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Chapter 1 Airline transportation 101.

This chapter will provide the student with information about the relationship between travel agencies and airlines, the functions of the Airlines Reporting Corporation, airline policies, and passenger rights.
LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the end of this chapter, the student should be able to:

1. Define at least four important functions of the Airlines
Reporting Corporation (ARC) as it relates to travel agency
operations.

2. Decode, by memory, eleven major North American airline letter
codes.

3. Discuss the major differences between scheduled airlines and
charter airlines.

4. Explain the benefits of airline code sharing from both the
airlines' and passengers' points of view.

5. Name and describe the three standard compartments on an airplane
in terms of seating, comfort, meal service, and airport facilities.

6. Identify the three primary classes of service codes.

7. Interpret a seat map for an aircraft.

8. Answer these typical questions from clients regarding domestic
airline travel: baggage allowance, special in-flight services,
medical assistance, and unaccompanied children.

9. Discuss the airline practice of overbooking and how passengers
can be affected.

10. Explain the airlines' responsibility to airline passengers when
each of the following occurs: flight cancellations and delays;
lost, damaged, or delayed baggage; lost tickets.


KEY TERMS

* airline club

* Airlines Reporting Corporation (ARC)

* bulkhead

* bumped

* business class

* CAS Qualifier

* charter

* civil aviation

* class of service

* coach class

* code sharing

* commission override

* commuter airline

* configuration

* controlled-inventory

* denied-boarding compensation

* economy class

* executive class

* first class

* frequent-flier

* Industry Agents' Handbook (IAH)

* major airline

* narrow-body

* overbooking

* oversold

* pitch

* regional airline

* scheduled airline

* seat assignment

* seat map

* supplemental airline

* supplier

* Ticketing Qualifier

* trunk airline

* turbojet

* turboprop

* wide-body

* yield management

TRAVEL AGENCY AND SUPPLIERS: RELATIONSHIPS
supplier

Any company that
provides or supplies a
travel product such as
airlines, tour companies,
cruise lines, hotels, and car
rental companies.


The travel agency holds a unique position in the travel industry. It serves as an unbiased representative or agent to various suppliers. A supplier is any business that provides or supplies the travel product such as airlines, tour companies, cruise lines, hotels, and car rental companies.

At the same time, the travel agency serves as a retail customer to these different suppliers. It receives payment in the form of commission taken from such products as airline tickets, cruises, tours, and accommodations that it sells on behalf of its suppliers (Figure 1-1).

Travel agencies can earn commissions above the standard amount by selling products from a preferred supplier list. Preferred suppliers are composed of certain airlines, cruise lines, and other travel companies whose products the agencies sell frequently to their clients.
commission override

Higher commission
amount paid to travel
agencies by suppliers to
provide them with an
incentive to sell their
products (see preferred
suppliers).


These preferred suppliers award travel agencies higher commissions in order to provide them with an incentive to sell their products. These higher earnings are called commission overrides, which can be as high as 15 or 20 percent of the retail price of the travel product sold.

[FIGURE 1-1 OMITTED]

Travelers can book directly with many of these suppliers either over the telephone or the Internet. However, in most cases, the cost of the product to the consumer is the same whether it is booked directly or through the travel agency. So if an airline ticket costs the same amount no matter where it is purchased, what factor will influence the customer's decision? The answer is service and expertise. A traveler who wants the lowest fare to Chicago can spend a lot of time on the Internet or contact each carrier by telephone. Either way, the person is not guaranteed the lowest fare possible because each carrier quotes fares on its own flights only. The travel agent, who has access to practically all carriers' schedules and fares, is able to provide comparison shopping for travelers.

So the travel agent sells service first, not products. Also, travel agents are important partners with the airline industry. Why? According to a 1999 survey from the Airlines Reporting Corporation, there are more than 45,500 full-service travel agencies, corporate on-site locations, and other outlets in the United States. Also, the number of travelers who use travel agencies for their business and leisure travel shows signs of increasing.

The travel agency community remains an important sales force for the airlines.

THE AIRLINES REPORTING CORPORATION (ARC)
The Airlines Reporting
Corporation (ARC)

An independent
organization composed of
the majority of U.S. airline
carriers that currently
establishes standard
practices and procedures
concerning airline
transportation and the sale
of airline tickets.


The Airlines Reporting Corporation (ARC) establishes standard practices and procedures concerning airline transportation and the sale of airline tickets. Most U.S. (domestic) airline carriers belong to the ARC on a voluntary basis.

The ARC has many functions. Some of these functions as they directly relate to travel agencies are as follows:

* Establish standards and post requirements for all new travel agencies that wish to sell airline tickets on behalf of more than 100 domestic and international carriers.

* Print, distribute, and maintain inventory of airline-ticket stock that is used exclusively by travel agents for the sale of air transportation on ARC airlines.

* Establish standard practices and procedures relating to airline reservations, airfare calculation, and airline-ticket writing.

* Act as a clearinghouse to distribute money to the airlines for all travel-agency ticket sales.
Industry Agents'
Handbook (IAH)

A keystone industry
publication by the Airlines
Reporting Corporation,
which provides the basic
ticketing and reporting
requirements for all ARC-approved
travel agencies.


A keystone industry publication is the Industry Agents' Handbook (IAH), which is published by the Airlines Reporting Corporation. The IAH provides, among other things, the basic ticketing and reporting requirements for all ARC-approved travel agencies. It provides detailed instructions on how to complete all ARC documents for such transactions as standard tickets, refunds, and exchanges.

Requirements for Opening a New Travel Agency

A new travel agency must obtain approval from the ARC before it can begin selling airline tickets on behalf of its member airlines. ARC reviews and processes applications from travel agencies and provides certain standards and requirements that must be met before an agency location can be approved to sell airline tickets.

Some ARC requirements include personnel qualifications, location of agency, financial requirements, and ticket security.
Ticketing Qualifier

The full-time person who
acts as the owner, partner,
or manager of a travel
agency and who has a
minimum two years'
experience in the selling of
travel.


Personnel qualifications. The agency must have at least one full-time person who acts as either the owner, partner, or manager, and that person must have at least two years' experience in the selling of travel. This person is called a Ticketing Qualifier. An agency has the option of having either a Ticketing Qualifier or a Certified ARC Specialist (CAS Qualifier) on staff.

Each type of qualifier is required to complete and submit a complete personal history form for review. The CAS Qualifier candidate must pass a CAS test developed by ARC. The CAS test is based entirely on the Industry Agents' Handbook. There are additional application procedures and requirements to get into the CAS program.
Certified ARC Specialist
(CAS Qualifier)

An employee of a travel
agency who is required to
complete and pass a CAS
test developed by ARC, in
addition to other
application requirements.
This person can be
considered the ticket
qualifier for a new travel
agency (see Ticketing
Qualifier).


Location. The agency must be located at a site that is open and easily accessible to the general public. It also must clearly identify itself as an office or agency dealing in the sale of airline tickets and other related services.

Financial requirements. ARC requires agencies to obtain and maintain a bond or irrevocable letter of credit. Currently, the minimum amount required is $20,000. This requirement serves two purposes: (1) assures the ARC carriers that the agency is creditworthy and, (2) protects ARC carriers from financial loss if a travel agency defaults on its ticket sales report or files for bankruptcy.

Ticket security requirements. The agency must maintain an off-premise bank safe-deposit box or a similar facility for storage of excess airline-ticket stock.

Agency Identification Number

A travel agency receives an identification number when the ARC grants approval. This eight-digit identification number is used in all of the agency's dealings with the airlines and other suppliers. The first two digits of the number identify the state in which the agency is located; the next six digits comprise the unique identification number of the travel agency.

The agency identification serves as proof that the agency is a legal and bona fide member of the travel agency community and is permitted to receive commission from the sale of airline tickets and other travel products.

The travel agency also receives an identification plate from each ARC carrier. The airline identification plate contains the name and accounting number of the airline. These plates are used to stamp or validate the ticket with the airline that is providing transportation. A travel agency cannot write airline tickets until it becomes approved by the ARC and receives these airline identification plates.

CHECK POINT 1-1

1. How do travel agencies earn money on the airline tickets they sell?

2. How can travel agencies earn higher amounts on the airline tickets they sell?

3. List four ARC requirements for opening a travel agency.

4. A new agency has to have one full-time person who serves as either the owner, partner, or manager.

This person is called a -- or a --.

STRUCTURE OF THE AIRLINE INDUSTRY
civil aviation

All airline flights and
services offered to the
traveling public.


The United States has the largest civil aviation system in the world. Civil aviation refers to all airline flights and services offered to the traveling public. Civil aviation can be divided into two general categories: scheduled airlines and supplemental airlines or charters.
scheduled airline

A carrier that offers regular
schedules over prescribed
routes and published
timetables.


Scheduled Airlines

A scheduled airline offers regular schedules over prescribed routes and published timetables. The majority of passenger flights are on scheduled airlines. The scheduled airlines fall into three major categories: major carriers, regional carriers, and commuter carriers.
major airline

Scheduled airline that
concentrates on long-distance
or long-haul
routes and serves major
cities within the United
States in addition to
international destinations.
Also called trunk airline.


Major airlines. Major airlines, or trunk airlines, concentrate on long-distance or long-haul routes. They serve major cities within the United States in addition to international destinations. Examples of major or trunk airlines are American Airlines, United Airlines, Delta Air Lines, Northwest Airlines, Trans World Airlines, and Continental Airlines. The major airlines account for more than 95 percent of all airline passenger traffic in the United States.
trunk airline

Scheduled airline that
concentrates on long-distance
or long-haul
routes and serves major
cities within the United
States in addition to
international destinations.
Also called major airline.


Regional airlines. Regional airlines provide air service between smaller cities and also connect these small communities with major airports. They are called regionals because they operate between points within a specific area of the country. Examples of regional airlines are Midway Airlines, which serves the Northeast and Florida, and Aloha Airlines, which serves primarily throughout the Hawaiian Islands.
regional airline

Airline that provides air
service between smaller
cities and also connects
these small communities
with major airports;
operates between points
within a specific area of the
country.


Commuter airlines. Commuter airlines can be considered smaller versions of regional airlines. Commuters typically fly routes of 400 miles or less with aircraft that seat less than twenty-four passengers. Commuters operate shuttle services between smaller airports that cannot support the major airlines and equipment. Commuters also link passengers between the smaller airports to larger airports in order to connect with a major or larger regional airline.
commuter airline

Small version of regional
airlines that typically flies
routes of 400 miles or less
between smaller airports
that cannot support the
major airlines and
equipment.


Supplemental Airlines

Supplemental airlines tend to fly routes and schedules that are not flown by the scheduled airlines. They are considered to provide additional or supplemental service to the major airlines. Supplemental airlines are also called charters. The formal definition of charter is to hire the exclusive use of any type of vehicle--aircraft, cruise vessel, motor coach, or train. Charter airline flights do not travel on any set schedule or have predetermined fare structures. Charter flights also operate under different rules than scheduled flights.
supplemental airline

Airline that tends to fly
routes and schedules that
are not flown by the
scheduled airlines (see
charter).


A charter can be either private or public. A private charter is for the exclusive use of an individual or a particular group of people--a fraternal organization, a school group, or a company, for example. Affinity charter is another name for a private charter that is used by a certain group of people--such as members of an association or club--who are traveling together.
charter

To hire the exclusive use off
any type of vehicle such as
aircraft, cruise vessel, motor
coach, or train; charter
airlines do not travel on any
set schedule or have predetermined
fare structures
(see supplemental airline).


Seats on a public charter are often promoted and sold through travel agencies. The main attraction of public charters is the price; they are less expensive than scheduled transportation in most cases. However, the downside is the number of restrictions and a certain amount of risk that goes along with charter travel. Some of these risks include the following:

* In the case of delay or cancellation, the traveler cannot transfer the charter ticket to another carrier. The traveler has little or no control to make other arrangements and must depend on the charter company to resolve the problem.

* Charter tickets, once purchased, usually cannot be changed. The ticket is valid for one specific departure only. Also, if the passenger cancels a charter booking, the ticket is nonrefundable after a certain date.

AIRLINE CODES

There are hundreds of different airlines worldwide. In printed flight schedules and in the airline computer reservation systems, each airline is identified by a two-letter code. These airline codes also appear on passenger tickets to identify the carrier that is providing transportation.

In addition to letter codes, each airline is also identified with a three-digit or numeric code. The numeric airline codes are used generally for ticket accounting purposes.

A complete list of the airlines appears in Appendix B of this text. Figure 1-2 is a list of the major airline carriers serving North America with their two-letter and three-digit codes. Memorize the two-letter codes for all of these carriers (don't bother memorizing the number codes because they are used strictly for accounting purposes).

CHECK POINT 1-2

1. Major airlines concentrate on long-distance routes to major cities. What is another term for major airlines? --

2. The type of airline that typically flies short routes of 400 miles or less and operates small aircraft is called a -- airline.

3. The type of airline that concentrates its routes in a specific area is called a -- airline.

Decode the following by writing the full name of the airline.

4. AQ --

5. CP --

6. HP --

7. JI --

8. WN --

9. AC --

10. YX --

11. JM --

12. F9 --

13. FL --

14. PA --

Encode the following by writing the two-letter code.

15. US Airways --

16. Delta Air Lines --

17. Mexicana --

18. Bahamasair --

19. American Airlines --

20. Northwest Airlines --

21. United Airlines --

22. Trans World Airlines --

23. Continental Airlines --

24. Aeromexico --

25. Alaska Airlines --

ALL ABOUT AIRCRAFT
turbojet

A major category of jet
aircraft that is operated by
the major carriers.


Passenger aircraft vary greatly in terms of length, wingspan, configuration of engines, velocity, and range. We call these technical details aircraft performance statistics. It isn't necessary to memorize the wingspan or velocity of every type of aircraft. What you do need to know are the general categories of aircraft and those factors with which your customers are concerned.
turboprop

A major category of aircraft
that uses a jet engine to
turn the propeller and is
operated by many small
regional and commuter
carriers. Also called
propjet.


Let's start with the simplest truth in commercial passenger service: most aircraft use jet engines for propulsion. Jet aircraft can be divided into two major categories: turbojets (including the turbofans, an improved version of the turbojet), which are operated by the major carriers, and turboprops, or propjets. Turboprops use a jet engine to turn the propeller and are operated by many of the small regional or commuter airlines.
narrow-body

Any type of aircraft that
has one walking aisle down
the middle.


All planes are divided into two broad categories: narrow-body and wide-body aircraft. What's the difference? It's quite simple. Narrow-body aircraft have one walking aisle down the center with two or three seats on each side. Wide-body aircraft have two walking aisles and thus a middle section of seats in addition to the two sets of seats on each side. The largest wide-body aircraft used for commercial purposes is the Boeing 747. The 747 is easy to spot because it has the characteristic "hump" or raised overhead (ceiling) that extends over the front part of the aircraft. The 747, also called the jumbo jet, is the only commercial jet that offers a second deck or floor of passenger seating.
wide-body

Any type of aircraft that
has two walking aisles and
thus a middle section of
seats in addition to the two
sets of seats on each side
down the length of the
a/ircraft.


The major manufacturers of commercial aircraft are Boeing, McDonnell Douglas, Lockheed, and a European consortium called Airbus Industrie. Other manufacturers such as Saab and Beechcraft build smaller aircraft for the regional and commuter airlines.

Aircraft types are identified with three-character codes in printed airline timetables and the computer systems. Agents should be able to identify the codes that differentiate narrow- and wide-body aircraft.

Aircraft Remodeling and Versions

Aircraft designs change and evolve into newer and improved models over time, just like the family car! But unlike cars, aircraft don't change every year. Every few years or so the manufacturer improves on the previous model by doing any number of things: building it larger to carry more passengers, building it lighter for better fuel efficiency, or redesigning the wings for a smoother ride.

A particular aircraft can have any number of versions. In fact, the largest commercial jet, the Boeing 747 jumbo, has more than six different versions and more are on the way.

When a new version of an aircraft is rolled out, it is given a slightly different equipment code. Usually the first character remains the same as the standard version; that helps you to identify to which "family" of aircraft it belongs.

A common revision is to lengthen or build the aircraft larger to increase passenger capacity. We call this a stretch version of an aircraft. To identify stretch versions, the letter S replaces the last letter in the aircraft code. For example, 72S and 73S are the codes for the stretch versions of the Boeing 727 and 737, respectively.

Following are examples of some later versions and their codes of the Boeing 737 narrow-body aircraft:

737 Standard or original model

73S Stretch version of the 737

73M Mixed configuration (cargo and passenger)

733 Later stretch version of the 737

734 Largest version (highest passenger capacity)

735 Latest version built lighter for fuel efficiency and longer range
configuration

The seating arrangement
on an airplane.


Figure 1-3 shows a sampling of the major wide-body, narrow-body, and small turbojet aircraft (seventy-five passengers or less) that are operated by the major carriers. It also shows the passenger capacity for each, which varies widely between carriers, different models, and configurations. As a travel professional, you should be able to distinguish wide-body and narrow-body aircraft codes.
class of service

A separate compartment
on an aircraft that
determines the location of
passenger seating, level of
in-flight service, and price;
three standard classes of
service are first, business,
and coach.


Classes of Service

The seating arrangement on an airplane is called its configuration. The most common configuration shows a plane divided into two or three major compartments or seat sections. We can also call each compartment a class of service because where you sit on the airplane will determine the price your pay for your ticket and the level of service you receive during the flight and during airport check-in.

The three major classes of service are first, business or executive, and coach. Many of the major carriers offer all three on their long-distance and transcontinental routes. On shorter routes the carriers usually offer two classes of service-first and coach. Many of the smaller regionals or commuters offer all-coach seating. Walls separate compartments on an aircraft. These walls or partitions on airplanes are called bulkheads.
bulkhead

Wall or partition on an
airplane.


First Class. Seating in first class is located in the front of the aircraft directly behind the cockpit. In some cases, first-class seating may be located on the upper-deck level on the 747 jumbo jets. This is the most expensive seating accommodation on board the aircraft.
first class

The most expensive
seating accommodation
on board an aircraft
located directly behind the
cockpit.

pitch

The front-to-rear
measurement of space
between airplane seats.


Compared to the other compartments, first-class seats are the widest and the most comfortable with heavier padding. There is also more legroom in first class because there are fewer seats. Each row of seats is set farther away from the one located immediately in front and in back. The front-to-rear measurement of space between seats is called pitch. Seat pitch in first class is the widest on an airplane. On most narrow-bodies, the seat pitch averages 40 inches; this increases up to 60 inches on wide-body aircraft. On many long-range flights, the first-class seats turn into sleeper seats.

On longer flights with entertainment (movies and video games), many airlines have built in an individual video unit so that the first-class passenger can watch in-flight entertainment at any time. Also, there is more personalized service because there are more flight attendants per passenger. In-flight meal service is more elaborate with a greater variety of choices. Meals are served on china with cloth napkins in most cases. First-class passengers are served free alcoholic beverages and do not pay for headsets. In most major airports, there are also separate and speedier check-in counters for passengers holding first-class tickets. First-class passengers can also use special airline lounge facilities at selected airports to wait and relax before boarding the aircraft.
business class

Seats on an aircraft
somewhere between first
class and coach class in
terms of comfort and level
of service. Also called
executive class.


Business or executive class. Business class or executive class is somewhere between first class and coach class in terms of comfort and level of service. Business class was introduced in the 1970s for those passengers who wanted upgraded service and more comfort than they would receive in coach but without paying the high cost of a first-class ticket. It was dubbed business class because it was aimed toward the frequent traveler or business traveler.

This compartment is not available on all flights. Business seating is available on most long-distance domestic and international flights.
executive class

Seats on an aircraft
somewhere between first
class and coach class in
terms of comfort and level
of service. Also called
business class.


The business compartment is located directly behind first class. Alcoholic beverages are usually free of charge, and the seats are wider with a quieter atmosphere than in the coach compartment. There is also a choice of meals (although not as many as in first class), and the meals are served on fine china.

On most planes, business-class seats are crafted with leather and sheepskin, tray tables that swing outward (giving the passenger more freedom of movement), and leg rests that adjust by pushing a button at the seat.

Similar to first class, there are also separate check-in counters and lounge facilities for business-class passengers at most airports.
coach class

The location of the
greatest number of seats
on an aircraft. Most
passengers who are paying
discounted ticket prices are
sitting in coach class.


Coach/economy class. The greatest number of seats on an aircraft are located in coach class. Most passengers who are paying discounted ticket prices are sitting in coach class. Seats are set closer together and are narrower than those in first- and business-class cabins. The average seat pitch in coach class is between 31 and 34 inches. Beverages and meals are served at no extra charge, although liquor, beer, and wine usually must be purchased.

On shorter flights, passengers in coach class may be served a lighter snack, whereas passengers in first or business class may be served a full meal. Coach seating on international flights is called economy class.
economy class

The term for coach seating
on international flights.


Class of Service Codes

Each class of service has a designated one-letter code. These class of service codes are used in airline schedules to denote the types of seating on board a specific flight. They are also used to identify the type or level of airfare on the passenger's airline ticket. There are two general categories of class of service codes: primary and controlled-inventory.

Primary. Following are the codes for the three primary classes of service:

F First class

C Business/executive class

Y Coach/economy class

The primary codes identify in which compartment the passenger is sitting. Primary codes are also used on an airline ticket to identify the type of fare. When a primary code stands by itself (with no additional letters or numbers attached to it), it identifies an unrestricted fare. Unrestricted fares are those that have no restrictions of travel: the passenger can travel at any time, can use the ticket for up to one year, and can change or cancel the ticket at any time for a full refund. You will study more about airfares and travel restrictions later in the text.

Controlled-inventory. There are literally thousands of different airfares available to sell. For example, between Chicago and Miami there are approximately eighty-five different prices from which to choose! How do we keep it all straight? Well, let's first divide all airfares into two general categories: unrestricted and restricted. You have just learned that unrestricted fares have no restrictions of travel. These unrestricted fares are priced higher compared to many other fares.

Restricted fares are those that have restrictions of travel: passengers must travel at certain times or days of the week, stay beyond Saturday before returning home, and pay a fee for any changes, and they may not get any refund if the ticket is canceled.
controlled-inventory

Refers to a certain number
of seats on a flight that can
be sold at given discount
price.


Another restriction is inventory control. Simply stated, inventory control refers to a certain number of seats on a flight that can be sold at a given discount price. We can say that most discounted fares are sold on a controlled-inventory basis. The airline, and not the travel agent, controls the number of seats. Because most discounted fares are based on coach class, many seats in this compartment are sold on a controlled-inventory basis.

For example, let's take a fictional flight on United 101 from Denver to New York. There are 15 seats in first class, 30 seats in business class, and 200 seats in coach class. There are no discounts in first class, so each of the 15 passengers in first class is paying the normal first-class fare of $800. There are also no discounts available in business class, so each of the 30 passengers is paying the normal business-class fare of $600.

United is offering three types of discount fares: the "Super-Saver" at $300, the "Super-Super Saver" at $200, and the "Mega-Saver" at $100. Based on historical data and a lot of other statistics, the airline decides to set aside a total of 125 coach seats for discounted fares. They decide to break it down this way: sell 60 coach seats at $300, 45 seats at $200, and 20 seats at $100. The remaining coach seats, which number 75, are sold at the normal coach fare of $450. We call this yield management, which means deciding how many seats to sell at what price and under what conditions (Figure 1-4).
yield management

An airline's policy that
determines how many
seats to sell at what price
and under what
conditions.


Frequently the airlines change the number of seats allocated to discounted inventory. The airlines do this to generate as much revenue as possible from each flight they operate. If seats on a particular flight are not being sold, the airline may move seats from normal coach class into controlled discounted inventories. The opposite is also true. If a flight is selling very fast (which normally happens during peak holidays or vacation periods), the airline moves seats away from the discounted inventories into normal coach class. So if you call an airline on Tuesday, the lowest fare quoted may be $300. If you call one week later, the price might have dropped down to $100!

Remember that controlled-inventory does not refer to specific seats on the aircraft; it means the maximum number of seats anywhere in coach class that can be sold at a discounted price. That is why you may have a passenger who paid $450 for a ticket sitting next to someone who paid only $200 for the same flight.

[FIGURE 1-4 OMITTED]

When you book a controlled-inventory discount fare, you must book with a special code (not the codes used for normal F, C, or Y seating). The identification codes used when booking discounted fares are called controlled-inventory discount codes.

Following are examples of codes used to identify controlled-inventory discount fares:

A First-class discounted

D Business-class discounted

B Coach-class discounted

H Coach-class discounted

Q Coach-class discounted

K Coach-class discounted

L Coach-class discounted

V Coach-class discounted

Airline Seats
seat map

A display that shows the
configuration of an aircraft,
including location of
passenger seats, galley,
and restrooms.


Travel agents can select airplane seats for their clients by looking at a seat map. Seat maps show the configuration of an aircraft. The configuration of a plane is the layout of seat and row identifications and the locations of the plane's galleys (kitchens), closets, and lavatories. Seat maps are printed in various industry resource books and are displayed in the airline reservation computer systems.

When selecting seats, ticket and travel agents use seat maps to identify seat locations and availability. When reading a seat map, each row is assigned a number (starting with the lowest row numbers from the front of the aircraft); each seat is assigned a letter (starting with A on the left side as you face toward the front of the aircraft).

Most passengers have certain preferences about where they want to sit. A common seating preference is an aisle or window seat. Depending on the type of aircraft, seats may be installed in pairs or three across. Seating is always more comfortable in the pair arrangement; if all three seats across are occupied, the middle passenger is often squeezed between two other people, making for an uncomfortable ride. Airlines generally assign the middle seats only after all the aisle and window seats have been taken, unless two seats together are requested.

Some of the wide-body planes may have up to five seats across in the middle seating section. This works out fine if the middle seat is not occupied, thus offering seating for two passengers without a middle passenger.

Seats in first class and business class are comfortable no matter where the passenger sits. However, there are some tips of the trade when assigning travelers to seats in the coach compartment:

* An aircraft will have two or more specially designated exit rows. Seats in exit rows have extra legroom because the pitch is adjusted to allow ease of passenger traffic in case of emergency. Usually seats in exit rows cannot be confirmed in advance and are available on a first-come, first-served basis at check-in. Only adult passengers who are in good health and are physically capable of opening the exit door of the aircraft during an emergency are allowed to sit in an exit row.

* Seats located directly in front of the exit rows may not recline fully or at all. Similarly, coach seats located directly in front of a bulkhead may not recline fully.

* Seats facing bulkheads have more legroom. However, these seats are usually reserved for adults traveling with infants or passengers with physical disabilities who require wheelchair assistance.

* Seats located above the wings provide the smoothest ride but have obstructed views.

* Aisle seats are desirable because they offer more flexibility to stretch and to access restrooms. Also many business travelers prefer aisle seats because they afford them more room to work and a faster exit off the plane upon arrival.

Figure 1-5 includes samples of seat maps of three types of aircraft: a wide-body, a narrow-body, and a small turboprop used by regional and commuter airlines. These seat maps are from a printed resource called the OAG Desktop Guide-North America, a resource for flight schedules and related information.

[FIGURE 1-5 OMITTED]
seat assignment

A specific seat that is
reserved for an airline
passenger, consisting of a
row number and a seat
letter.


Seat assignments. When a specific seat is reserved for a passenger, it is called a seat assignment. Seat assignments will have a row number and seat letter: 3A is the third row back from the front, with seat A being a window seat on the left side of the aircraft facing forward. Advance seat selection is an important part of travel-agency customer service.

Each airline determines how far in advance seats may be prereserved through an agency's computer reservations system. Some airlines allow seat assignments to be done as soon as the reservation is made; others have a specific time limit.

Following are examples of advance seat assignment policies (subject to change):
* American Airlines    As soon as reservation is made

* Continental          As soon as reservation is made

* United               As soon as reservation is made

* US Airways           130 days

* Delta                120 days

* Northwest             90 days

* TWA                   60 days

* America West          30 days


Other restrictions on making seat assignments may also apply under certain circumstances. Examples include the following:

* Sometimes passengers who purchase discounted tickets must wait for airport check-in to have their seats assigned.

* Special seats such as in an exit row are not assigned in advance; they can be assigned only at the airport upon check-in.

To board a flight, passengers must have a boarding pass that shows their seat assignment. Many airlines will not issue boarding passes to their passengers before the date of departure because of enhanced security measures at airports. In most cases, passengers are issued boarding passes at the airport when checking in for the flight.

In addition to having a valid airline ticket, all passengers must show a form of photo identification (a driver's license with the holder's photo, for example) when checking in for a flight. The airline will deny boarding to any ticketed passenger who does not have proper identification.

Seat maps displayed on the CRS look a lot different from those shown in printed resources. The agent can display a seat map for practically any specific flight and identify those seats that are available to be assigned.

Refer to Figure 1-6, which is an example of a seat map for Trans World Airlines as it appears on the computer screen. This seat map is for a narrow-body MD-80 aircraft on a flight from Chicago O'Hare to St. Louis. It is a nonsmoking flight.

Rows 1 through 3 are first class with seats A and C on one side and D and F on the other side. Coach seats start with row 5 (there is no row 4). Seats are A and C on the left side of the aircraft; seats are D, E, and F on the right side of the aircraft. Pay particular attention to the codes that show the status of each seat. In our example, any seat identified by letter is available to sell. Any seat identified with a " " " symbol is sold or occupied. If a seat is available, the agent can make a simple entry in the computer to reserve it.

[FIGURE 1-6 OMITTED]

CHECK POINT 1-3

Circle the best answer.

1. Which pair of aircraft codes represents the same general category of aircraft (wide-body or narrow-body)?

a. L10 and 757

b. M80 and 767

c. 777 and L15

d. M11and 727

2. Of the following codes, which one represents the largest commercial jet used for passenger service?

a. 757

b. 747

c. D10

d. 737

3. What is the code for business or executive class of service?

a. E

b. C

c. Y

d. B

4. The airline practice of establishing a maximum number of seats on a flight to be sold at a discounted price is called

a. seat management.

b. discount bargaining.

c. fare discount sale.

d. controlled-inventory.

5. On a standard jet, the assignment code for a window seat located in the first row in coach class is

a. 22B.

b. A6.

c. 5A.

d. B1.

6. A blueprint showing the interior layout of a plane is called a

a. seat map.

b. floor guide.

c. floor diagram.

d. deck plan.

7. What location on a plane has the most legroom?

a. Seats in front of an exit row

b. Seats opposite the galley

c. Seats in an exit row

d. Any window seat

8. The term pitch refers to the

a. comfort and space in each seat.

b. number of seats in each row.

c. front-to-rear spacing of seat rows.

d. number of rows in a plane.

9. The term configuration refers to the

a. speed of the aircraft.

b. seating arrangement on a plane.

c. types of in-flight services.

d. distance the plane can fly.

10. Passengers in first class can expect which of the following?

a. Express check-in at most airports

b. Free alcoholic beverages

c. More legroom

d. All of the above

BUILDING PASSENGER LOYALTY

There are many ways that airlines compete for passengers. They do it by building passenger loyalty. Airlines are especially interested in winning back those passengers who travel often. Who are they? Business travelers. According to recent travel surveys, business-only and a combination of business and leisure trips average close to $62 billion of travel revenue each year. This accounts for about half of the total revenue from airline ticket sales.

Two popular methods that major airlines use to win back all their passengers, especially business travelers, include frequent-flier programs and airline club membership.

Frequent-Flier Programs

American Airlines was one of the great innovators during the days after deregulation. It was American that introduced or improved upon such things as super saver fares, agency computer reservations systems, yield management, and airline hub systems. These are some of the things that have truly revolutionized the airline passenger industry in recent years.
frequent-flier

An airline's marketing
program designed to build
passenger loyalty and that
allows the traveler to
accumulate flown mileage
on a particular airline; the
mileage can then be
traded in for rewards such
as class upgrades or free
tickets for future trips.


But it was in 1981 that American conceived of a way to make airline travelers brand loyal to American; that was the year that the frequent-flier concept was born.

A frequent-flier program allows the traveler to accumulate flown mileage on a particular airline, which can then be traded in for rewards such as class upgrades or free tickets for future trips. This idea quickly caught on and was adopted by American's competitors.

Today, most domestic and international carriers offer frequent-flier programs. Many other suppliers are jumping on the concept to gain customer loyalty. For example, hotel chains and car rental firms offer frequent-lodger and frequent-renter programs, respectively. Many airlines tie in their frequent-flier programs with similar programs offered by other suppliers. For example, if travelers stay at a designated hotel or rent a car from a designated company, they are credited with air mileage. This enables the traveler more ways to accumulate points, and more diversity of awards can be offered.

Anyone can join one or more frequent-flier programs, and membership is free. Application forms are available at travel agencies that order them, airport ticket counters, and city ticket offices. Some airlines enable travel agents to enroll their clients by completing an application on the agency's computer reservations system.

Travel agents track the earned points or mileage for their customers, sign travelers up, and enter passengers' frequent-flier identification numbers in their air reservation record. Travel agents do not get involved in claiming awards for their travelers.

The airlines have limited inventories that are used for frequent-flier rewards. For example, if the traveler redeems earned mileage or points for a free ticket in first class, there are only a certain number of seats on specific flights that can be booked for the trip. Often, the availability of these frequent-flier seats does not appear in regular schedules or availability on the agent's computer screen when booking flights. This means that travelers must claim their rewards directly with the airline through a special reservation number or department. Each airline's frequent-flier program has a different name.

Figure 1-7 is a list of frequent-flier programs offered by some of the major airlines.

Airline Clubs
airline club

A club or private lounge
area for members that is
owned and operated by an
airline in selected airports
worldwide.


Airports can be very hectic, frustrating, and noisy places at times. Who hasn't navigated through crowds, around mountains of luggage, and waited in lines that appear endless? This can be frustrating for any traveler, especially the business traveler who has to travel all the time. The way to get away from it all is to join an airline club.

Airline clubs are owned and operated by many major airlines and located in selected airports worldwide. These airline clubs or private lounge areas provide club members with privacy and quiet while they wait for their flights. Airline clubs are not easily noticeable because they are hidden away from busy passenger traffic corridors behind heavy walnut doors with inconspicuous signs.

When you enter a airport club, it is the entering a different world from the normal hustle and bustle of an airport. They are spacious, quiet, and carpeted with padded easy chairs and comfortable sofas. Typical amenities at these clubs include beverage and snack services, television, work tables, and periodicals. In addition, many the clubs provide flight check-in, seat assignments, and future travel reservations.

The clubs also provide a wide range of services for their best customers, the business traveler. Typical business services include fax machines, computers, copiers, conference rooms, notary and message services, and overnight express pickup.

To become a member of an airline club, you must pay a fee. The annual fee varies but ranges from $175 to $400, which entitles the passenger to use any club lounges offered by the airline. There are also special prices for spouses or other family members.

Each airline's airport club facility has a different name. Figure 1-8 is a list of airline clubs operated by some of the major domestic carriers.

CODE SHARING AND AIRLINE ALLIANCES

Passenger Tom Smith is holding an airline ticket that reads Delta Air Lines flight 511 from Chicago to Atlanta, continuing to Augusta, Georgia, on Delta Air Lines flight 7041. Tom expected a Delta jet all the way because that's what his ticket reads. Instead, he finds himself sitting in a small, twelve-passenger plane called Atlantic Southeast Airlines from Atlanta to Augusta. What went wrong? Sometimes things are not what they seem. The airline code that you see in flight schedules or airline tickets may not be the carrier that actually operates that route.

Since deregulation, the distinction between major, regional, and commuter airlines has become somewhat blurred. For example, many regional or small commuter airlines either have merged with the major carriers or have code-share agreements with them.
code sharing

A cooperative agreement
between two or more
airlines to share the sale of
seats on one airline's
aircraft (called dual-designated
carriers).


Code sharing (dual-designated carriers) is a cooperative agreement between two or more airlines to share the sale of seats on one airline's aircraft. It is also the practice of one carrier using the code of another carrier for a specific flight segment or route.

Code-sharing agreements can be established between two major airlines or between a major and a smaller regional or commuter carrier as seen in our case history on passenger Tom Smith.

Code sharing also occurs between two major carriers to fill in the other's weaker or nonexistent route structure. This happens frequently over international routes. For example, Delta Air Lines and Air France have a code-share agreement. It would work this way: A passenger is flying from Tampa to Paris by changing planes in New York. The passenger's ticket reads Delta Air Lines from Tampa to New York, connecting to a different Delta flight from New York to Paris, France. However, because Delta and Air France have a code-share agreement, the passenger will actually board an Air France plane from New York for the transatlantic flight to Paris.

Other international code-share agreements that exist at the time of publication are United Airlines and Lufthansa Airlines (to cities in Germany) and Continental and Virgin Atlantic (to cities in the British Isles).

Code sharing is beneficial to both the airlines and passengers. Passengers benefit because they can apply the total mileage flown on both carriers toward either airline's frequent-flier program. Also, airport club membership is usually transferable between both airlines. Airlines benefit because they can carry passengers and earn additional revenue over routes on which they usually do not operate frequently or at all.

The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) requires airlines to inform their passengers about code-sharing arrangements that would place passengers on a different airline from the one from which they are buying the ticket. This requirement also extends to travel agencies when they issue airline tickets to their clients. Passengers must be told orally before the booking and subsequently in writing.

AIRLINE PASSENGER SERVICES

Air travel can sometimes be confusing and frustrating for clients. Because you represent the airlines as a travel professional, you need to understand how important policies and procedures affect your clients. The DOT has issued a number of consumer protection regulations that apply to all passengers on domestic airlines.

Baggage

The number and size of bags that passengers can check in and carry on board the aircraft free of charge is called baggage allowance. Baggage allowance policies vary from airline to airline, but there are general guidelines.

There are two methods of measuring baggage allowance: the piece and weight methods.

The piece method generally applies for travel within North America (points between the United States, Canada, Mexico, West Indies). Most airlines restrict the number of pieces of luggage and the size of each piece of luggage. Usually a passenger is allowed to check in up to two pieces of standard luggage and carry on one or two small bags. All carry-on baggage must fit either under the passenger's seat or in the enclosed overhead compartment.

Each piece of luggage to be checked in is required to weigh less than 70 pounds, and the largest piece cannot exceed 80 inches in linear measurement. Baggage size is determined by the sum of the outside linear dimensions (length + width + height).

The weight method is used on most international flights over the ocean. The normal free baggage allowances are 66 pounds for first class and 44 pounds for coach or economy class; however, there are also many exceptions, and the travel agent should check for these with the individual airline carriers.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Airlines have the right to refuse baggage for any of the following reasons:

* Baggage is not marked with the passenger's name outside.

* The passenger refuses to allow the airline to examine baggage.

* Airline deems baggage is unsuitable.

* Baggage is to be transported on a flight other than the one on which the passenger is traveling.

If the passenger exceeds the free baggage allowance, an excess baggage fee is charged. Excess baggage charges vary and are usually dependent on the size or weight of the baggage. The average excess baggage charge is $50 per bag. Generally, the passenger is allowed to check in such nonstandard baggage items as bicycles, golf clubs, skis, and surfboards for the same price.

Unaccompanied Children

Unaccompanied children under the age of five are not accepted under any circumstances. For children who are five through eleven years of age, the following policies generally apply for all airlines:
Age of Child               Unaccompanied General Policy
Under 5 years of age       Will not be accepted under any circumstances
Ages 5, 6, and 7           May be accepted on a flight that involves
                           no change of plane
Ages 8 through 11          May be accepted on all flights, with or
                           without a change of plane


In all cases, an adult must accompany the child until the child has boarded the plane. Each airline has certain identification standards, so each should be checked on a case-by-case basis. Upon arrival, the child must be met by an adult, who is required to show photo identification (usually a driver's license). The adult must often sign a form before the child is released.

When making airline reservations for unaccompanied children, you need to provide the following information to the reservation agent:

* Name and age of the child

* Name, address, and telephone number of the adult who is responsible for bringing the child to the airport

* Name, address, and telephone number of the adult who is responsible for meeting the child at the destination airport

Children who are making connections on a different carrier may be assisted by the airline. Unaccompanied children cannot be booked on the last flight of the day.

Escorting a child between connecting flights, even if on the same airline, was once a free service. Now many airlines are charging a fee that ranges between $20 and $30.

Children under the age of two are considered lap children because they are small enough to sit on the adult's lap. On domestic flights, lap children travel for free but are not assigned a seat. Airlines will try to provide empty seats next to parents when they are available. It is important to inform the airline that an adult is traveling with an infant even though the infant does not need an airline ticket.

For international flights, lap children require airline tickets. These tickets cost about 10 percent of the applicable adult fare.

Special In-Flight Services

In addition to standard in-flight services that include free meals (usually served on flights of more than two hours), snacks on short flights, and headsets for music and movies on long-range routes, the domestic airline carriers offer special services that travel agents often have to arrange for their clients.

Special meals. Special meals such as those for children and diabetics and seafood, kosher, vegetarian, low-fat, low-calorie, low-sodium, and Hindu meals are offered on many airlines. Special meals must be requested at least twenty-four hours before flight departure. Travel agents can request special meals and other services for their clients through the computer reservations system or over the telephone directly with the airline.

Assistance for the disabled. The 1986 Air Carrier Access Act and the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act require airlines to provide assistance to all passengers with disabilities so that they have the same access to flight services as all other travelers. This means helping passengers who need such assistance to board or exit the aircraft.

The travel agent can reserve this service in advance directly with the airlines. Travelers can request in advance a wheelchair to meet their flight upon arrival at a connecting airport or at their final destination. For departure flights, travelers request wheelchair assistance when they check in at the ticket counter or from a skycap. If necessary, the passenger is assisted directly on to the plane. When booking flights in the computer reservations system, travel agents can send a message electronically informing the airline that wheelchair assistance is required.

Other medical assistance such as oxygen can be provided travelers when required. Oxygen is always arranged in advance with the airline. Standard procedure is for travel agents to contact special service coordinators at the airline, providing the flight number, date of travel, and passenger's name. There is a charge for oxygen of approximately $50 per tank or unit.

Dogs that assist passengers who are sight- or hearing-impaired are allowed in the cabin free of charge. Arrangements must be made in advance with the airline.

AIRLINE POLICIES AND PASSENGERS' RIGHTS

All passengers--and their travel agents--should know their rights in case of flight delays, cancellations, and other circumstances experienced from time to time. They should also be aware of what the airlines are and are not required to do in these types of situations.

Overbooking
overbooking

A common practice
among airlines to sell more
tickets than there are
available seats to avoid
revenue lost from last-minute
cancellations and
no-shows at the airport.


Overbooking is the practice of selling more tickets than there are available seats on an airplane. This is a common practice among airlines. Overbooking compensates the airline for last-minute cancellations and no-shows, people who hold a reservation but do not take the flight. When passengers book seats and do not show up for the flight nor cancel the flight, the airline is forced to fly with empty seats; it is usually too late for the airline to resell these seats. As a result, the airlines lose money.
oversold

When there are more
booked passengers than
seats available on an
aircraft due to
overbooking.


Many times overbooking works just fine. Usually, the number of no-shows is equal to or more than the number of overbooked passengers. When this happens there is no problem; everyone gets a seat. Unfortunately, sometimes the opposite occurs: the number of no-shows is less than the number of overbooked passengers. In this case, there are too many passengers and not enough seats, resulting in the flight being oversold.
bumped

A passenger who loses his
or her seat due to a flight
being oversold by the
airline.


Voluntary bumping. When a flight is oversold, there are passengers who are left behind or bumped as a result. The rules require airlines to compensate passengers who are bumped from a flight because of overbooking.

Airlines must ask for volunteers to give up their seats before bumping any passengers. If passengers volunteer, they are entitled to compensation. The DOT has not determined how much an airline must pay a bumped passenger, and airlines do negotiate with their passengers for mutually acceptable terms.

In return, they receive passage on the next available flight and either a free ticket in the future or a voucher for varying amounts of money to be applied against the cost of a future ticket. This usually works fine.

Involuntary bumping. However, sometimes the offer of free or reduced air travel doesn't produce enough volunteers to make up for the overbooking. Most airlines will choose the passengers to be bumped involuntarily on a "last-at-the-gate, first-bumped" basis. Having boarding passes in advance does not guarantee that a passenger will not be bumped from the flight. If passengers are bumped involuntarily and the airline books them on a flight that is scheduled to arrive generally within one hour of the original arrival time, the passengers receive no compensation. If the bumped passengers cannot be delivered to their destination within the required time frame, they are entitled to denied-boarding compensation.
denied-boarding
compensation

Compensation paid by the
airlines for those
passengers who lose their
seats on an involuntary
basis and who cannot be
delivered to their
destination within the
required time frame.


The amount of compensation usually depends upon the time the airline takes to transport the passenger. For example, the passenger may be paid up to $400 if the airline delivers him within one to two hours of the original arrival time; the compensation doubles to $800 if the airline delivers him more than two hours after the original arrival time.

The good news is that involuntary bumping does not occur often. According to recent studies, 1 out of 10,000 passengers is likely to be bumped.
Consider This ...

When these situations occur on flights that are not deliberately
overbooked, an airline need not pay passengers any compensation.

* Passenger is bumped due to arrival at the gate beyond airline's
check-in deadline (check-in for most domestic flights is no later
than forty-five minutes to one hour before departure).

* The flight is canceled for any reason.

* The airline substitutes a smaller aircraft for operational or
safety reasons.

* The flight involves an aircraft with sixty or fewer seats.


Canceled Flights

Airlines do not guarantee their schedules and they reserve the right to postpone or cancel any flight without notice. Contrary to what many people think, airlines are not required to compensate a person whose flight has been canceled for any number of reasons, including availability of flight crews or for weather-related reasons.

The policy on how to handle booked passengers when a flight is canceled is left up to each airline. Usually how the airline handles a cancellation depends on the reason. Passengers who are booked on a flight that is canceled should inquire about the airline's policy, especially if the cancellation is due to bad weather.

Most airlines will book passengers on the next available flight to their destination. Again, the airlines are not obligated to book the passenger on the next flight on its system, or on another carrier's flight that departs sooner.

A good suggestion is to ask the airline for money or vouchers for expenses such as hotel, meals, and ground transportation. If refused, passengers should keep all receipts and contact the airline consumer affairs office upon return. Depending on the circumstances, there may be a chance that the passenger will be reimbursed in that case.

Lost Tickets

An airline ticket is like cash. If the ticket is lost, the passenger is required to purchase another ticket at his or her expense. To report the ticket loss, the passenger completes a lost ticket application, which is issued by the airline. There is usually an administrative handling fee charged by the airline to research and process the refund. Research time and subsequent refund may take four to six months to complete.

Lost, Damaged, or Delayed Baggage

If the passenger's bags are lost, damaged, or delayed on a domestic flight, the liability limit is $2,500 per passenger on all flights on large aircraft (more than sixty seats). This rule also extends to flights on smaller or commuter aircraft that are written on the same ticket and connect with flights on a large aircraft. This rule does not apply to commuter flights alone.

This amount is the most the airline will pay to settle a claim for all baggage, no matter how great the loss. Airlines will pay the depreciated value only, not purchase or replacement costs. Also, airlines usually pay far less than the $2,500, and the passenger must prove the loss.

Air Traveler's Bill of Rights

The American Society of Travel Agents (ASTA) is the association of travel professionals to whom the traveling public looks for its travel information and advice. According to ASTA, it has issued these principles of air travelers' rights in the hope that the airline industry "adopt them in practice as well as in name and thereby restore service and dependability to the traveling public air space."

ASTA's Air Traveler's Bill of Rights asserts that travelers deserve the following:

* Truth in advertised prices, schedules, and seat availability

* Equal access to unbiased, comparative travel information and all fare and service options

* Comfortable seats, reasonable spaces for carry-on luggage, healthful meals, and clean sanitary facilities, regardless of class of service

* Timely and courteous assistance in making connections

* The right to use all, part, or none of the segments on any ticket lawfully purchased

* Timely, complete, and truthful information and courteous assistance regarding delays, cancellations, and equipment changes

* Timely and courteous assistance for the disabled and unaccompanied children

* Appropriate in-flight medical emergency assistance

* Access to the courts and state consumer laws to resolve disputes with airlines

CHECK POINT 1-4

Circle the best answer.

1. Which of the following refers to special award programs offered by airlines that allow travelers to earn points based on air mileage and redeem them for either a free ticket or upgrade for future travel?

a. Bonus pack

b. Airline club

c. Discount club

d. Frequent-flier

2. Delta Air Lines's Crown Room and Air Canada's Maple Leaf Lounge are examples of

a. special seating.

b. airline clubs.

c. business traveler awards.

d. airport restaurants.

3. The maximum linear measurement of checked-in luggage accepted by most domestic carriers is

a. 44 inches.

b. 65 inches.

c. 80 inches.

d. 50 inches.

4. Which of the following items would not be accepted as carry-on baggage?

a. Camera

b. Infant's collapsible stroller

c. Crutches

d. Skis

5. Most airlines will not accept a child traveling alone who is under the age of

a. eight years.

b. five years.

c. twelve years.

d. fifteen years.

6. The practice of selling more tickets than available seats on a flight is called

a. overbooking.

b. controlled-inventory.

c. denied boarding.

d. overcompensating.

7. The maximum amount most airlines will compensate if a passenger's baggage is lost or destroyed is

a. $1,250.

b. $400.

c. $2,500.

d. $800.

8. If a flight is oversold, the airline first

a. asks the last few passengers who boarded the aircraft to leave their seats.

b. cancels the flight.

c. asks for volunteers to give up their seats and compensates them.

d. gives passengers back their money.

9. The federal agency that oversees consumer protection issues relating to airline passengers is the

a. FAA.

b. ARC.

c. CAB.

d. DOT.

10. The practice of one carrier using the code of another on a specific route is called a. regional agreement.

b. code-share agreement.

c. route-share agreement.

d. interline agreement.

11. Denied-boarding compensation

a. varies according to the amount of time it takes to transport the passengers to their destination.

b. can be a maximum of $1,200.

c. is provided to passengers who are waiting for last-minute cancellations and cannot board the flight.

d. is paid if passengers cannot arrive at their destination within twelve hours of the originally scheduled time.

12. Which of the following is the only true statement?

a. Special in-flight meals are on a first-come, first-served basis.

b. On most flights, seats can be assigned up to six months in advance of departure.

c. Airlines are not required to compensate passengers if their flights are canceled for any reason.

d. Passengers who lose their tickets can travel on the next available flight at no extra charge.

Chapter 1 Test

NAME: --

DATE: --

Match each term with the correct definition on the right.

a. Supplemental airline

b. Override

c. Industry Agents' Handbook

d. Wide-body

e. Ticket Qualifier

f. Supplier

g. Civil aviation

h. Turbojet

i. Stretch version

j. Bulkhead

k. Airline club

l. Seat assignment

m. Dual-designated carriers

1. -- A company that provides a travel product

2. -- The full-time owner or manager of a new agency who has at least two years' experience selling travel

3. -- All flights and related services offered to the traveling public

4. -- A plane that has two walking aisles

5. -- Category of aircraft operated by most major airlines

6. -- ARC's "how-to" guide to ticketing

7. -- Higher commission awarded to travel agencies

8. -- A later model of an aircraft that has been built larger to accommodate more passengers

9. -- A carrier that does not operate on a set schedule; also called a charter

10. -- Any wall or partition inside a plane

11. -- Two or more airlines that share the same code on certain routes

12. -- A number and letter designation that specifies a seat reservation on a flight

13. -- A more comfortable and quiet place to sit waiting for a flight, but at a fee

Circle the best answer.

14. Airlines that operate regularly scheduled long-distance routes such as United Airlines, Delta Air Lines, and Continental Airlines are examples of

a. commuter airlines.

b. regional airlines.

c. supplemental airlines.

d. trunk airlines.

15. A small airline operates only between points within the southwestern part of the United States and between points in Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado. This is an example of a

a. commuter airline.

b. major airline.

c. regional airline.

d. charter airline.

16. Which code identifies a wide-body aircraft?

a. M11

b. 757

c. F27

d. M80

17. Which code identifies a small turboprop aircraft?

a. DC9

b. 727

c. 737

d. ATR

18. Which is not a true statement?

a. Bulkhead seats are usually reserved for passengers with disabilities.

b. Exit row seats are usually reserved for passengers with infants.

c. The smoothest ride on an airplane is over the wing.

d. Aisle seats are often requested by business travelers.

19. Refer to Figure 1-5 in the text. A passenger is flying on a 747 and is sitting in a window seat located on the right side (facing forward) of the aircraft, in coach. What is her seat assignment?

a. 48H

b. 13A

c. 51K

d. 4F

20. When checking in for a flight, all passengers are required to show this in addition to a valid airline ticket.

a. Social Security card

b. Proof of citizenship

c. Return ticket

d. Photo identification

21. A passenger's ticket shows a Continental flight from Newark to Boston, connecting to another Continental flight from Boston to Bar Harbor, Maine. However, the airline operating the short flight from Boston to Bar Harbor is a small airline called Colgon Air. This is an example of

a. airline reciprocity.

b. yield management.

c. dual-designated carriers.

d. intertravel agreements.

22. The average excess baggage fee is -- per bag.

a. $10

b. $200

c. $50

d. $100

23. A child who is seven years of age is accepted by an airline to travel unaccompanied by an adult. The standard policy requires that the child travel on a flight that

a. involves no change of aircraft.

b. arrives at the final destination before 6:00 P.M.

c. serves children meals.

d. departs in the morning hours.

24. A passenger loses her luggage on a TWA flight from Chicago to Los Angeles. What is the maximum amount that the airline is required to compensate the passenger if her luggage is never found or is destroyed?

a. $800

b. $1,250

c. $2,500

d. Not required to compensate

25. Which of the following is the trade organization that created the Air Traveler's Bill of Rights. a. FAA

b. ARC

c. DOT

d. ASTA

26. For which service are passengers charged?

a. Seeing Eye dog in cabin

b. Oxygen tank for medical purposes

c. Wheelchair assistance at the airport

d. Special meals

27. A passenger is "bumped" involuntarily from a flight because it is oversold. The airline books the passenger on the next available flight to his destination. If the passenger's original arrival time was 1:30 P.M., and he arrived at 3:00 P.M. on the rebooked flight, what compensation from the airline is he entitled to?

a. $400

b. $100

c. $800

d. None

Write the code for each of the following airlines:

28. Delta Air Lines --

29. American Airlines --

30. Southwest Airlines --

31. Air Jamaica --

32. Alaska Airlines --

33. America West Airlines --

34. United Airlines --

35. Trans World Airlines --

36. Continental Airlines --

37. AirTran Airways --

Write the name of the airline for each of the following codes:

38. AC --

39. UP --

40. AQ --

41. AM --

42. US --

43. MX --

44. NW --

45. F9 --

46. JI --

47. YX --
FIGURE 1-2
Major North American
airlines and codes

AIRLINE NAME                 LETTER CODE   NUMERIC CODE

Aeromexico                   AM            139
Air Canada                   AC            014
Air Jamaica                  JM            201
AirTran Airways              FL            332
Alaska Airlines              AS            027
Aloha Airlines               AQ            327
American Airlines            AA            001
America West Airlines        HP            401
Bahamasair                   UP            111
Canadian Airlines            CP            018
Continental Airlines         CO            005
Delta Air Lines              DL            006
Frontier Airlines            F9            422
Mexicana                     MX            132
Midway Airlines              JI            878
Midwest Express Airlines     YX            453
Northwest Airlines           NW            012
Pan American World Airways   PA            388
Southwest Airlines           WN            526
Trans World Airlines         TW            015
United Airlines              UA            016
US Airways                   US            037

FIGURE 1-3
Aircraft codes

Wide-Body Aircraft (2 walking aisles)

AIRCRAFT CODE
(STANDARD/        AIRCRAFT                      LATER MODELS/
ORIGINAL MODEL)   TYPE/NAME                     VERSIONS

AB3               Airbus Industrie              310, 330, 340, 343
747               Boeing 747                    743, 744, 74M
767               Boeing 767                    763
777               Boeing 777                    --
L10               Lockheed L-1011               L15
D10               McDonnell Douglas DC-10       --
M11               McDonnell Douglas MD-11       --

Narrow-Body Aircraft (1 walking aisle)

717               Boeing 717                    --
727               Boeing 727                    72S
737               Boeing 737                    73S, 733, 734, 735
757               Boeing 757                    --
M80               McDonnell Douglas MD-80       --
DC9               McDonnell Douglas DC-9        D9S

Turboprop Aircraft (less than 75 passengers)

ATR               Aerospatiale/Alenia           --
F27               Fokker F27 Friendship         --
SF3               Saab SF340                    --
J31               British Aerospace Jetstream   --
SWM               Fairchild Metro/Merlin        --
GRS               Gulfstream Aerospace          --
SH6               Shorts 360                    --

AIRCRAFT CODE
(STANDARD/        PASSENGER
ORIGINAL MODEL)   CAPACITY

AB3               218-375
747               452-592
767               216-290
777               305-375
L10               256-400
D10               255-380
M11               250-400

Narrow-Body Aircraft (1 walking aisle)

717               90-125
727               125-189
737               120-170
757               178-239
M80               172
DC9               90-139

Turboprop Aircraft (less than 75 passengers)

ATR               42-74
F27               33-60
SF3               35
J31               47
SWM               59
GRS               74
SH6               70

FIGURE 1-7

Domestic Frequent-Flier Programs

AIRLINE                       PROGRAM NAME

Aero California                Club Altus
Aeromexico                     Club Premier
Air Canada                     Aeroplan[R]
Alaska Airlines                Mileage Plan
American Airlines              AAdvantage Program
America West                   FlightFund
Continental                    OnePass
Delta Air Lines                SkyMiles[R] Program
Midwest Express                Frequent Flyer
Northwest                      WorldPerks
Southwest Airlines             Rapid Rewards
Trans World Airlines           Aviators
United                         Mileage Plus
US Airways                     Dividend Miles

FIGURE 1-8

Airline Clubs

Getting Away from It All

AIRLINE                         CLUB NAME
Air Canada                     Maple Leaf Lounge
Alaska Airlines                Board Room
Aloha Airlines                 Executive Club
American Airlines              Admirals Club
America West America           West Club
Continental                    Presidents Club
Delta Air Lines                Crown Room
Hawaiian Airlines              Premier Club
Northwest                      WorldClubs
Trans World Airlines           Ambassadors Club[R]
United                         Red Carpet Club
US Airways                     US Airways Club
COPYRIGHT 2001 Delmar Learning
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2001 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
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Author:Semer-Purzycki, Jeanne
Publication:A Practical Guide to Fares and Ticketing, 3rd ed.
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2001
Words:11758
Previous Article:Introduction.
Next Article:Chapter 2 Airline geography and terms.
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