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Changing classroom practice through blogs and vlogs.


Being literate in today's society is significantly different from that of decades past. The effects of new technology and globalisation have transformed the amount and diversity of information available, how information can be presented, and the ease with which anyone can become a published author for a global audience (Jewitt, 2008; Potts, Schlichting, Pridgen, & Hatch, 2010). In addition, children's learning of literacy is no longer limited to the classroom, as students are constantly engaged in the process of making meaning and sharing multimodal texts in their out-of-school lives (Rowsell & Walsh, 2011).

In many classrooms today, literacy education appears to be different from what has been traditionally expected: students use technology to access information online and they use it to produce a range of computer-generated, colourful, professional-looking end products. But, literacy education needs to do more than integrate technology 'to learn old things in old ways' (Cope & Kalantzis, 2009b, p. 88). As educators, it is imperative we understand how the nature of literacy is evolving and how changes in technology mean more than easy access to, and reproduction of, information.

This article will explore how teachers can critically review and transform their current literacy practices by understanding the current research in literacy education and the significant technological advances that have occurred. It begins by discussing recent understandings about multiliteracies, then it presents my rethinking of literacy practice in relation to my Grade 5 class and the consequent writing of blogs and vlogs.


The New London Group (1996) developed the term multiliteracies to describe the complex nature of literacy that exists in today's society (Cope & Kalantzis, 2009a). The New London Group recognised that, to be literate, individuals needed a variety of communicative strategies that they could use flexibly to engage in a range of social and cultural settings. They highlighted that literacy education could not be limited to reading, writing and speaking a national language. Hence, according to the literature (e.g., Education Queensland, 2002), a multiliteracies approach includes three key dimensions:

* cultural and linguistic diversity;

* media and technology;

* critical literacy.

Integral to a multiliteracies approach is the understanding that students develop the skills to unpack the messages behind images, text and audio, understand that all texts are socially constructed and engage as active citizens who recognise that they have the choice to reproduce or transform the ideas that surround them (Cope & Kalantzis, 2009a; Jewitt, 2008; Rowsell & Walsh, 2011; Unsworth, 2001). Many authors (e.g., Education Queensland, 2002; Jewitt, 2008; Rowsell & Walsh, 2011; Unsworth, 2001) discuss the way that multiliteracies is more than developing students' technological skills, while Cope and Kalantzis (2009b) provide a detailed yet succinct summary that is very helpful. They discuss four dimensions of new media that are different from those of traditional media:

1. agency;

2. divergence;

3. multimodality;

4. conceptualisation.

Firstly, new media provide opportunities for increased agency. The interactivity of reading and writing online, social media and digital entertainment allows everyone to select their own path to investigate or view. Traditionally, information was disseminated in one direction, via politicians, established experts or bosses, who were the producers of information; but now 'consumers are creators and creators are consumers' (Cope & Kalantzis, 2009b, p. 91). Increased agency leads to the freedom of difference being openly shared, celebrated and explored. Hence, Cope and Kalantzis recognise divergence as the second dimension of new media. New media provide everyone with the opportunity to publish and share perspectives and ideas. Cope and Kalantzis explain that this sharing and exploration of diversity leads to even more diversity and ultimately allows 'knowledge and culture to become more fluid, contestable and open' (p. 94).

Thirdly, the technology of new media means that text and image are made from the same raw material, pixels. So, creating messages using one or more modes has become easily achievable for everyone. In just a short time, this has resulted in images replacing the written word as a dominant mode of communication (Cope & Kalantzis, 2009b; Jewitt, 2008). Finally, Cope and Kalantzis (2009b) describe how new media require individuals to monitor how they think. They call this fourth dimension, conceptualisation.

To be an active participant in the world, one must do more than view, read and consume. One must use metacognitive skills to successfully navigate media and understand how messages are constructed. A thorough understanding of the multiliteracies approach and the four dimensions of new media can help educators to identify which areas of their current curriculum support students to develop their multiliteracies competencies and to identify areas for improvement.

Rethinking practice

I currently teach a class of Grade Five students (10- and 11-year-olds) in a large international school in South East Asia. The school is well resourced with one-to-one laptops and the availability of iPads, which are shared within the grade. Students are proficient in using and collaborating with Google applications such as Google Docs and Slides along with many other applications on the computers and iPads.

As a school, we have a structured and rigorous reading and writing program that provides students with a range of strategies to become readers who think deeply and writers who explore different ways to enhance their writing. The literacy program encourages students to be metacognitive through regular teacher-student conferences. The student is always the centre, with discussion about strengths and the next steps that will help the student move forward.

As a teacher, I thought my integration of technology in the classroom was very good, as students in my class regularly access technological tools to enhance learning through gathering information, recording their thinking using a variety of platforms and using technology to collaborate as learners. However, as my own understandings of multiliteracies developed, I started to review the literacy program I provided to my students. The readings I have already mentioned and a table provided by Bull and Anstey (2010, p. 5) were helpful in supporting my critical reflection. As shown in Table 1, some aspects of my teaching were aligned with a multiliteracies approach, while others were not.

What became clear through this critical reflection was that my program had many elements of a multiliteracies approach, but three vital elements were absent:

* critical literacy development;

* students did not have the opportunity to share their knowledge with the community beyond our classroom walls;

* multimodal texts were accessed for information gathering purposes, but no deeper investigation or critical lenses were applied to understand them or to consider how they are constructed.

The culminating unit in Grade Five is called Exhibition of Learning. This unit gives ownership for students to lead their own inquiry learning and to demonstrate the skills they have developed through Junior School. During this unit, students have the opportunity to research, in small groups, a topic about which they are passionate. In their groups, students ask questions and research extensively using a wide range of primary and secondary sources, in order to become experts. Using their expertise, students are encouraged to take action to make a positive difference in their sphere of influence. In the past, this unit has largely been isolated to our Social Studies program and not integrated with literacy. With my developing understanding of multiliteracies, it became clear that this unit needed to be more purposefully linked to the literacy program. Prior to beginning the Exhibition of Learning, the reading unit was adapted to include critical literacies and I began working with students to develop their understandings of multimodal texts and how they are constructed.

From my critical reflection outlined in Table 1, I recognised the possibility of providing students with the opportunity and skills to share their own knowledge to a wider audience. Through the medium of blogging, students could develop their skills to publish their own messages to the world through text, images and audio. Several researchers of educational blogs (Jimoyiannis & Angelaina, 2012; Kim, 2008; Novakovich, 2016; O'Byrne & Murrell, 2014; Yeo & Lee, 2014) identify numerous benefits to blogging and show how this platform can support multiliteracies pedagogy. For example, the benefits can include:

* learners feeling empowered and motivated to communicate;

* the easy integration of a variety of modes;

* the alignment of the participatory culture with real world literacy practices;

* critical thinking encouraged through commenting.

Ebrecht (2015) highlighted that blogging promotes meaningful communication and develops critical and analytical thinking, along with collaborative and reflective skills. O'Byrne and Murrell (2014) stated that blogging helps students to construct meaning and participate in meaningful dialogue within and beyond the classroom.

To support teachers' implementation of a multiliteracies approach, The New London Group (1996) described a pedagogical framework that contains four pedagogical acts: situated practice, critical framing, overt instruction and transformed practice. This framework was later adjusted to focus on the types of actions required by students: experiencing, conceptualising, analysing and applying (Cope & Kalantzis, 2009a, pp. 185-186; Kalantzis, Cope, & the Learning by Design Project Group, 2005). Using this framework, along with understandings of multiliteracies, the new literacies studies and multimodal research, Mills and Levido (2011) developed a very practical and teacher-friendly pedagogical model named iPed. As can be seen in Table 2, this model incorporates the key areas identified by Cope and Kalantzis (2009a), but it simplifies them and makes them more accessible for developing units for students in all age groups. As can be seen by the unit detailed in Tables 4 and 6, the phases of the iPed Model are not linear and may be repeated or cycled during a lesson or unit.

A writing unit: Blogs and video blogs (vlogs)

In this section, I present the culminating unit for Grade 5 that I designed. I set out to transform how students reflected upon and shared their learning during the six week Exhibition of Learning unit. Students were encouraged to think deeply about the whole learning process they were experiencing. The blogging platform offered the students an authentic audience with whom to share a range of meaningful messages. Students received regular feedback via peers, parents and other teachers.

Table 4 shows the unit's assessment and Table 5 shows the writing checklist used by the students to self-reflect. The next tables present the unit outline, which incorporated Mills and Levido's (2011) iPed Model. Table 6, Table 7, Table 8 and Table 9 show Week 1, Week 2, Week 3 and Weeks 4-5 respectively.


The integration of a multiliteracies approach in this unit provided the students with the opportunity to use multimodal texts to reflect on their learning and to connect with a wider, authentic audience. Students felt empowered by the realisation that they had the power to share their ideas and knowledge with the world. Knowing their posts could be read by anyone, most students demonstrated a higher level of thought to their work and took greater care to edit before publishing. They recognised that their audience was not limited to readers this year, but it also included future Grade 5s who would be able to read their posts and find them useful.

Student choice was critical in ensuring that this unit was successful. It allowed differentiation to occur naturally, in addition to inspiring creativity. Students showed more enthusiasm and commitment to their work because they had the opportunity to choose the purpose of their post, as well as to decide whether it was written (a blog) or video (a vlog).

Students experienced the natural power of 'hooking' the reader through powerful words, images and text layout. A post that utilised one of these three elements or a combination of the three generated more comments from those reading/viewing the blogs/vlogs.

Using the iPed model to support the planning of the unit helped me to ensure that learning opportunities for the students were balanced and in line with multiliteracies research. In particular, it helped me to ensure that I was linking the learning to the students' own real life experiences and incorporating opportunities for the students to be both critical viewers and writers as they were developing their own texts. Figures 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 provide examples of the students' work.

After watching a Kid President clip, available from YouTube, students recorded their thinking on to the Google slide shown in Figure 1. The students were encouraged to use their critical thinking skills to analyse how different modes--sound, image and language--were used to portray a particular message. They had so many ideas that we needed three slides to record all of their thinking.

Students experienced agency through choosing their own topic for each blog post. This led to increased motivation and gave insight into what they valued in their learning. The post in Figure 2 shows a student's reflection on his learning about using the Internet for research and on staying focused.

New media provide students with access to a variety of perspectives about one issue. This helps them to see beyond the stereotypes often generated by mass media. Through their blog posts, students were then able to share their own perspective with a wide audience, as indicated in Figure 3.

Figure 4 shows how comments were used as part of the unit. The commenting feature of blogging provides students with authentic feedback--from their class peers, as well as from students in another school. In addition, students were able to see that their posts have a positive impact on others.

Image has joined written word as a dominant mode of communication. In their blog posts, students were encouraged to utilise the power of images to hook a reader's attention. An example is shown in Figure 5. Students were taught how to attribute the images they used. In Figure 5, a Creative Commons attribution accompanies the image and shows that the image came from https://


The nature of literacy has changed. An understanding of multiliteracies and the underpinning pedagogy can empower educators to transform the literacy curriculum in their classrooms. The new dimensions of technology provide clarity in understanding how to ensure the curriculum is not simply using technology at a surface level, but rather develops students' understanding and skills to be critical thinkers and creators who can share their perspectives of the world and be agents for positive change.

Using blogs and vlogs in the classroom enhanced students' engagement and their desire to produce writing of a high quality. For some students, the blogging platform linked to their own experience of creating texts and sharing media; for other students, it provided them with the knowledge, understanding and skills to inspire them to be publishers of meaningful text in the future.


Bull, G., & Anstey, M. (2010). Using the principles of multiliteracies to inform pedagogical change. In D. Cole & D. Pullen (Eds.), Multiliteracies in motion: Current theory and practice (pp. 141-159). London: Routledge.

Cope, B., & Kalantzis, M. (2009a). 'Multiliteracies': New literacies, new learning. International Journal of Learning, 4(3), 164-195. doi:10.1080/15544800903076044

Cope, B., & Kalantzis, M. (2009b). New media, new learning. In D. Cole & D. Pullen (Eds.), Multiliteracies in motion: Current theory and practice (pp. 87-104). London: Taylor and Francis.

Ebrecht, B.M. (2015). A case study of classroom blogging in three elementary schools. Journal of Educational Research and Innovation, 4(1), 1-22.

Education Queensland. (2002). Literate futures: Reading. Brisbane: Queensland Government.

Jewitt, C. (2008). Multimodality and literacy in school classrooms. Review of Research in Education, 32 (1), 241-267. doi:10.3102/0091732X07310586

Jimoyiannis, A., & Angelaina, S. (2012). Towards an analysis framework for investigating students' engagement and learning in educational blogs. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 28(3), 222-234. doi:10.1111/ j.1365-2729.2011.00467.x

Kalantzis, M., Cope, B., & the Learning by Design Project Group. (2005). Learning by design. Melbourne. Vic.: Victorian Schools Innovation Commission & Common Ground Publishing.

Kim, H.N. (2008). The phenomenon of blogs and theoretical model of blog use in educational contexts. Computers and Education, 51 (3), 1342-1352. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2007.12.005

Mills, K.A., & Levido, A. (2011). iPed: Pedagogy for digital text production. The Reading Teacher, 65(1), 80-91. doi:10.1598/RT.65.1.11

Novakovich, J. (2016). Fostering critical thinking and reflection through blog-mediated peer feedback. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 32 (1), 16-30. doi:10.1111/jcal.12114

O'Byrne, B., & Murrell, S. (2014). Evaluating multimodal literacies in student blogs. British Journal of Educational Technology, 45(5), 926-940. doi:10.1111/bjet.12093

Potts, A., Schlichting, K., Pridgen, A., & Hatch, J. (2010). Understanding new literacies for new times: Pedagogy in action. International Journal of Learning, 17(8), 187-194.

Rowsell, J., & Walsh, M. (2011). Rethinking literacy education in new times: Multimodality, multiliteraceis, and new literacies. Brock Education, 21 (1), 53-62.

The New London Group. (1996). A pedagogy of multiliteracies: Designing social futures. Harvard Educational Review, 66(1), 60-92.

Unsworth, L. (2001). Changing dimensions of school literacies. In Teaching multiliteracies across the curriculum: Changing contexts of text and image in classroom practice (pp. 8-20). Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.

Yeo, H.I., & Lee, Y.L. (2014). Exploring new potentials of blogs for learning: Can children use blogs for personal information management (PIM)? British Journal of Educational Technology, 45(5), 916-925. doi:10.1111/ bjet.12117

Sarah La Caze | United World College South East Asia, Singapore

Sarah La Caze is a Grade 5 teacher at United World College South East Asia. She is currently working towards a masters degree in Education.

Caption: Figure 1. A slide showing students' thinking about how different modes can portray a message

Caption: Figure 2. A student's blog showing his reflections on the use of the Internet for research

Caption: Figure 3. An example of a student's blog that shared a perspective with a wide audience

Caption: Figure 4. The use of the commenting feature of blogging

Caption: Figure 5. A student's use of image and Creative Commons attribution
Table 1. Reflecting on teaching in relation
to a multiliteracies approach

Areas aligned with                Areas not aligned with
a multiliteracies approach        a multiliteracies approach

* Students are supported and      * Reading and writing programs
encouraged to be knowledge        are heavily print-based.

* Students have agency in         * The audience for writing is
choosing reading books and        predominantly the teacher.
writing topics within a
specific genre.
                                  * Students' life experiences to
* Students' prior knowledge is    create texts using digital
valued and built upon during      technology are not recognised or
units.                            developed.

* Metacognition is modelled       * All summative literacy
and encouraged.                   assessment is print based.

* Students have access to         * There is no instruction to
technology and confidently use    develop students' understanding
a range of applications (e.g.,    of how multimodal texts are
Google applications and Pages,    created or to explore
a word processor from Apple)      synesthesia (Cope & Kalantzis,
to record, share and              2009b).
                                  * Limited instruction to develop
* Discussions between teacher     critical literacies.
and students and between and
amongst students allow
students to process and
articulate their thinking as
well as hear alternative

* Teacher's role is

Table 2. The iPed Model, adapted from Mills and Levido (2011)

iPed Pedagogy                                     Link to the work of
                                                  Cope and Kalantzis

Link        * Provide opportunities to make       Experiencing
            connections to students'

            * Teachers support students in
            making three kinds of connections:
            text to self, text to culture and
            text to world.

Challenge   * Teach students that social          Analysing
            meanings are inherent in text.

            * Develop students' abilities to
            judge authenticity and authority
            question the underlying message and
            look for alternative perspectives.

            * Students question and critically
            analyse the messages underlying
            their own products.

Co-create   * Scaffold learning by developing     Conceptualising +
            specific terminology and skills,      Applying
            co-producing media for a real         (functionally)

            * Three phases of instruction:

            1. Predict: Anticipate new
            knowledge for students and support.

            2. Demonstrate: Teacher or other
            experts demonstrate how to create,
            thereby building terminology and
            process skills.

            3. Do: Students apply their
            knowledge and create in a supported

            This cycle may occur many times
            within a lesson.

Share       * Publish texts to a meaningful       Applying
            audience for interaction and          (functionally or
            feedback.                             creatively)

Table 4. The unit's assessment

Summative Assessment:

Students select 2 of their blog posts to evaluate. Students
self-reflect using the writing checklist (see Table 5) before
teacher assesses it using the same checklist.


Small group and class discussion to determine prior knowledge and

Formative assessment: Open feedback by peers and wider community
through comments; teacher reading posts and giving regular feedback
via comments; teacher/student conferencing.

Table 5. Checklist for students' self-reflection and teachers' use

Benchmarks    Checklist            Tick the     Star the     Put a
or Targets                         ones I       areas I      triangle
                                   have shown   really       in the
                                   in this      focused on   areas that
                                   piece of     during       I still
                                   writing      this piece   need to
                                                             work on
                                                             (max. 3)

Structure     I can organise my
              writing to have a
              clear focus and/
              or message.

              I can organise my
              writing into a
              logical sequence
              of separate
              sections, bullets
              or numbered lists.

              I can introduce
              and conclude my
              writing to help
              the reader
              understand my

              I can use
              transitional words
              to help readers
              follow my thinking
              and connect my
              piece. Sometimes
              the transitional
              words are within
              sometimes they
              begin a sentence,
              e.g., as a result,

Critical      I can support my
thinking/     ideas with
Reflection    evidence or

              I can synthesise
              and summarise my
              experience and
              show deeper

              I can recognise
              and include

Text          I can use images
features      and graphics to
              complement and
              support my focus.

Vlogs         I can use a          Give
              variety of modes     example:
              audio, spatial,
              gestures, visual)
              to enhance my

Word          I can make
choice        deliberate word
              choices that
              complement the
              purpose of my
              post, e.g.,
              persuade, teach,

Punctuation   I can use capital
              letters, commas
              and full stops

              I can make
              deliberate choices
              to punctuate my
              work to emphasise
              my message and
              make the reader
              stop and think.

References    I cite all images
              from outside

              I use hyperlinks
              or Easybib to
              reference sources.

Table 6. Week 1 of the unit outline, showing how the phases of
the iPed Model were incorporated

Week   iPed phase   Learning experiences             Resources (1-
       (from                                         to-l laptops
       Mills &                                       and headphones;
       Levido,                                       iPads
       2011)                                         available)

1      Link         Introduce the term blog and      Model blogs
                    discuss prior knowledge.         (example blogs
                                                     that showed how
                    Students explore four examples   blogs can be
                    of blogs that connected to       used in
                    their world in some way          contexts
                                                     relevant to
                    During exploration students      their
                    were asked to consider:          experience and
                                                     people they
                    * What is a blog?                knew):
                    * How do people use them?
                    * Why do people use them?        * Exhibition
                                                     blogs from
                                                     * A blog by the
                                                     literacy coach
                                                     * A blog by a
                                                     parent of a
                                                     student in the
                                                     * A blog
                                                     written by a

       Co-create    Students identify and name
                    common elements across the
                    four examples.

                    Guest speaker: Digital
                    literacy coach discusses her
                    blog and answers questions.

                    As a class develop the key
                    features a blog must have.

                    Set up blog access and
                    permissions for students.

                    Demonstrate: How to write an
                    About Us page.

                    Do/Share: In groups, students
                    write their About Us page.

       Challenge    Whole class and group
                    discussions around questions
                    (Mills & Levido, 2011, p. 84):

                    * What is the purpose of our
                    * How can I use words, images
                    and audio to enhance my
                    * Who is our intended
                    * Who can view this blog?
                    * What personal information/
                    images should we share or
                    * How do my blog posts build
                    on the work of my peers?
                    * How do I show respect for
                    others in my post and
                    * What perspectives do I
                    include or leave out in my
                    posts? Why?
                    * Who benefits from my blog?

                    Guest speaker: Parent blog
                    writer addressed her response
                    to many of these questions.

       Link         Demonstrate: How to add a        Writing
       Co-create    meaningful image that            guidelines with
       Share        represented their Exhibition     examples,
                    topic to Blog Header.            available
                                                     online for
                    Do: In groups students found a   students
                    meaningful image to represent
                    their topics.

                    Writing posts

                    Students explore connection
                    between Blogger and other
                    programs they are familiar

                    Do/Share: Students reflect on
                    shared experience to create
                    their first blog post and
                    publish to the blog.
                    Guidelines from previous
                    lesson available as framework.

                    Do/Share: Students choose from
                    suggestions in guidelines to
                    write another post and publish
                    on group blog.

Table 7. Week 2 of the unit outline

Week   iPed phase   Learning experiences             Resources (1-to-
       (from                                         1 laptops and
       Mills &                                       headphones; iPads
       Levido,                                       available)

Week   Link         Commenting: Reflect on           Show several
2      Co-create    established practices of         examples to
       Share        giving feedback to peers via     illustrate
                    conversations, sticky notes      appropriate and
                    and Google docs.                 thoughtful
                    Make connections to how          Example on the
                    commenting can be used in        digital literacy
                    blogs.                           coach's blog

                    Demonstrate: Explore examples
                    of comments and discuss.

                    Use to develop class
                    guidelines to write comments.

                    Do/Share: Students comment on
                    the blog of students from
                    another international school.

       Link         Hyperlinking in posts (links     Blog example
       Co-create    to reading unit)                 relevant to our
                                                     reading unit
                    Review websites used during
                    reading unit.

                    Discuss how hyperlinks were
                    used to strengthen the
                    argument the author presented.
                    Allow reader to read further
                    about the issue.

                    Demonstrate: Model summary of
                    one website and how to add

                    Do: Students write summary of
                    one or two websites including

       Co-create    Do/Share: Students write a
                    blog post, choosing their own
                    focus and comment on another
                    person's post.

Table 8. Week 3 of the unit outline

Week   iPed phase   Learning experiences               Resources (1-
       (from                                           to-1 laptops
       Mills &                                         and headphones;
       Levido,                                         iPads
       2011)                                           available)

Week   Link         Vlogs:                             Vlog slideshow
3      Challenge    Link to students' prior            information
       Co-create    knowledge of videos on the         about vlogs,
       Share        internet.                          guiding
                                                       questions and
                    Students independently explore     links to vlogs
                    examples using guiding             on YouTube
                    questions.                         Shared
                                                       slideshow that
                    Students develop list of what      allowed
                    they noticed.                      students to add
                                                       their thinking
                    Demonstrate: Students develop      to share with
                    possible topics for vlog.          the class This
                                                       also provided a
                    Whole class select a topic and     record for
                    discuss how to plan vlog and       students to
                    recording techniques.              refer to later
                                                       when developing
                    Do: Within Exhibition groups,      their own
                    students choose to work            vlogs.
                    independently, in partnerships
                    or in triads to plan and
                    practise vlog.

                    Students upload vlogs to their

       Co-create    Do/Share: Students write a blog
       Share        or vlog per week and comment on
                    another person's post.

Table 9. Weeks 4-5 of the unit outline

Week    iPed phase                                    Resources (1 to
        (from        Learning experiences             1 laptops and
        Mills &                                       headphones;
        Levido,                                       iPads
        2011)                                         available)

Weeks   Link         Do/Share: Students blog after
4-5     Co-create    their Exhibition presentations
        Share        are complete.

                     Link: Whole class discussion
                     about how to regard the
                     appropriate end posts for

                     * What final messages do you
                     want to share with your
                     * What will be the most
                     appropriate mode (e.g., vlog
                     or blog) to do that?
                     * Will you vlog individually
                     or in a group?

                     Do/Share: Students write their
                     final post on the blog.

                     Do/Share: Students comment on
                     each other's final posts.

                     Students choose 2 posts from     Checklist
                     their collection to assess       (see Table 5)
                     using criteria set by class.

                     Students reflect on unit.
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Author:La Caze, Sarah
Publication:Literacy Learning: The Middle Years
Article Type:Report
Date:Feb 1, 2017
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