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Changes of superficial properties of cotton cellulose in processes of preparation and finishing of textile materials.

INTRODUCTION

The structure of cellulose fibers causes both physical properties of natural fiber, and his behavior in relation to some chemical reagents [1]. In structure of cellulose fibers always there is a network of the thinnest submicroscopic capillaries which existence is caused by specifics of a natural condition of cellulose system and its role in life of plants [2]. Existence of this capillary system after cellulose allocation from plants and removal of considerable part of satellites of cellulose during cleaning, depends on conditions of processing, washing and drying [3]. And in this regard in cellulose fiber after these processes the initial capillarity can or remain or even to increase, or to decrease as mobility the chainomatic molecules of cellulose in liquid active environments is very great and in swelling process in them redistribution is possible in an arrangement of cellulose molecules and fibriles in structure of fiber and to some extent compression the interfibrillar or even intercrystalline spaces [4].

It is difficult giving in to deep studying the structure of cellulose fiber, and as a matter of fact any of the factors characterizing structure is, isn't found out a little distinctly [5]. And at the same time it is clear that each of factors-both natural morphology, and an arrangement of macromolecules in the educations thinnest the fibrillar, and conformation of macromolecules in various structural modifications, and conformation of its elementary links in an environment of various environments, and ways by which are carried out inside - and intermolecular interactions,-all this can have impact on reactionary ability of cellulose [6].

Under the influence of various liquid environments the most different changes in structure of cellulose fibers with preservation of their fibrous form can be reached [7]. These changes are connected with feature of a structure of molecules of activating environments, sizes of their ionization potential, ability to formation of hydrogen communication with hydroxyl groups [8]. The role of steric factors connected with influence of volume and branching of molecules on their penetration into structure of cellulose fiber and a difficulty of rapprochement of electron-donor atom in such molecules with hydroxyls of cellulose molecules is important. Besides, the effect of activation of cellulose depends on an initial condition of its structure [9].

Changes of a surface of fiber by its preparation to dyeing and final finishing [10], and also change of a form of internal volume give the chance to change sorption properties of fiber that is especially important in processes of final finishing.

II. Problem definition (statement of the task):

In processes of final finishing of textile materials fibers are given a number of useful properties, such as, for example, the raised water resistance, wear resistance, a crease resistance, shrink resistance, oil--and a dirt-repellent, fire resistance, stability to formation of static electricity, resistance to an abrasion, resistance to action of a mold, microorganisms, keratophages, etc.

Operations of chemical finishings are based now on application of various types of preparations which can be subdivided into two big groups [9]:

--the preparations which are carriers of useful properties, being adsorbed fiber;

--the preparations modifying chemical structure of fiber which after processing itself becomes the carrier of useful properties. As the main objective of research I was research of a surface of cellulose fiber by means of raster electronic microscopy, its change under the influence of technological water environments, change of a form of fiber in processes of preparation of cellulose fiber to finishing.

For achievement of a goal solved the following problems:

--research of an external form of fiber and its changes in processes of liquid processings;

--research of changes of a surface of cotton fiber after influences of various technological solutions;

--the analysis of a cross cut of fibers for the purpose of definition of influence of technological solutions on the internal volume of fiber;

--X-ray spectral analysis of changes of a surface of fiber.

III. Results:

Cellulose fibers--the most widespread textile cornerstone at the heart of which natural polymer cellulose is [3]. Cellulose, as well as many partial and crystal polymers, has heterogeneous structure which is characterized by existence of areas with various degree of orderliness of macromolecules and considerable degree of the nonequilibrium caused by limited molecular mobility of this biopolymer. Cellulose represents the high-molecular connection formed by the remains v-D-glucopyranose which are connected with each other by 1-4 glucoside couplings (communications): N [[[C.sub.6][H.sub.7][O.sub.2][(OH).sub.3]].sub.n], where n-extent of polymerization. For n=10000-15000 cotton cellulose. Separate macromolecules of cellulose in fiber are connected among themselves by intermolecular hydrogen communications

Existence in a macromolecule of cellulose of a large number of hydroxyl groups, durability of glucoside coupling (communication) and total energy of intermolecular hydrogen couplings (communications) define specific properties of cotton fiber. It is steady against effect of organic solvents, bulks up in water solutions, especially when heating, maintains short-term influence of temperature 200[degrees]C. At long heating (at a temperature > 100[degrees]C) there are happened irreversible structural changes [2]. Manifestation of certain types of molecular movement can promote reorganizations of supramolecular structure of cellulose. Cellulose has a complicated supramolecular structure, for which pronounced fibrillar is characterized. Macromolecules of cellulose interact among themselves at the expense of Van-der-Waals's forces and formation of hydrogen communications between hydroxyl groups. Big extent of this interaction explains that fact that cellulose is insoluble in water though is hydrophilic substance. Cotton fiber strongly differs on the structure from other cellulose fibers. Each hair of cotton represents very thin and long cage being narrowed at the deaf end and opened from another-by what a hair is attached to a seed [4].

Primary wall about 1 micron is located outside thick containing about 50% of cellulose. Fat-wax substances are concentrated on a surface of primary wall. Bad wettability of cotton fiber water is explained by it. Primary wall is followed by the main multilayered secondary wall about 6-8 microns thick. It consists of the daily deposits of cellulose formed at photosynthesis of protoplasm. In fiber there is a channel. In unripe fiber it is filled with protoplasm, the mature contains only its remains [5].

Researches by means of an electronic microscope show that separate layers of cellulose are formed of fibrilla which, in turn, represent bunches of the microfibrilla consisting of tens and hundred chains of macromolecules of cellulose. Separate molecules in microfibrilla and microfibrilla in fibrilla are located leaky on the relation to each other and are kept by forces of intermolecular interaction, and also thanks to that long chains of macromolecules enter separate parts different microfibrilla and fibrilla. Therefore both in separate daily layers, and between them there are thinnesses-pores, microcracks. They have a great impact on behavior of cotton fibers at various processing, particular in dyeing [10].

With development of volume, raster electronic microscopy numerous works are devoted to studying morphology of a surface [5, 11]. However the extensive actual material isn't systematized. In literature absent works in which there would be data on influence of character of an external surface on behavior of fibers in dyeing and printing processes. The morphology of fibers surface can undergo essential changes in various operations of finishing production depending on conditions of their carrying out. The size of an external surface of natural fibers depends on their morphology [8].

In this work researches on studying of superficial characteristics of cotton fiber, changes of cotton fiber after various influences of technological solutions are conducted. Work is carried out to laboratories the nanostructural (nanostructured) methods of research of A.S. Akhmetov at Taraz state university named after M. H. Dulati. The object of research was cotton fabric which has passed stages of a desizing, alkaline decoction and bleaching.

Microfibrilla and fibrilla settles down in separate layers of cellulose turbinal, at an angle 20-40[degrees] to a fiber axis therefore fiber twists as a spiral concerning the axis [4]. When maturing fiber protoplasm in the channel gradually dries up, and fiber is flattened. Considering such fiber under a microscope, it is possible to notice that it has a form of the twisted ribbon or the empty flattened tubule (fig. 2) with walls and the channel of a certain thickness which depends on a maturity.

The internal cavity of fiber is very considerable in comparison with the wall thickness and as this cavity is open, at least since one end, cotton fiber is capable quickly and to be moistened and bulk up easily from within. It cotton fiber favourably differs from bast fibers [12].

With a small weight cotton fiber has rather developed surface that causes ability of cotton to the adsorptive processes. Softness and tenderness of cotton fibers, their twisted form explain the high value of cotton as spinning material. Separate hairs of cotton are easily linked among themselves, straightened at a pulling, keep in thin threads and give in to a twisting. Structural changes in the cotton fibers, initiated by sorbed moisture, are studied in works [1, 2].

Modification of structure of cellulose and change of its properties aren't possible without detailed studying of cellulose fibers, their change from various influences [8, 13].

In this work made experiments on studyingcotton fiber changes after influences of various technological solutions.

Micropictures of a surface of the fibers are given in figure 4, removed on a scanning electronic microscope.

In microphotographs it is visible that from a fiber surface removal of technological impurity (dressing) happens gradually. In the bleaching process the dressing is crushed, exposing the fiber surface. Thus, availability of fiber to tinctorial solutions becomes simpler. At aspiration of a form of fiber to a cylinder form sorption ability will be maximum.

Sorption ability of fiber can be increased at change of a form of the internal channel of fiber. At aspiration of a form of fiber to a cylinder form sorption ability will be maximum.

The received results needed additional researches. For this purpose at Badanova A.K. passing. research training in IPTM Russian Academy of Sciences (Russia) the latest methods and the research equipment were used. Experimental data in the form of micropictures and results of the microanalysis are obtained. The analysis of a cross cut of fibers is carried out.

From the microphoto it is visible that completely a fiber form to a form of the ideal cylinder when carrying out processes of a desizing, boiling and whitening it is impossible. However change of the flattened form towards increase in the internal channel of fiber is observed. When using additional influences, or chemical materials, it is obviously possible to increase the internal volume of fiber and by that to increase sorption properties of fiber, for example dyes. Use of an electronic scanning microscope allows to estimate visually change not only fiber surfaces, but also its form at the expense of cross cuts.

The X-ray spectral analysis of a cross cut and fiber surface is carried out. Data on change of structure of fabric before processings were obtained.

The data of researches received at Institute of problems of technology of microelectronics and especially pure materials of the Russian Academy of Sciences allow to compare them to the data obtained in nanolaboratory of TarSU that further will allow to take up more deeply in more detail questions of studying and practical application of the gained knowledge in various areas of textile branch.

IV. Conclusions:

In work change of an external form of cellulose fiber and its surface in processes of liquid processings is shown. The flattened form aspires to a cylindrical form. Change of a surface of cellulose fiber depends on specifics of influence of water technological solutions. The analysis of cross cuts of fiber showed change of internal volume of fiber towards its increase that will be coordinated with changes of an external form of fiber.

The obtained data allow to assume that changes of characteristics of a surface of cellulose fiber as a result of water processings in the course of preparation of a cellulose material for finishing will allow to increase the adsorptive properties of cellulose fiber in processes of final finishing, the increase in internal volume of fiber will allow to increase the sorption capacity of fiber in processes of sorption of finishing structures.

Results of researches represent scientific and practical interest as can be used for further researches on increase in the adsorptive and sorption properties of cellulose fiber, increase in extent of use of applied finish coats, reduction of dumpings in sewage in processes of final finishing.

References

[1.] Ehrhardt, A., S. Groner and T. Bechtold, 2007. Swelling behaviour of cellulosic fibres-Part I: Changes in physicalproperties. 5th Central European Conference on Fibre-Grade Polymers, Chemical Fibres and Special Textiles (issue 15), Cracow, POLAND Date Views 03.01.2014 www.apps.webofknowledge.com.

[2.] Yakunin, N., A. Zavadskii, E. Yakunina and A. Moryganov, 2010. Structural Inhomogeneity in Cotton Cellulose upon Its Interaction with Water. POLYMER SCIENCE, 2(SERIES A). Date Views 03.01.2014 www.link.springer.com.

[3.] Babu, K., M. Selvadass and R. Somashekar, 2013. Characterization of the conventional and organic cotton fibres. JOURNAL OF THE TEXTILE INSTITUTE, 10(Textiles). Date Views 03.01.2014 www.tandfonline.com.

[4.] Harzallah, O., H. Benzina and J. Drean, 2010. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Cotton Fibers: Single-fiber Failure. TEXTILE RESEARCH JOURNAL, 11(Textiles). Date Views 04.01.2014 www.trj.sagepub.com.

[5.] Carbales, L., A. Noureddine and C. Haigler, 2014. Changes in the cell wall and cellulose content of developing cotton fibers investigated by FTIR spectroscopy. Carbohydrate Polymers, 1(Biopolymers for Life). Date Views 04.01.2014 www.sciencedirect.com.

[6.] Olaru, A., M. Geba, M. Ursescu, A. Leon and G. Lisa, 2013. CHANGES IN CELLULOSIC MATERIALS FROM HERITAGE TEXTILES DURING AGEING TREATMENTS. European Journal of Science and Theology, 6(History & Philosophy Of Science). Date Views 03.01.2014 www.ejst.tuiasi.ro.

[7.] Fan, L., S. Wang and P. Qin, 2011. The Structure and Properties of the Degummed Kosteletzkya Virginica Bast Fiber. International Conference on Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials (issue 1-3), Changsha, PEOPLES R CHINA, Changsha Univ Sci & Technol Date Views 05.01.2014

www.scientific.net.

[8.] Bemska, J. and J. Szkudlarek, 2013. SURFACE MODIFICATION OF COTTON FABRICS FOR SUBLIMATION PRINTING. AUTEX RESEARCH JOURNAL, 3(Textiles). Date Views 05.01.2014 www.degruyter.com.

[9.] Fu, S., D. Hinks, P. Hauser and M. Ankeny, 2013. High efficiency ultra-deep dyeing of cotton via mercerization and cationization. CELLULOSE, 6(Polymer Science). Date Views 06.01.2014 www.link.springer.com.

[10.] Reddy, N., V. Thillainayagam and Y. Yang, 2011. Dyeing Natural Cellulose Fibers from Cornhusks: A Comparative Study with Cotton Fibers. INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY RESEARCH, 9(Engineering). Date Views 04.01.2014 www.pubs.acs.org.

[11.] Yan, J., N. Villarreal and B. Xu, 2013. Characterization of Degradation of Cotton Cellulosic Fibers Through Near Infrared Spectroscopy. JOURNAL OF POLYMERS AND THE ENVIRONMENT, 4(Polymer Science). Date Views 06.01.2014 www.link.springer.com.

[12.] Ammayappan, L., L. Nayak, D. Ray, S. Das and A. Roy, 2013. Functional Finishing of Jute Textiles-An Overview in India. JOURNAL OF NATURAL FIBERS, 4(Materials Science). Date Views 05.01.2014 www.tandfonline.com.

[13.] Armagan, O., B. Kayaoglu and H. Karakas, 2013. Plasma-induced adhesion improvement of cotton/polypropylene-laminated fabrics. JOURNAL OF ADHESION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 21(Materials Science). Date Views 06.01.2014 www.tandfonline.com.

(1) Aigerim Kenzhebekovna Badanova, (2) Roza Ryskeldievna Badanova, (2) Kenzhebek Isabekovich Badanov

(1) Almaty Technological University, Kazakhstan, 050012, Almaty city, Tole bi st., 100.

(2) Taraz State University named after M.Kh. Dulati, Kazakhstan, 080012, Taraz city, Tole bi st., 60.

Received: 25 June 2014; Received: 8 July 2014; Accepted: 25 July 2014; Available online: 20 August 2014

Corresponding Author: Aigerim Kenzhebekovna Badanova, Almaty Technological University, Kazakhstan, 050012, Almaty city, Tole bi st., 100.
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Title Annotation:Research Article
Author:Badanova, Aigerim Kenzhebekovna; Badanova, Roza Ryskeldievna; Badanov, Kenzhebek Isabekovich
Publication:American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7JORD
Date:Jun 1, 2014
Words:2625
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