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Center for Civil-Military Relations Counter-Terrorism Fellowship Program.

The advent of more deadly forms of terrorism has challenged all governments to craft responses that stop terrorism while strengthening democracy--and without breeding more terrorism. The era of new terrorism is fraught with paradoxes and dilemmas that require decision-makers to develop a thorough understanding of the threats they face, as well as a comprehensive appreciation for the tools available to them for developing effective responses. No single government can respond effectively to the new terrorism, laced as it is with global net worked support. Neither can any single agency within government execute the strategy necessary to prevail over terrorist networks. These conditions place international and interagency coordination at the very center of all successful strategies for combating terrorism.

The Center for Civil-Military Relations (CCMR) core competency of helping other governments make better defense decisions has found a natural extension in the Regional Defense Counter-Terrorism (CT) Fellowship Program, managed by the Office of the Secretary of Defense. Like other CCMR programs, the CT Fellowship consists of short courses, both in Monterey, California and overseas. Using a panel approach, teaching teams comprised of scholars, retired military and law enforcement officers and selected government officials, conduct one- and two-week seminars worldwide. To date, CCMR has educated over 1300 students from more than 66 countries in how governments can respond effectively to the terrorist threat. This series of courses, administered through the security assistance system, is aptly titled "Civil-Military Responses to Terrorism." This is not a course about the United States; the focus is on how other governments can fight terrorism within their own political, budgetary, and societal circumstances.

These courses are offered to all interested governments, who can choose from a menu of global, regional, and bilateral programs. Countries with specific allocations of CT Fellowship funding are encouraged to work directly with CCMR, but must get approval for their proposals from the responsible regional combatant commander (COCOM). Countries without CT allocations can request that COCOM "discretionary" funding be used to support their participation in regional or bilateral courses. This funding enables CCMR to conduct regional courses that promote vital cooperation among neighboring countries fighting the transnational threat of terrorism. For interested governments without access to CT Fellowship funds, International Military Education and Training (IMET) funds or self-funding options may be available.

The global course is conducted in Monterey for an audience of between 25 and 40 personnel. This two-week seminar is offered twice per year. The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) funds up to 25 participants in this course, with the balance of attendees financed from requesting country allocations or combatant commander discretionary funds. The biggest advantage of this format is the widest possible audience diversity. Such diversity reveals the largest number of useful ideas and insights during class discussions.

Regional courses have been the main emphasis in the CT Fellowship program to date. Conducted in a country selected by the regional COCOM, these events bring together representatives of governments fighting terrorism in the same region or sub-region. These seminars allow participants to become acquainted with the common threats they face and with each other. No single country can beat terrorism by itself, and worldwide cooperation comes with political limitations. If the global 'war' on terrorism is to be won, it will be won in the regions.

Bilateral courses are offered to those governments who wish to expose the maximum number of their own officials to course material relevant to national issues in terrorism. Up to 60 military officers and civilian officials can be gathered into a seminar, specially designed to address the host nation's most pressing needs. Security Assistance Officers can program this Military Education and Training (MET), and CCMR will help them shape a curriculum, estimate costs, and plan logistic support.

A Unique Approach

CCMR faculty members remain with the class between presentations, offering insights regarding lecture material given by others, as well as audience interventions. This creates the learning atmosphere of an extended panel discussion, in which the participants remain actively engaged. In order to add further relevance to the seminars, CCMR custom-builds its programs to ensure that all audiences are exposed to the best possible mix of presentations, case studies, and classroom exercises. Additionally, most courses contain a requirement for participants to make a presentation to the class regarding the challenges of terrorism in their countries. Such a cross-fertilization of ideas makes it very important to put together mixed civil-military audiences, representative of all components of the security sector (the Armed Forces, intelligence services, and law enforcement agencies). The objective of each CCMR CT event is to have every participant leave the course with a coherent, holistic understanding of the terrorist threat, and what governments can do about it. Every program is planned with this goal in mind.

CCMR balances its course material between defining the problem and examining possible solutions, but the main emphasis is on the latter. Presentations are always being improved and expanded, but a short list of topics would include the following:

* Terrorism: The Old and The New

* Terrorism and Insurgency

* Maritime Terrorism

* Weapons of Mass Destruction and Terrorism

* Terrorist Networks

* Terrorist Financing

* Tools and Strategies

* Intelligence and Combating Terrorism

* Information as a Weapon in Combating Terrorism

* Interagency Decision-Making

* Media Issues in Combating Terrorism

* International Approaches

* Ethics and Combating Terrorism

* Restructuring the Security Sector for Responding to Terrorism

* Measures of Effectiveness

* Risk Assessment

* Consequence Management

Case studies are presented in order to extract lessons learned and best practices from the widest spectrum of government experiences. Cases are drawn from within the region, but also from outside (in many instances, cases from far away have more to teach the audiences than those too close to home). New cases are added as needed, but a short list of case studies that have been used would include:

* Turkey

* Kenya

* El Salvador

* Colombia

* Peru

* Malaya (historical case)

* United Kingdom

* Spain

* Chechnya

Each course is designed to include multiple opportunities for participants to break down into smaller discussion groups. In one-week programs, this means simply discussing specified topics in breakout groups of between six and fifteen people. During two-week courses, these breakout groups take on the role of committees advising a fictitious government's leadership and develop strategy recommendations against terrorist threats. This classroom exercise is a highlight of the Monterey course and can be modified to suit regional and bilateral seminars.

What is New?

CCMR has begun to conduct focused METs on a variety of topics. These courses appeal to governments having special areas of concern in their efforts to combat terrorism. Focused seminars and workshops can be regional but are most often requested by single governments from the following list:

* Intelligence

* Policy and Strategy

* Restructuring the Security Sector

* Maritime Terrorism

* Organized Crime and Terrorism

* Civil-Military Cooperation and Terrorism

* Ethics and Combating Terrorism

* Border Control

* Consequence Management

* Public Affairs in Responses to Terrorism

* Building CT Institutions

In order to extract maximum synergy from DoD institutions, CCMR is developing collaborative relationships with all regional centers. The model for these relationships is that between CCMR and the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies (APCSS), which features regular faculty sharing in the Honolulu-based "Comprehensive Security Responses to Terrorism" course, and in mobile programs within the region.

With the establishment of numerous centers and schools dedicated to fighting terrorism, CCMR is developing a series of institution-building workshops to share lessons learned and best practices among faculties. The resulting network of CT teaching organizations will ensure that the CT Fellowship program maintains long-term relevance. The first of these workshops was conducted in Turkey for the Turkish "Center of Excellence in Defense Against Terrorism" in the spring of 2005. CCMR conducts regular exchanges with similar institutions in other regions.

Something for Everyone

The CCMR CT Fellowship program is a dynamic, flexible, and creative way to address host nation concerns regarding terrorism threats, realities, and responses. Using only the most qualified faculty and keeping them in the classroom throughout the seminar provides the most productive learning environment found anywhere. We view these events as beginnings rather than endings, and we stand ready to assist our graduates with research and technical guidance for as long as they need it. By bringing in experts from around the country and the world CCMR can build courses for any audience mix in any country or region. The Center is proud of its hands-on, entrepreneurial approach and looks forward to an increasingly productive series of events in the coming years.

Captain Paul Shemella, USN (Retired) is the Program Manager for the CCMR CT Fellowship Program is Paul Shemella, Captain, USN (ret). More information, including upcoming CT Fellowship events, can be found on the CCMR web site: combating terrorism.

Captain Paul Shemella, USN (Retired)

Center for Civilian-Military Relations Counter-Terrorism Fellowship Program
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Author:Shemella, Paul
Publication:DISAM Journal
Date:Dec 1, 2007
Previous Article:Center for Civilian and Military Relations, forging the link between academic excellence and program development and delivery.
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