Certain field measures of characteristics affecting wetted Biorefuges in the Steppe/ Montane altitudinal zones of the Sawtooth National Forest, Idaho.
Biorefuge entities chosen for study on Sawtooth National Forest lands display persisting ecotonal transition conditions between temperate Ecoregion expressions (after Bailey, 1998). They are broadly represented as Semi-deserts (generally lower elevation) and (upper) Steppe-coniferous (often called lower montane) forest. The former (lower expression) is also called sagebrush steppe. I have chosen the appellation Steppe/Montane as aptly descriptive for this study.
Biorefuges studied in this ongoing Pro Bono field effort are localized, productive, hydric to mesic habitat bases apparently resilient for food web resource connections and consumer cover. They are observed and evaluated for availability of water, for forage production for grazing consumers, as well as those soil functions where moisture and decomposition are judged. They provide food supplies for primary and secondary consumers of living and dead above and below ground plant materials and other detritus. The Biorefuges of interest here and the Watersheds in which they were studied are detailed for description and practiced field method test procedures in the lead report (Amundsen, 2011).
This study has proceeded from the growing season of 2001 to 2013, first emphasizing habitat related surface water conditions in seven topographically describable Watersheds. All are situated within the boundaries of units of the Sawtooth National Forest in central southern Idaho. Biorefuges within these Watersheds are, holistically considered, identified overall as comparatively diverse, subsurface wetted ecotonal plant communities. Effective substrate--intrusive waters sustain hydric to mesic communities. The surface water supplies continue to be regularly evaluated in field seasons. Unlike the now determined, remarkably segregated, TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) values by Watershed, water temperature and pH (measures taken from ~10cm depth when possible), simply show expected regional or transient micro--conditions. The temperatures of surface waters are locally influenced, particulaly by shading or the emersion of various types of springs unseen beneath surface waters. Variations of ordinarily basic pH occur, especially in the (sometimes otherwise not indicated) photosynthetic zones of submersed aquatic plants and algae. These measures (degrees Celsius and pH) are kept in field notes and were summarized in the lead publication in 2011. Neither appears to be related to visible variations in extant conditions of terrestrial habitat expressions as studied.
These impacting waters are mostly the result of springtime melt and runoff from so far experienced, higher altitude, snow packs. Biorefuge environment sites here at lower elevations, generally show conditions where evaporation likely exceeds direct precipitation (E>P). Twin Falls ID (elevation about 1220m or 4000 ft. msl), has developed in a (sagebrush steppe) semi-desert environment roughly in the geographic center of the Sawtooth National Forest outlying units. Twin Falls has a yearly total precipitation average of less than 10 inches (ca. 250mm).
This update report shows a continuing TDS ranked divisions which are recognized amongst the seven Watersheds considered in the study. There are rare overlaps of values, using clustered TDS reading means. The 13 years of this effort shows no trends in growing season monitored TDS measures with neither up or down numerical mean changes of relative ranking of Watershed positions from high to low.
In continuation of value judgments for Biorefuge components affecting obvious segments of the food web, and in consideration of recreational stakeholders and scattered residents of the highland landscapes, testing for water borne coliform bacteria in influential and intrusive waters has been undertaken.
BIOREFUGES STATUS AND POTENTIAL
Consumer supporting Biorefuges as studied are rich in forage grass genera in highland locations that are marginally in contact with accessible low order stream and small pond surface waters. The Biorefuge expressions incline upwards from accessible water contact through hydric to mesic conditions. Perennial plant stands are sustained by soils intrusively wetted from contacting surface waters. The moistness of the rhizosphere, (rooting zone), demonstrated using simple garden moisture probes, persists throughout critical portions of the growing season (spring floral initiation toward seed set). Key to Biorefuge identity is a predominance of notable taxa of native grasses. Occasional grazerpalatable sedges can be important in places, but the forage availability is generally highlighted by what I designate as an array or Guild of those grasses similar in habit and multi- replaceability in terms of forage nutrient value. The typical Biorefuge forage grass genera (considerations of nutritional value at the generic level made sensu Hitchcock, 1969) fall into the facultative class of wetland plants (US Fish and Wildlife Svc., 1996). The important guild grass genera, similar in grazing fodder consideration, are perennials of Festuca L., Hordeum L., Phleum L., PoaL., Stipa L., Trisetum Pers., and Sporobolus R. Br. (Generic nomenclature/ authority of the Gramineae after Davis, 1952).
Earlier studies within Biorefuges (Amundsen, 2011) showed that the per square meter above ground plant dry weight productivity at seed set maturity was higher in Watersheds #1 than in #2, and higher in #3 and #5 than in #4 and #6 (see Watershed listings following). Dry weights ran generally from 400 to 700 g/m2. The productivity yields roughly supported overall TDS ranking means clusters (discussed below) separating this study's Watersheds.
An experiment (also reported in 2011) with weighed mesh bags of cattail detritus showed a much greater weight loss in bags buried in the more densely fibrous mesic rooting zone of Biorefuges than in more barren semi-xeric soils beyond the Biorefuge expression, under the willow (SalixL. spp.) thickets common along streams or under the acid mor humus of the montane coniferous forest, usually upslope. In a possible connection, a recent publication (Hood and Larson, 2014) shows a relationship between predaceous aquatic invertebrate abundance and biodiversity with the physical disruption of terrestrial surfaces (and increase of the extent of adjacent wetted soils) caused by beaver channel excavation. They report declines in pertinent resident predator/prey species richness during droughty seasons with quick recovery post-drought years. A repeated change in predator and secondary consumer numbers in abutting surface waters suggests a similar relationship between organisms in hydric to mesic soils. Such comparisons were not possible in this field study, although flooded beaver channel excavations were found to increase the breadth of Biorefuges in some cases.
Fluctuations in linked primary and secondary producer populations can be assumed in such instances. Expansion and contraction of suitable wetted Biorefuge habitats by alterations in connecting surface water availability can be expected with episodic climate changes or topical disturbances affecting intrusive water level influences on adjacent sites. In periods of extended drought or conversely as the result of increased available of waters concerned, as with lasting overbank flooding, the Biorefuges would show a possible contracting and expanding expression given a suitable micro-topography (slightly sloping).
In consideration of the overall fitness of the aquatic/terrestrial Biorefuge resource complexes, field testing for often present coliform bacteria, and more particularly for health threatening Escherichia coli in the adjacent waters is now included at selected locales (see details following).
Based on perceptions of landscape dynamics related to topographic exposures and geologic maps, as in the previous report, seven study Watersheds listed below are featured.These Watersheds may contrast in base level geologic substrates at the upper elevations of tributary catch basins (Updated map, Idaho Geologic Survey, 2012). Their directional orientation and surface shading varies and can affects seasonal substrate temperature and moisture dynamics. It is likely that a combination of geologic constituents, seasonality and extent of snow cover, exposure to regional winds, incident sunlight reception (to an extreme of directly beaming on bare ground) and fluctuations in impacting diurnal temperatures can account for most TDS differences in draining streams. These Watersheds are described in more detail with some 57 waters sample locales named on Forest Service Maps (Amundsen (2011).
The seven chosen Watershed units are found with westward draining 2nd order streams (#1, #2), on either side of the southerly draining Big Wood River (#3, #4), along sloping sides of the northerly trending Salmon River Fleadwaters, HW, (#5, #6). Number 7 is mostly on north side slopes (therefore south draining tributaries) of the westerly trending upper South Fork of the Boise River in the neighborhood of the Camas front.
Central southern Idaho locations for each of the seven Watersheds are listed with approximate "centers" indicated by Google Earth derived " Central Area Point" coordinates:
1/Sublette Creek Watershed: A discrete drainage around a common juncture of Cassia, Power and Oneida County boundaries in the Sublette Mountains east of Malta ID. "N 42 20, W 113 00".
2/Shoshone Basin: A discrete drainage basin east of Rogerson ID along the boundary of Twin Falls and Cassia Counties, within the Cassia Mountains (also called the South Hills). "N 42 15, W 114 20".
3/Big Wood River West Draining: Represented by tributaries dissecting the slopes east of the river valley- An area from Ketchum ID north to Galena Summit in Blaine County. "N 43 50, W 114 30".
4/Big Wood River East Draining: Represented by tributaries dissecting the slopes west of the river valley- An area from Ketchum ID north to Galena Summit in Blaine County. "N 43 45, W 114 35".
5/Salmon River Headwaters (HW) West Draining: Represented by tributaries dissecting the slopes east of the river valley-An area from Galena Summit north to Stanley ID, in Blaine and Custer Counties. "N 44 04, W 114 50".
6/Salmon River Headwaters (HW) East Draining: Representing tributaries dissecting the slopes west of the river valley-An area from Galena Summit north to Stanley ID, in Blaine and Custer Counties. "N 44 00, W 114 55".
7/South Fork Boise River-Camas County Front: An area where tributaries trend from north to south along the westerly flowing river, generally north of Fairfield ID in Camas and Elmore Counties. "N 43 30, W 114 55".
The waters characterized in this study (now 600+ sample sets overall) were tested for temperature at 10cm depth, pH and TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) with beneath surface dips, the latter two with "OakTon" battery referenced meters. Water temperature in these highlands (mostly taken mid-day with a shadowed liquid in glass thermometer) was related to the amount of vegetative shading, or in a few cases, to the summertime lower geothermal average temperatures of (sometime stream bottom) virgin springs. Near surface waters with spring-like emissions (often sinking and resurfacing flows in carved stream beds) tend to more closely reflect ambient shallow substrate temperatures. It is interesting to note that fairly robust isolated virgin spring waters do not immediately freeze upon surfacing in wintertime temperatures.
Under a montane coniferous forest overstory an acid humus (mor, determined with a Kelway probe) down-flowing catch basin streams showed basic pH readings. These forest stands are often below "naked" alpine substrates. However in Watersheds #4 and #6 with such conditions, only one consistently acidic pH reading was taken in exiting water. This was in pooled stream water in a peat fan below a long dry glacial outwash gully in the East draining Vat Creek, Watershed #6. The pH there was a repeated 6 and the dominant grass guild was rife with an understory of seldom encountered (in this study) sphagnum-like moss.
Temperature, which varied from place to place at 10cm depth in the same waters, and pH, where the instruments often fluctuated by a decimal point or two were not reliable mathematic separators for Watershed distinction. Although the TDS (and pH) meters were calibrated regularly with commercial standards, and showed repeated precision, the accuracy of these field values has not been verified by laboratory bench instruments. For base level comparisons, a set of TDS meters consistently showed readouts of 300 mho in pooled waters of the Camas Centennial Meadows, a recognized Wetland in Camas County (near Fairfield ID). Distilled water shows a TDS of zero as expected with the meters in use.
It is not the field determined numerical values of individually metered TDS readings, however precise, that demonstrates within Watershed similarity and between Watershed separations. It is the examination of repetitive raw data clustered rankings of TDS means by Watershed from a multitude of (now) 13 seasons of readouts. TDS mean comparisons are the separator(s).
Geophysical characteristics, vegetational expressions and observed substrate surface thermal dynamics, taken together, support the seven differentiations. The lowest TDS readings in the Sublette Basin, Watershed number 2, were always higher than the highest readings from any other Watershed. Given the averages used to define differences over 600 sample field readings in this report, further statistical testing has little meaning other than mathematical exercise. Such determinations were made in the earlier report (Amundsen, 2011) which covered 57 named waters across the seven Watersheds. Analysis of the field data show Standard Error of the TDS means by watershed varied in range between 4.0 and 10.0, considering hundreds of readings.
Comparison of sample number means shows that a distinction or positional value rankings of Watersheds based on means of TDS has not changed relative to the first report, Table 1. In two southern units, the Sublette Creek drainage (Watershed #1) shows the highest TDS of all seven with the Shoshone Basin (#2) the lowest of the seven. In four of the northern five units the mean TDS values of the west draining streams (#3, #5) show higher TDS than opposing east draining streams (#4, #6) along the Big Wood River and Salmon River headwaters (HW). The southerly trending tributary streams sampled along the South Fork of the Boise River-Camas front (Watershed #7) rank higher in TDS than three of the four Wood River or Salmon HW tributaries.
No change or trends in relative Watershed ranking by TDS means was, or is, apparent. Accurate bench laboratory equipment could have somewhat altered errors without disassembling the plotted clusters derived from the large number of field measurements.
In the southern Watersheds, Table 1 shows the Sublette Watershed (#1) with dramatically high TDS means. This overall drainage is open to the west. The TDS distinction is no doubt due to the presence of dissolved solids emanating from a bedrock rich in a limestone complex. Virgin springs, tributaries and main creek are choked with watercress (Rorippa Scop. sp.). A small, century old reservoir at the Forest boundary downstream is, anecdotally, a rich sport fishery as are pools in the rather small Sublette Creek.
The lowest TDS values are found in the waters of the Shoshone Basin (#2). Although this Basin is open to the west and the afternoon sun and solar loading is similar to #1 above, the controlling factor is likely the base geology. The Basin is mapped with bedrock of nearly insoluble volcanic rock. Very few vascular aquatic plants are found in the permanent waters.
Table 1 also shows that the west draining tributaries (along both the Big Wood River and Salmon River HW (#3, #5) have higher TDS means than the east draining tributaries of cross valley slopes (#4,#6). With some exceptions, the insolubility of the largely barren alpine bedrock substrates (some exposed in hanging glacial cirques) above the rather narrow drainages is similar on both sides of both rivers. Large glacially related lakes within the western slopes of the Salmon River HW valley are particularly low in the TDS content of easterly draining outlets. Anecdotally, these montane zone lakes now apparently lack the (nutrient contributing) demise of very large, historically reported, migratory fish stocks. No relationship in TDS measures now reflected visible and broadly mapped alpine substrate differences.
One premise is that the less forested westerly and southerly facing slopes (#3, #5) undergo a diurnal freeze-thaw disruption of comparatively extensive (in #4, #6) un-forested and otherwise less shaded surface soils. This temperature change occurs with night time freeze and sunny day thawing during snow cover free periods during the fall and late spring. Surface instability can result (congeliturbation, Amundsen 1977) in disruption and downhill or lateral transport of soil particles hoisted on overnight formations of needle ice. When the needles collapse in the afternoon sun, attached soil materials are dropped and tend to move and/or become subject to subsequent water and wind erosion. A compromising suggestion might explain the rather intermediate TDS mean for Watershed 7. The tributaries tested in #7 are mostly north-south aligned streams with the west facing slopes getting the afternoon solar loading as they do along the upper Wood and Salmon River HWs, but the opposing east facing slopes support more closed montane forest stands and are positioned at a lower solar incident angle in the afternoon sun in both the spring and fall. Another possibility is the trapping (sequestering) of (dissolvable solid) soil materials in or beneath thick mor humus on the more completely forested east facing montane zone slopes resulting in lower TDS readings in exporting waters at the altitudes of the Biorefuges. A third consideration might be the slope surface disturbance and "walkdown" caused by summer ranging sheep and native grazers in forage stands. The walking trails are more noticeable on grazed west facing slopes. Basic pH readings from both east and west flowing streams do not change with TDS readings made simultaneously, remaining mostly the same (7++) in both instances.
Coliform bacteria, a complex taxonomic class, are natural components of soils and waters. Most kinds are generally benign and some actually helpful in terms of human health. Within this group, often less benign E. colibacterial strains live in the intestines of people and other warm blooded animals. Many such are generally harmless in a healthy intestinal tract. However, the very detection of waterborne coliform bacteria in numerous, potential Colony Forming Units (cfu), is widely accepted as warning for potential water contamination. Many kinds of bacteria are released in the feces of infected carriers and some are threats for disease (Consumer Guides, 2014).
A regular presence of defecating domestic and wild animals and careless sanitary behavior by humans active in or near the Biorefuge contact surface waters has suggested simple treated bag tests for conforms in general with advanced plate incubations to quantify E. coli cfu.
Bluewater Biosciences (Bluewater, 2011, 2013) coliform test materials were (and are) used for water testing. As the company name implies, conforms turn sampled waters blue when the materials are used. Developmental incubations can be carried out in the field without access to utility service but styrofoam chests were used for controlled temperature maintenance.
Waters showing obvious evidence of animal activity (scat) were tested across all seven of the designated watersheds. Samples in this test study were taken at about a 10 cm depth (when possible) away from the edge of the water and care was taken to avoid silt. C. L. Ball reports (Ball, 2011) that there is no critical sample taking location for bacterial collections from natural waters.
Bluewater WatercheckXesX bags for field sampling with protocols for qualified detection of coliform bacteria were used in 2012 and 2013. Bag test reagents indicate any coliform presence by the generation of blue colored water. For quantitative tests, Bluewater Collplates were used. These plates, with discrete cells containing responsive nutrient concoctions, turn any coliform infected cells visibly blue allowing cell counts for cfu. The blue cell number translates into Most Probable Numbers (MPN), indicating the quantity of cfu's (of general coliforms) per 100 ml of sample water. Under long wave "black light" (here, a battery driven 383 nm flashlight) E. coli cells among the blue dyed cells which fluoresce indicate a proportional presence of E. coli. Table 2 summarizes these preliminary test results.
As a general rule, any detection of E. coli disqualifies the sampled water for human consumption. The levels allowable for recreational water use vary with health agency jurisdictions but are generally at or below a 31 fluorescing cell count (of 96 cells in this procedure) with an equivalent MPN of 98 (less than 100 E. coli per 100 ml water).
Charles A. Lenkner, DVM, a colleague on the board of the Twin Falls County (ID) Pest Abatement District Board, has been involved in studies of E. coli 0157:H7 in livestock dietary relationships (personal communication). He has asked the author if the Collplates distinguish or combine E. co//strains. (Lenkner, 2013). The manufacturer, Bluewater, does not claim their tests earmark particular strains of this bacterium.
E. coli 0157: H7 is the strain most commonly identified as causing coliform disease infections in North America. A major source of such infections is from fecal contamination of water by cattle, although other warm blooded animals including humans and birds, may be involved. Cattle water troughs as well as nonbovine sources are known to be viable reservoirs of E, coli 0157 (Lejeune et al., 2001). Dairy wastewater ponds in southern Idaho have also been shown to harbor bacterial indicators such as E, coli, as well as a number of zoonotic pathogens (Dungan, Klein and Leytem, 2012). Medical reports show over 250,000 human E. coli infections in the United States each year (Centers for Disease Control, 2012). Infections of pathogenic coliform strains can lead to other (esp. bovine) illnesses as well.
The Coliplate tests used in this study encompass the E. coli group, likely including those that are harmful. Above certain levels of responsive cfu presence and high MPN, these simple field tests indicate a need for more rigorous responsible agency analyses for particular pathogenic contaminants. The public accessing these waters should be made aware of these possibilities.
(INFORMATION ACQUIRED SINCE SUBMISSION AND REVIEW OF THIS PAPER)
During the summer of 2014 two pertinent references were sent to the author by colleagues. The first is the EPILOGUE from the publication Cattle in the Cold Desert (J.A.Young and B.Abbott Sparks) University of Nevada Press, 2002). Young and Abbott detail the value of native forage grasses which flourish where environmental conditions are favorable and enlightened grazing management practices are applied. The second is the article published in Freshwater Biology (2010) 55, D.M.Merritt et al., Theory, method and tools for determining environmental vegetarian: riparian vegetation-flow response guilds). This study links the productivity of native guilds to the water available to supporting soils.
The field season of 2014 featured rechecks of TDS in the seven watersheds distinguished for this continuing study. TDS measures continue to reflect the clustering of values that separate the chosen watersheds. Field tests for coliform bacteria were expanded in 2014 and showed consistent presence of general coliforms in all waters tested. Plate incubation tests reaffirmed the presence of E. coli in the waters (Watershed 2) where the organisms were found in 2013.
COMMENT AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Simple forage harvest clips and visual observations suggest higher forage productivity is linked to habitat conditions effected by intrusive waters higher in TDS. Nutrient presence often implied with dissolved solids were not separately identified although plant nutrient presence is likely. The perennial forage plant guilds characterize the valuable Biorefuge habitat producer food web resources. These desirable grass genera arrays have been identified as persistent in all seven watersheds. The adjacent surface waters, besides intrusively enhancing forage growth and sustaining subsurface decomposition processes, provide a necessary resource for many consumers. The continuation of these studies confirms empirical distinctions for the seven targeted watersheds based on repeated comparisons of TDS value means over 13 growing seasons. Criteria for watershed separation based on TDS measure mean value clusters are supported by long-term observations of holistically considered landscape features and the use of recent geology maps.
The demonstrated presence of colifoms, especially the detection of E. coli, suggests the application of more sophisticated responsible agency tests beyond the capability of the portable field test protocols used here. Visual observations indicate an increasing number of family recreationists in the areas studied. This report will be offered to such agencies.
The intentions of this Pro Bono study are to provide a partial base line depiction of the valuable Biorefuge expressions which have the inherent, resilient capability of areal expansion or contraction with long term or even some erratic changes in climate. Such areal changes may be related to highland surface water resource conditions and/or to migratory alterations of biorefuge plant and supported animal communities as producer/consumer/predator components change.
The addition of field testing for coliform bacteria in the biorefuge supporting waters is perhaps indirectly tied to the prospective health and well being of consumers of the resources available as well as recreating visitors and certain downstream uses.
The author has received a good deal of assistance from many sources. I thank the anonymous reviewers of the first report published in 2011 and of this manuscript. The financial support of Dr. Miriam Austin and her Red Willow organization has allowed ongoing resupply and maintenance of field instruments and test supplies. C. A. Lenkner DVM has graciously critiqued pertinent sections of this manuscript in progress. The author is an "appreciated" volunteer ecologist for Region 4 of the US Forest Service.
Amundsen, C. C., 2011. Permanently wetted bio-retuges in the Steppe-Montane altitudinal zone of the Sawtooth National Forest, Idaho. J. Idaho Academy of Science 47:1. Pp 1-24.
Amundsen, C. C., 1977. Terrestrial plant ecology. In: The environment of Amchitka Island Alaska. Technical Information Center ERDA, TID-26712. Pp 203-226.
Bailey, R. G. 1998. Ecoregions map of North America. USDA Forest Svc. Misc. Pub. 1548.
Ball, C. L., 2111. Is there an ideal place to collect a bacteriological sample in a non-wadable lotic system? J. Idaho Academy of Science 47:2. Pp 1-9.
Bluewater Biosciences, 2012, 2013. Materials and Operation Manuals. Mississauga. Ontario Canada, www.bluewaterbiosciences.com.
CDC: Centers of Disease Control, 2012. E. coli web homepage, updated 3 August 2012.
Consumer Guide, 2014. Coliform Bacteria. Coliformbacteria.net.
Davis, R. J., 1952. Flora of Idaho. Wm. C. Brown.
Dungan, R. S., M. Klein and A. B. Leytem, 2012. Quantification of bacterial indicators and zoonotic pathogens in dairy wastewater ponds. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 78:22, Pp 8089-8095.
Geologic Map of Idaho, 2012. Compiled by R. S. Lewis, P. E. Link, L. R. Stanford and S. P. Long. Idaho Geological Survey.
Hitchcock, C. L., 1969. Key to the grasses of the Pacific Northwest based on vegetative characters. Reprint from Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest. U. of Washington Press.
Hood, G. A. and D. G. Larson, 2014. Beaver-created habitat heterogeneity influences aquatic invertebrate assemblages in boreal Canada. Wetlands 34:1, Pp 19-29.
Lejeune, J. T., T. Besserand D. Hancock., 2001. Cattle water troughs as reservoirs of Escherichia coliO157. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 67:7, Pp 3053-3057.
Lenkner, C. A., 2013. Personal communication.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1996. National List of Plant Species That Occur in Wetlands.
Clif Amundsen *
* Corresponding author. C.C. Amundsen, PhD. Ecological Volunteer, U.S. Forest Service, Region 4.
Home address: 1454 Anny Dr W, Twin Falls ID 83301
Table 1, Field measures for number of samples (#) for total dissolved solids (TDS) per designated Watershed unit (see text) followed by clustering means (in mho's). Readouts from the first nine years of growing season Biorefuge study are compared to total readouts and means for thirteen years through 2013. Watershed descriptions and accuracy of field values are discussed in text. There were not any discernable trends for season to season change in the distribution of ranked and clustered means by Watershed across the 13 years. The symbol > indicates the overall drainage direction of the tributary waters measured 2001-2009 2001-2013 Watershed Nine Seasons All Thirteen Seasons # Samples Mean # Samples Mean 1/Sublette 108 420 mho 148 395 2/Shoshone 83 55 121 50 3/Wd Riv west> 56 190 69 180 4/Wd Riv east> 80 100 113 90 5/Slmn HWwest> 30 80 36 85 6/Slmn HWeast> 59 65 71 60 7/S.Fk Boise R-Camas 30 135 61 115 Table 2. First Run Coliplate Tests 2013. Coliplate test runs were made in all seven Watershed units. Yes indicates coliform presence in tests, either by qualifying Watercheck bags or within quantifying Coliplate cells. Positive qualitative tests show blue colors. Fluorescence of blue cells allows quantifying Coliplate cellular count for E. coli. No indicates no E. coli detected in these tests with black light. Colony Forming Units (cfu) leading to Most Probable Numbers (MPN) discussed in text. Watershed #2 shows E. coli presence, but no other Coli plates showed fluorescence in these preliminary attempts. Local sample site names under Watershed divisions are for field note reference at this time. Watershed Qualified Quantified Fluor- MPN Presence MPN escing #1, Sublette Camp Ground Yes 15/96 43 No #2, Shoshone Lodge Pond Yes 25/96 76 12 33 Faun Wallow Yes 90/96 938 42 151 #3, WdRiv west draining, east facing slope N.Fk Wood@R75 Yes 35/96 114 No #4, WdRiv east draining, west facing slope Baker@R75 Yes 12/96 33 No #5, SlmnRiv west draining, east facing slope Pole Cr Yes 4th July Cr Yes No coliplate tests. Watercheck bags positive for qualifying coliform presence, two streams #6, SlmnRiv east draining, west facing slope Yes Pettit Lake Outlet. Coliplate test aborted, likely heat of sun destroyed E.coli in sample. Watercheck bag positive for qualifying coliform #7, SoFkBoiseRiv/ Camas Front Big Smoky Cr@bCG Yes 16/96 _ 39 No
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|Publication:||Journal of the Idaho Academy of Science|
|Date:||Dec 1, 2014|
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