decides to set aside a total of 125 coach seats for discounted fares. They decide to break it down this way: sell 60 coach seats at $300, 45 seats at $200, and 20 seats at $100. The remaining coach seats, which number 75, are sold at the normal coach fare of $450. We call this yield management, which means deciding how many seats to sell at what price and under what conditions (Figure 1-4).
yield management An airline's policy that determines how many seats to sell at what price and under what conditions.
Frequently the airlines change the number of seats allocated to discounted inventory. The airlines do this to generate as much revenue as possible from each flight they operate. If seats on a particular flight are not being sold, the airline may move seats from normal coach class into controlled discounted inventories. The opposite is also true. If a flight is selling very fast (which normally happens during peak holidays or vacation periods), the airline moves seats away from the discounted inventories into normal coach class. So if you call an airline on Tuesday, the lowest fare quoted may be $300. If you call one week later, the price might have dropped down to $100!
Remember that controlled-inventory does not refer to specific seats on the aircraft; it means the maximum number of seats anywhere in coach class that can be sold at a discounted price. That is why you may have a passenger who paid $450 for a ticket sitting next to someone who paid only $200 for the same flight.
[FIGURE 1-4 OMITTED]
When you book a controlled-inventory discount fare, you must book with a special code (not the codes used for normal F, C, or Y seating). The identification codes used when booking discounted fares are called controlled-inventory discount codes.
Following are examples of codes used to identify controlled-inventory discount fares:
A First-class discounted
D Business-class discounted
B Coach-class discounted
H Coach-class discounted
Q Coach-class discounted
K Coach-class discounted
L Coach-class discounted
V Coach-class discounted
seat map A display that shows the configuration of an aircraft, including location of passenger seats, galley, and restrooms.
Travel agents can select airplane seats for their clients by looking at a seat map. Seat maps show the configuration of an aircraft. The configuration of a plane is the layout of seat and row identifications and the locations of the plane's galleys (kitchens), closets, and lavatories. Seat maps are printed in various industry resource books and are displayed in the airline reservation computer systems.
When selecting seats, ticket and travel agents use seat maps to identify seat locations and availability. When reading a seat map, each row is assigned a number (starting with the lowest row numbers from the front of the aircraft); each seat is assigned a letter (starting with A on the left side as you face toward the front of the aircraft).
Most passengers have certain preferences about where they want to sit. A common seating preference is an aisle or window seat. Depending on the type of aircraft, seats may be installed in pairs or three across. Seating is always more comfortable in the pair arrangement; if all three seats across are occupied, the middle passenger is often squeezed between two other people, making for an uncomfortable ride. Airlines generally assign the middle seats only after all the aisle and window seats have been taken, unless two seats together are requested.
Some of the wide-body planes may have up to five seats across in the middle seating section. This works out fine if the middle seat is not occupied, thus offering seating for two passengers without a middle passenger.
Seats in first class and business class are comfortable no matter where the passenger sits. However, there are some tips of the trade when assigning travelers to seats in the coach compartment:
* An aircraft will have two or more specially designated exit rows. Seats in exit rows have extra legroom because the pitch is adjusted to allow ease of passenger traffic in case of emergency. Usually seats in exit rows cannot be confirmed in advance and are available on a first-come, first-served basis at check-in. Only adult passengers who are in good health and are physically capable of opening the exit door of the aircraft during an emergency are allowed to sit in an exit row.
* Seats located directly in front of the exit rows may not recline fully or at all. Similarly, coach seats located directly in front of a bulkhead may not recline fully.
* Seats facing bulkheads have more legroom. However, these seats are usually reserved for adults traveling with infants or passengers with physical disabilities who require wheelchair assistance.
* Seats located above the wings provide the smoothest ride but have obstructed views.
* Aisle seats are desirable because they offer more flexibility to stretch and to access restrooms. Also many business travelers prefer aisle seats because they afford them more room to work and a faster exit off the plane upon arrival.
Figure 1-5 includes samples of seat maps of three types of aircraft: a wide-body, a narrow-body, and a small turboprop used by regional and commuter airlines. These seat maps are from a printed resource called the OAG Desktop Guide-North America, a resource for flight schedules and related information.
[FIGURE 1-5 OMITTED]
seat assignment A specific seat that is reserved for an airline passenger, consisting of a row number and a seat letter.
Seat assignments. When a specific seat is reserved for a passenger, it is called a seat assignment. Seat assignments will have a row number and seat letter: 3A is the third row back from the front, with seat A being a window seat on the left side of the aircraft facing forward. Advance seat selection is an important part of travel-agency customer service.
Each airline determines how far in advance seats may be prereserved through an agency's computer reservations system. Some airlines allow seat assignments to be done as soon as the reservation is made; others have a specific time limit.
Following are examples of advance seat assignment policies (subject to change):
* American Airlines As soon as reservation is made * Continental As soon as reservation is made * United As soon as reservation is made * US Airways 130 days * Delta 120 days * Northwest 90 days * TWA 60 days * America West 30 days
Other restrictions on making seat assignments may also apply under certain circumstances. Examples include the following:
* Sometimes passengers who purchase discounted tickets must wait for airport check-in to have their seats assigned.
* Special seats such as in an exit row are not assigned in advance; they can be assigned only at the airport upon check-in.
To board a flight, passengers must have a boarding pass that shows their seat assignment. Many airlines will not issue boarding passes to their passengers before the date of departure because of enhanced security measures at airports. In most cases, passengers are issued boarding passes at the airport when checking in for the flight.
In addition to having a valid airline ticket, all passengers must show a form of photo identification (a driver's license with the holder's photo, for example) when checking in for a flight. The airline will deny boarding to any ticketed passenger who does not have proper identification.
Seat maps displayed on the CRS look a lot different from those shown in printed resources. The agent can display a seat map for practically any specific flight and identify those seats that are available to be assigned.
Refer to Figure 1-6, which is an example of a seat map for Trans World Airlines as it appears on the computer screen. This seat map is for a narrow-body MD-80 aircraft on a flight from Chicago O'Hare to St. Louis. It is a nonsmoking flight.
Rows 1 through 3 are first class with seats A and C on one side and D and F on the other side. Coach seats start with row 5 (there is no row 4). Seats are A and C on the left side of the aircraft; seats are D, E, and F on the right side of the aircraft. Pay particular attention to the codes that show the status of each seat. In our example, any seat identified by letter is available to sell. Any seat identified with a " " " symbol is sold or occupied. If a seat is available, the agent can make a simple entry in the computer to reserve it.
[FIGURE 1-6 OMITTED]
CHECK POINT 1-3
Circle the best answer.
1. Which pair of aircraft codes represents the same general category of aircraft (wide-body or narrow-body)?
a. L10 and 757
b. M80 and 767
c. 777 and L15
d. M11and 727
2. Of the following codes, which one represents the largest commercial jet used for passenger service?
3. What is the code for business or executive class of service?
4. The airline practice of establishing a maximum number of seats on a flight to be sold at a discounted price is called
a. seat management.
b. discount bargaining.
c. fare discount sale.
5. On a standard jet, the assignment code for a window seat located in the first row in coach class is
6. A blueprint showing the interior layout of a plane is called a
a. seat map.
b. floor guide.
c. floor diagram.
d. deck plan.
7. What location on a plane has the most legroom?
a. Seats in front of an exit row
b. Seats opposite the galley
c. Seats in an exit row
d. Any window seat
8. The term pitch refers to the
a. comfort and space in each seat.
b. number of seats in each row.
c. front-to-rear spacing of seat rows.
d. number of rows in a plane.
9. The term configuration refers to the
a. speed of the aircraft.
b. seating arrangement on a plane.
c. types of in-flight services.
d. distance the plane can fly.
10. Passengers in first class can expect which of the following?
a. Express check-in at most airports
b. Free alcoholic beverages
c. More legroom
d. All of the above
BUILDING PASSENGER LOYALTY
There are many ways that airlines compete for passengers. They do it by building passenger loyalty. Airlines are especially interested in winning back those passengers who travel often. Who are they? Business travelers. According to recent travel surveys, business-only and a combination of business and leisure trips average close to $62 billion of travel revenue each year. This accounts for about half of the total revenue from airline ticket sales.
Two popular methods that major airlines use to win back all their passengers, especially business travelers, include frequent-flier programs and airline club membership.
American Airlines was one of the great innovators during the days after deregulation. It was American that introduced or improved upon such things as super saver fares, agency computer reservations systems, yield management, and airline hub systems. These are some of the things that have truly revolutionized the airline passenger industry in recent years.
frequent-flier An airline's marketing program designed to build passenger loyalty and that allows the traveler to accumulate flown mileage on a particular airline; the mileage can then be traded in for rewards such as class upgrades or free tickets for future trips.
But it was in 1981 that American conceived of a way to make airline travelers brand loyal to American; that was the year that the frequent-flier concept was born.
A frequent-flier program allows the traveler to accumulate flown mileage on a particular airline, which can then be traded in for rewards such as class upgrades or free tickets for future trips. This idea quickly caught on and was adopted by American's competitors.
Today, most domestic and international carriers offer frequent-flier programs. Many other suppliers are jumping on the concept to gain customer loyalty. For example, hotel chains and car rental firms offer frequent-lodger and frequent-renter programs, respectively. Many airlines tie in their frequent-flier programs with similar programs offered by other suppliers. For example, if travelers stay at a designated hotel or rent a car from a designated company, they are credited with air mileage. This enables the traveler more ways to accumulate points, and more diversity of awards can be offered.
Anyone can join one or more frequent-flier programs, and membership is free. Application forms are available at travel agencies that order them, airport ticket counters, and city ticket offices. Some airlines enable travel agents to enroll their clients by completing an application on the agency's computer reservations system.
Travel agents track the earned points or mileage for their customers, sign travelers up, and enter passengers' frequent-flier identification numbers in their air reservation record. Travel agents do not get involved in claiming awards for their travelers.
The airlines have limited inventories that are used for frequent-flier rewards. For example, if the traveler redeems earned mileage or points for a free ticket in first class, there are only a certain number of seats on specific flights that can be booked for the trip. Often, the availability of these frequent-flier seats does not appear in regular schedules or availability on the agent's computer screen when booking flights. This means that travelers must claim their rewards directly with the airline through a special reservation number or department. Each airline's frequent-flier program has a different name.
Figure 1-7 is a list of frequent-flier programs offered by some of the major airlines.
airline club A club or private lounge area for members that is owned and operated by an airline in selected airports worldwide.
Airports can be very hectic, frustrating, and noisy places at times. Who hasn't navigated through crowds, around mountains of luggage, and waited in lines that appear endless? This can be frustrating for any traveler, especially the business traveler who has to travel all the time. The way to get away from it all is to join an airline club.
Airline clubs are owned and operated by many major airlines and located in selected airports worldwide. These airline clubs or private lounge areas provide club members with privacy and quiet while they wait for their flights. Airline clubs are not easily noticeable because they are hidden away from busy passenger traffic corridors behind heavy walnut doors with inconspicuous signs.
When you enter a airport club, it is the entering a different world from the normal hustle and bustle of an airport. They are spacious, quiet, and carpeted with padded easy chairs and comfortable sofas. Typical amenities at these clubs include beverage and snack services, television, work tables, and periodicals. In addition, many the clubs provide flight check-in, seat assignments, and future travel reservations.
The clubs also provide a wide range of services for their best customers, the business traveler. Typical business services include fax machines, computers, copiers, conference rooms, notary and message services, and overnight express pickup.
To become a member of an airline club, you must pay a fee. The annual fee varies but ranges from $175 to $400, which entitles the passenger to use any club lounges offered by the airline. There are also special prices for spouses or other family members.
Each airline's airport club facility has a different name. Figure 1-8 is a list of airline clubs operated by some of the major domestic carriers.
CODE SHARING AND AIRLINE ALLIANCES
Passenger Tom Smith is holding an airline ticket that reads Delta Air Lines flight 511 from Chicago to Atlanta, continuing to Augusta, Georgia, on Delta Air Lines flight 7041. Tom expected a Delta jet all the way because that's what his ticket reads. Instead, he finds himself sitting in a small, twelve-passenger plane called Atlantic Southeast Airlines from Atlanta to Augusta. What went wrong? Sometimes things are not what they seem. The airline code that you see in flight schedules or airline tickets may not be the carrier that actually operates that route.
Since deregulation, the distinction between major, regional, and commuter airlines has become somewhat blurred. For example, many regional or small commuter airlines either have merged with the major carriers or have code-share agreements with them.
code sharing A cooperative agreement between two or more airlines to share the sale of seats on one airline's aircraft (called dual-designated carriers).
Code sharing (dual-designated carriers) is a cooperative agreement between two or more airlines to share the sale of seats on one airline's aircraft. It is also the practice of one carrier using the code of another carrier for a specific flight segment or route.
Code-sharing agreements can be established between two major airlines or between a major and a smaller regional or commuter carrier as seen in our case history on passenger Tom Smith.
Code sharing also occurs between two major carriers to fill in the other's weaker or nonexistent route structure. This happens frequently over international routes. For example, Delta Air Lines and Air France have a code-share agreement. It would work this way: A passenger is flying from Tampa to Paris by changing planes in New York. The passenger's ticket reads Delta Air Lines from Tampa to New York, connecting to a different Delta flight from New York to Paris, France. However, because Delta and Air France have a code-share agreement, the passenger will actually board an Air France plane from New York for the transatlantic flight to Paris.
Other international code-share agreements that exist at the time of publication are United Airlines and Lufthansa Airlines (to cities in Germany) and Continental and Virgin Atlantic (to cities in the British Isles).
Code sharing is beneficial to both the airlines and passengers. Passengers benefit because they can apply the total mileage flown on both carriers toward either airline's frequent-flier program. Also, airport club membership is usually transferable between both airlines. Airlines benefit because they can carry passengers and earn additional revenue over routes on which they usually do not operate frequently or at all.
The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) requires airlines to inform their passengers about code-sharing arrangements that would place passengers on a different airline from the one from which they are buying the ticket. This requirement also extends to travel agencies when they issue airline tickets to their clients. Passengers must be told orally before the booking and subsequently in writing.
AIRLINE PASSENGER SERVICES
Air travel can sometimes be confusing and frustrating for clients. Because you represent the airlines as a travel professional, you need to understand how important policies and procedures affect your clients. The DOT has issued a number of consumer protection regulations that apply to all passengers on domestic airlines.
The number and size of bags that passengers can check in and carry on board the aircraft free of charge is called baggage allowance. Baggage allowance policies vary from airline to airline, but there are general guidelines.
There are two methods of measuring baggage allowance: the piece and weight methods.
The piece method generally applies for travel within North America (points between the United States, Canada, Mexico, West Indies). Most airlines restrict the number of pieces of luggage and the size of each piece of luggage. Usually a passenger is allowed to check in up to two pieces of standard luggage and carry on one or two small bags. All carry-on baggage must fit either under the passenger's seat or in the enclosed overhead compartment.
Each piece of luggage to be checked in is required to weigh less than 70 pounds, and the largest piece cannot exceed 80 inches in linear measurement. Baggage size is determined by the sum of the outside linear dimensions (length + width + height).
The weight method is used on most international flights over the ocean. The normal free baggage allowances are 66 pounds for first class and 44 pounds for coach or economy class; however, there are also many exceptions, and the travel agent should check for these with the individual airline carriers.
Airlines have the right to refuse baggage for any of the following reasons:
* Baggage is not marked with the passenger's name outside.
* The passenger refuses to allow the airline to examine baggage.
* Airline deems baggage is unsuitable.
* Baggage is to be transported on a flight other than the one on which the passenger is traveling.
If the passenger exceeds the free baggage allowance, an excess baggage fee is charged. Excess baggage charges vary and are usually dependent on the size or weight of the baggage. The average excess baggage charge is $50 per bag. Generally, the passenger is allowed to check in such nonstandard baggage items as bicycles, golf clubs, skis, and surfboards for the same price.
Unaccompanied children under the age of five are not accepted under any circumstances. For children who are five through eleven years of age, the following policies generally apply for all airlines:
Age of Child Unaccompanied General Policy Under 5 years of age Will not be accepted under any circumstances Ages 5, 6, and 7 May be accepted on a flight that involves no change of plane Ages 8 through 11 May be accepted on all flights, with or without a change of plane
In all cases, an adult must accompany the child until the child has boarded the plane. Each airline has certain identification standards, so each should be checked on a case-by-case basis. Upon arrival, the child must be met by an adult, who is required to show photo identification (usually a driver's license). The adult must often sign a form before the child is released.
When making airline reservations for unaccompanied children, you need to provide the following information to the reservation agent:
* Name and age of the child
* Name, address, and telephone number of the adult who is responsible for bringing the child to the airport
* Name, address, and telephone number of the adult who is responsible for meeting the child at the destination airport
Children who are making connections on a different carrier may be assisted by the airline. Unaccompanied children cannot be booked on the last flight of the day.
Escorting a child between connecting flights, even if on the same airline, was once a free service. Now many airlines are charging a fee that ranges between $20 and $30.
Children under the age of two are considered lap children because they are small enough to sit on the adult's lap. On domestic flights, lap children travel for free but are not assigned a seat. Airlines will try to provide empty seats next to parents when they are available. It is important to inform the airline that an adult is traveling with an infant even though the infant does not need an airline ticket.
For international flights, lap children require airline tickets. These tickets cost about 10 percent of the applicable adult fare.
Special In-Flight Services
In addition to standard in-flight services that include free meals (usually served on flights of more than two hours), snacks on short flights, and headsets for music and movies on long-range routes, the domestic airline carriers offer special services that travel agents often have to arrange for their clients.
Special meals. Special meals such as those for children and diabetics and seafood, kosher, vegetarian, low-fat, low-calorie, low-sodium, and Hindu meals are offered on many airlines. Special meals must be requested at least twenty-four hours before flight departure. Travel agents can request special meals and other services for their clients through the computer reservations system or over the telephone directly with the airline.
Assistance for the disabled. The 1986 Air Carrier Access Act and the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act require airlines to provide assistance to all passengers with disabilities so that they have the same access to flight services as all other travelers. This means helping passengers who need such assistance to board or exit the aircraft.
The travel agent can reserve this service in advance directly with the airlines. Travelers can request in advance a wheelchair to meet their flight upon arrival at a connecting airport or at their final destination. For departure flights, travelers request wheelchair assistance when they check in at the ticket counter or from a skycap. If necessary, the passenger is assisted directly on to the plane. When booking flights in the computer reservations system, travel agents can send a message electronically informing the airline that wheelchair assistance is required.
Other medical assistance such as oxygen can be provided travelers when required. Oxygen is always arranged in advance with the airline. Standard procedure is for travel agents to contact special service coordinators at the airline, providing the flight number, date of travel, and passenger's name. There is a charge for oxygen of approximately $50 per tank or unit.
Dogs that assist passengers who are sight- or hearing-impaired are allowed in the cabin free of charge. Arrangements must be made in advance with the airline.
AIRLINE POLICIES AND PASSENGERS' RIGHTS
All passengers--and their travel agents--should know their rights in case of flight delays, cancellations, and other circumstances experienced from time to time. They should also be aware of what the airlines are and are not required to do in these types of situations.
overbooking A common practice among airlines to sell more tickets than there are available seats to avoid revenue lost from last-minute cancellations and no-shows at the airport.
Overbooking is the practice of selling more tickets than there are available seats on an airplane. This is a common practice among airlines. Overbooking compensates the airline for last-minute cancellations and no-shows, people who hold a reservation but do not take the flight. When passengers book seats and do not show up for the flight nor cancel the flight, the airline is forced to fly with empty seats; it is usually too late for the airline to resell these seats. As a result, the airlines lose money.
oversold When there are more booked passengers than seats available on an aircraft due to overbooking.
Many times overbooking works just fine. Usually, the number of no-shows is equal to or more than the number of overbooked passengers. When this happens there is no problem; everyone gets a seat. Unfortunately, sometimes the opposite occurs: the number of no-shows is less than the number of overbooked passengers. In this case, there are too many passengers and not enough seats, resulting in the flight being oversold.
bumped A passenger who loses his or her seat due to a flight being oversold by the airline.
Voluntary bumping. When a flight is oversold, there are passengers who are left behind or bumped as a result. The rules require airlines to compensate passengers who are bumped from a flight because of overbooking.
Airlines must ask for volunteers to give up their seats before bumping any passengers. If passengers volunteer, they are entitled to compensation. The DOT has not determined how much an airline must pay a bumped passenger, and airlines do negotiate with their passengers for mutually acceptable terms.
In return, they receive passage on the next available flight and either a free ticket in the future or a voucher for varying amounts of money to be applied against the cost of a future ticket. This usually works fine.
Involuntary bumping. However, sometimes the offer of free or reduced air travel doesn't produce enough volunteers to make up for the overbooking. Most airlines will choose the passengers to be bumped involuntarily on a "last-at-the-gate, first-bumped" basis. Having boarding passes in advance does not guarantee that a passenger will not be bumped from the flight. If passengers are bumped involuntarily and the airline books them on a flight that is scheduled to arrive generally within one hour of the original arrival time, the passengers receive no compensation. If the bumped passengers cannot be delivered to their destination within the required time frame, they are entitled to denied-boarding compensation.
denied-boarding compensation Compensation paid by the airlines for those passengers who lose their seats on an involuntary basis and who cannot be delivered to their destination within the required time frame.
The amount of compensation usually depends upon the time the airline takes to transport the passenger. For example, the passenger may be paid up to $400 if the airline delivers him within one to two hours of the original arrival time; the compensation doubles to $800 if the airline delivers him more than two hours after the original arrival time.
The good news is that involuntary bumping does not occur often. According to recent studies, 1 out of 10,000 passengers is likely to be bumped.
Consider This ... When these situations occur on flights that are not deliberately overbooked, an airline need not pay passengers any compensation. * Passenger is bumped due to arrival at the gate beyond airline's check-in deadline (check-in for most domestic flights is no later than forty-five minutes to one hour before departure). * The flight is canceled for any reason. * The airline substitutes a smaller aircraft for operational or safety reasons. * The flight involves an aircraft with sixty or fewer seats.
Airlines do not guarantee their schedules and they reserve the right to postpone or cancel any flight without notice. Contrary to what many people think, airlines are not required to compensate a person whose flight has been canceled for any number of reasons, including availability of flight crews or for weather-related reasons.
The policy on how to handle booked passengers when a flight is canceled is left up to each airline. Usually how the airline handles a cancellation depends on the reason. Passengers who are booked on a flight that is canceled should inquire about the airline's policy, especially if the cancellation is due to bad weather.
Most airlines will book passengers on the next available flight to their destination. Again, the airlines are not obligated to book the passenger on the next flight on its system, or on another carrier's flight that departs sooner.
A good suggestion is to ask the airline for money or vouchers for expenses such as hotel, meals, and ground transportation. If refused, passengers should keep all receipts and contact the airline consumer affairs office upon return. Depending on the circumstances, there may be a chance that the passenger will be reimbursed in that case.
An airline ticket is like cash. If the ticket is lost, the passenger is required to purchase another ticket at his or her expense. To report the ticket loss, the passenger completes a lost ticket application, which is issued by the airline. There is usually an administrative handling fee charged by the airline to research and process the refund. Research time and subsequent refund may take four to six months to complete.
Lost, Damaged, or Delayed Baggage
If the passenger's bags are lost, damaged, or delayed on a domestic flight, the liability limit is $2,500 per passenger on all flights on large aircraft (more than sixty seats). This rule also extends to flights on smaller or commuter aircraft that are written on the same ticket and connect with flights on a large aircraft. This rule does not apply to commuter flights alone.
This amount is the most the airline will pay to settle a claim for all baggage, no matter how great the loss. Airlines will pay the depreciated value only, not purchase or replacement costs. Also, airlines usually pay far less than the $2,500, and the passenger must prove the loss.
Air Traveler's Bill of Rights
The American Society of Travel Agents (ASTA) is the association of travel professionals to whom the traveling public looks for its travel information and advice. According to ASTA, it has issued these principles of air travelers' rights in the hope that the airline industry "adopt them in practice as well as in name and thereby restore service and dependability to the traveling public air space."
ASTA's Air Traveler's Bill of Rights asserts that travelers deserve the following:
* Truth in advertised prices, schedules, and seat availability
* Equal access to unbiased, comparative travel information and all fare and service options
* Comfortable seats, reasonable spaces for carry-on luggage, healthful meals, and clean sanitary facilities, regardless of class of service
* Timely and courteous assistance in making connections
* The right to use all, part, or none of the segments on any ticket lawfully purchased
* Timely, complete, and truthful information and courteous assistance regarding delays, cancellations, and equipment changes
* Timely and courteous assistance for the disabled and unaccompanied children
* Appropriate in-flight medical emergency assistance
* Access to the courts and state consumer laws to resolve disputes with airlines
CHECK POINT 1-4
Circle the best answer.
1. Which of the following refers to special award programs offered by airlines that allow travelers to earn points based on air mileage and redeem them for either a free ticket or upgrade for future travel?
a. Bonus pack
b. Airline club
c. Discount club
2. Delta Air Lines's Crown Room and Air Canada's Maple Leaf Lounge are examples of
a. special seating.
b. airline clubs.
c. business traveler awards.
d. airport restaurants.
3. The maximum linear measurement of checked-in luggage accepted by most domestic carriers is
a. 44 inches.
b. 65 inches.
c. 80 inches.
d. 50 inches.
4. Which of the following items would not be accepted as carry-on baggage?
b. Infant's collapsible stroller
5. Most airlines will not accept a child traveling alone who is under the age of
a. eight years.
b. five years.
c. twelve years.
d. fifteen years.
6. The practice of selling more tickets than available seats on a flight is called
c. denied boarding.
7. The maximum amount most airlines will compensate if a passenger's baggage is lost or destroyed is
8. If a flight is oversold, the airline first
a. asks the last few passengers who boarded the aircraft to leave their seats.
b. cancels the flight.
c. asks for volunteers to give up their seats and compensates them.
d. gives passengers back their money.
9. The federal agency that oversees consumer protection issues relating to airline passengers is the
10. The practice of one carrier using the code of another on a specific route is called a. regional agreement.
b. code-share agreement.
c. route-share agreement.
d. interline agreement.
11. Denied-boarding compensation
a. varies according to the amount of time it takes to transport the passengers to their destination.
b. can be a maximum of $1,200.
c. is provided to passengers who are waiting for last-minute cancellations and cannot board the flight.
d. is paid if passengers cannot arrive at their destination within twelve hours of the originally scheduled time.
12. Which of the following is the only true statement?
a. Special in-flight meals are on a first-come, first-served basis.
b. On most flights, seats can be assigned up to six months in advance of departure.
c. Airlines are not required to compensate passengers if their flights are canceled for any reason.
d. Passengers who lose their tickets can travel on the next available flight at no extra charge.
Chapter 1 Test
Match each term with the correct definition on the right.
a. Supplemental airline
c. Industry Agents' Handbook
e. Ticket Qualifier
g. Civil aviation
i. Stretch version
k. Airline club
l. Seat assignment
m. Dual-designated carriers
1. -- A company that provides a travel product
2. -- The full-time owner or manager of a new agency who has at least two years' experience selling travel
3. -- All flights and related services offered to the traveling public
4. -- A plane that has two walking aisles
5. -- Category of aircraft operated by most major airlines
6. -- ARC's "how-to" guide to ticketing
7. -- Higher commission awarded to travel agencies
8. -- A later model of an aircraft that has been built larger to accommodate more passengers
9. -- A carrier that does not operate on a set schedule; also called a charter
10. -- Any wall or partition inside a plane
11. -- Two or more airlines that share the same code on certain routes
12. -- A number and letter designation that specifies a seat reservation on a flight
13. -- A more comfortable and quiet place to sit waiting for a flight, but at a fee
Circle the best answer.
14. Airlines that operate regularly scheduled long-distance routes such as United Airlines, Delta Air Lines, and Continental Airlines are examples of
a. commuter airlines.
b. regional airlines.
c. supplemental airlines.
d. trunk airlines.
15. A small airline operates only between points within the southwestern part of the United States and between points in Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado. This is an example of a
a. commuter airline.
b. major airline.
c. regional airline.
d. charter airline.
16. Which code identifies a wide-body aircraft?
17. Which code identifies a small turboprop aircraft?
18. Which is not a true statement?
a. Bulkhead seats are usually reserved for passengers with disabilities.
b. Exit row seats are usually reserved for passengers with infants.
c. The smoothest ride on an airplane is over the wing.
d. Aisle seats are often requested by business travelers.
19. Refer to Figure 1-5 in the text. A passenger is flying on a 747 and is sitting in a window seat located on the right side (facing forward) of the aircraft, in coach. What is her seat assignment?
20. When checking in for a flight, all passengers are required to show this in addition to a valid airline ticket.
a. Social Security card
b. Proof of citizenship
c. Return ticket
d. Photo identification
21. A passenger's ticket shows a Continental flight from Newark to Boston, connecting to another Continental flight from Boston to Bar Harbor, Maine. However, the airline operating the short flight from Boston to Bar Harbor is a small airline called Colgon Air. This is an example of
a. airline reciprocity.
b. yield management.
c. dual-designated carriers.
d. intertravel agreements.
22. The average excess baggage fee is -- per bag.
23. A child who is seven years of age is accepted by an airline to travel unaccompanied by an adult. The standard policy requires that the child travel on a flight that
a. involves no change of aircraft.
b. arrives at the final destination before 6:00 P.M.
c. serves children meals.
d. departs in the morning hours.
24. A passenger loses her luggage on a TWA flight from Chicago to Los Angeles. What is the maximum amount that the airline is required to compensate the passenger if her luggage is never found or is destroyed?
d. Not required to compensate
25. Which of the following is the trade organization that created the Air Traveler's Bill of Rights. a. FAA
26. For which service are passengers charged?
a. Seeing Eye dog in cabin
b. Oxygen tank for medical purposes
c. Wheelchair assistance at the airport
d. Special meals
27. A passenger is "bumped" involuntarily from a flight because it is oversold. The airline books the passenger on the next available flight to his destination. If the passenger's original arrival time was 1:30 P.M., and he arrived at 3:00 P.M. on the rebooked flight, what compensation from the airline is he entitled to?
Write the code for each of the following airlines:
28. Delta Air Lines --
29. American Airlines --
30. Southwest Airlines --
31. Air Jamaica --
32. Alaska Airlines --
33. America West Airlines --
34. United Airlines --
35. Trans World Airlines --
36. Continental Airlines --
37. AirTran Airways --
Write the name of the airline for each of the following codes:
38. AC --
39. UP --
40. AQ --
41. AM --
42. US --
43. MX --
44. NW --
45. F9 --
46. JI --
47. YX --
FIGURE 1-2 Major North American airlines and codes AIRLINE NAME LETTER CODE NUMERIC CODE Aeromexico AM 139 Air Canada AC 014 Air Jamaica JM 201 AirTran Airways FL 332 Alaska Airlines AS 027 Aloha Airlines AQ 327 American Airlines AA 001 America West Airlines HP 401 Bahamasair UP 111 Canadian Airlines CP 018 Continental Airlines CO 005 Delta Air Lines DL 006 Frontier Airlines F9 422 Mexicana MX 132 Midway Airlines JI 878 Midwest Express Airlines YX 453 Northwest Airlines NW 012 Pan American World Airways PA 388 Southwest Airlines WN 526 Trans World Airlines TW 015 United Airlines UA 016 US Airways US 037 FIGURE 1-3 Aircraft codes Wide-Body Aircraft (2 walking aisles) AIRCRAFT CODE (STANDARD/ AIRCRAFT LATER MODELS/ ORIGINAL MODEL) TYPE/NAME VERSIONS AB3 Airbus Industrie 310, 330, 340, 343 747 Boeing 747 743, 744, 74M 767 Boeing 767 763 777 Boeing 777 -- L10 Lockheed L-1011 L15 D10 McDonnell Douglas DC-10 -- M11 McDonnell Douglas MD-11 -- Narrow-Body Aircraft (1 walking aisle) 717 Boeing 717 -- 727 Boeing 727 72S 737 Boeing 737 73S, 733, 734, 735 757 Boeing 757 -- M80 McDonnell Douglas MD-80 -- DC9 McDonnell Douglas DC-9 D9S Turboprop Aircraft (less than 75 passengers) ATR Aerospatiale/Alenia -- F27 Fokker F27 Friendship -- SF3 Saab SF340 -- J31 British Aerospace Jetstream -- SWM Fairchild Metro/Merlin -- GRS Gulfstream Aerospace -- SH6 Shorts 360 -- AIRCRAFT CODE (STANDARD/ PASSENGER ORIGINAL MODEL) CAPACITY AB3 218-375 747 452-592 767 216-290 777 305-375 L10 256-400 D10 255-380 M11 250-400 Narrow-Body Aircraft (1 walking aisle) 717 90-125 727 125-189 737 120-170 757 178-239 M80 172 DC9 90-139 Turboprop Aircraft (less than 75 passengers) ATR 42-74 F27 33-60 SF3 35 J31 47 SWM 59 GRS 74 SH6 70 FIGURE 1-7 Domestic Frequent-Flier Programs AIRLINE PROGRAM NAME Aero California Club Altus Aeromexico Club Premier Air Canada Aeroplan[R] Alaska Airlines Mileage Plan American Airlines AAdvantage Program America West FlightFund Continental OnePass Delta Air Lines SkyMiles[R] Program Midwest Express Frequent Flyer Northwest WorldPerks Southwest Airlines Rapid Rewards Trans World Airlines Aviators United Mileage Plus US Airways Dividend Miles FIGURE 1-8 Airline Clubs Getting Away from It All AIRLINE CLUB NAME Air Canada Maple Leaf Lounge Alaska Airlines Board Room Aloha Airlines Executive Club American Airlines Admirals Club America West America West Club Continental Presidents Club Delta Air Lines Crown Room Hawaiian Airlines Premier Club Northwest WorldClubs Trans World Airlines Ambassadors Club[R] United Red Carpet Club US Airways US Airways Club
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|Publication:||A Practical Guide to Fares and Ticketing, 3rd ed.|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2001|
|Next Article:||Chapter 2 Airline geography and terms.|
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