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Center for Civil-Military Relations (CCMR).

Established in 1994, CCMR is dedicated to strengthening civil-military relationships in democracies worldwide. CCMR helps nations resolve issues resulting from defense transformation, stability and support operations, peacekeeping, combating terrorism, and other security challenges. In the past two years, the Center has helped educate approximately 7,000 foreign military officers and civilians in programs conducted in host countries and in the United States.

What Do We Do?

CCMR custom builds each of its programs and course materials to address the specific requirements and circumstances of each participating country. Programs are designed for mid-to-senior-grade military officers, civilian officials, legislators, and personnel from nongovernmental organizations, both in residence (at the Naval Postgraduate School) and overseas (in the requesting nation). All programs provide participants with insights and analytical tools for enhancing civil-military cooperation at all levels.

All of the Center's programs emphasize three main goals:

* Consolidate and deepen democracy (with particular reference to national defense and the armed forces);

* Increase the effectiveness of the armed forces in fulfilling the multiple roles and missions assigned to them by their democratically elected civilian leaders;

* Seek success in the most efficient manner possible at the lowest possible costs.

CCMR programs utilize a variety of instructional methods, including lectures and discussion groups to foster interaction among the participants and faculty. Most programs also include real-world case studies and simulation exercises.

Why Teach Civil-Military Relations?

In a democracy, those who govern have power by virtue of a popular vote of their country's citizens. While not similarly elected, the military also holds power. Consequently, effective civil-military relations--the relationship between elected civilian leaders and the military--are vital to those seeking to create a government that is ultimately responsive to the people who elected it. The key issue remains how a democratic government can exert control over the military, rather than the other way around.

The study and teaching of civil-military relations is important in that unless civilians know how to establish and manage key institutions, real democratic civil-military relations cannot be achieved.

By employing a "lessons-learned and best-practice approach," civilians can learn how to control the military, and officers can come to understand that, in the long run, such control benefits them and their nation.

CCMR Programs

CCMR offers a number of seminars and workshops that further civil-military relations. Many of the courses are offered in-residence (at the Naval Postgraduate School) or through Mobile Education Teams (METs). METs are specifically targeted to a country's needs while in-residence courses offer participants the opportunity to meet, work, and share views with senior military and civilian officials on similar issues and problems.

Our overseas and in-residence programs are divided into the following categories:

* Civil-military relations

* Peacekeeping

* Civil-military responses to terrorism

* International defense acquisition and management

* Implementing strategic planning

Civil-Military Programs

Below is a sample listing and summary of our various courses that promote civilian control of the military.

Civil-Military Relations MET

Civilian-Control of the Armed Forces in a Democracy MET

The Media and the Military MET

The Legislature and the Military MET

Executive Program in Defense Decision-Making--In residence

Intelligence and Democracy--In residence and MET

Defense Restructuring--In residence and MET

Civil-Military Relations MET

A five-day seminar focusing on "democratic defense decision-making" in a wide variety of areas. The underlying theme of this course is the need for military officers and civilian officials to develop habits of cooperation within an interagency decision-making process. The course relies heavily on interaction among participants during the classroom course. As a result, we request that the Security Assistance Officers draw participants from the widest possible spectrum of military and civilian officials, from mid-career to senior positions. Each seminar is tailored to the host country's needs. Note: This course can also be provided on a regional basis with various countries' participation.

Civilian Control of the Armed Forces in a Democracy MET

This course is specifically designed for those countries that either have weak institutional controls over the armed forces or wish to improve existing structures and procedures. The intended audience is mid-to-senior civilian defense and military officers from the Ministry of Defense, Chancelleries, and Parliament involved in the decision-making process and management of the armed forces. Course objectives are to provide instructions on Western principles of civilian control over the armed forces and using case studies to assist the recipient country in identifying potential problem areas in control structure and procedures.

The Media and the Military MET

A one-week workshop that examines the methods civilian authorities, military officers, and the media in emerging democracies can use to structure an effective relationship between a country's armed forces and the media during peacetime and war that are unique to the requesting country. Participants analyze the role of policy-makers, the military, the media, and the public sector in national security policy formulation and implementation. This course provides a neutral venue for consensus-building and interagency cooperation.

The Legislature and the Military MET

The key objective of this one-week course is to examine the methods civilian authorities and military officers can use to establish effective linkages between a country's legislature and its armed forces. The course specifically examines the following subjects:

1) the role of the legislature in shaping defense legislation;

2) legislative oversight of defense and military policy;

3) military liaisons to the legislature;

4) legislative budgetary authority and the utilization of statutory reporting and formal hearings; and others.

Executive Program in Defense Decision-Making (in-residence course)

This is a two-week course conducted every June at the NPS for senior military and their civilian equivalents (O-7 and above) from the legislature, government ministries, and non-governmental organizations. Four main themes will be covered during the course:

1) development of a national security strategy;

2) threat assessment;

3) intelligence; and

4) domestic defense challenges (e.g. terrorism, natural disaster).

Intelligence and Democracy Program

Three separate programs are being offered in this very important area. First, a graduate course, "Intelligence and Democracy" offered in-residence at the Naval Postgraduate School; second, a week-long course held at the NPS that examines the methods civilian authorities can use to establish strong, effective controls over their intelligence agencies; third, a MET tailored to the unique needs of the requesting country.

Why the Need for this Course?

One of the most problematic issues of civilian control of the armed forces is control of the intelligence services. This is due to the legacies of prior regimes in which intelligence was a key element of control as well as the inherent tension between intelligence and democracy. Democracy requires accountability and transparency. Intelligence services, by contrast, must operate in secret to be effective, thus violating to some degree both accountability and transparency (or oversight). This course provides insights to some of the key issues involved in the structures and processes of intelligence operations.

In-residence Courses

One-week Intelligence and Democracy Seminar: This seminar creates an interactive learning environment in which participants benefit from the experiences and objectives of other countries. Course emphasis includes the following: Intelligence as an issue for democratic governance, roles and missions of intelligence agencies, and democratic control and oversight of intelligence activities.

Masters Degree Course: "Intelligence and Democracy": Students will analyze the mechanisms used by the U.S. and other Western democracies to maintain control over their intelligence organizations, such as: money, structural and organizational arrangements, legislative oversight, and legal mechanism.

Defense Restructuring Program

Why defense restructuring? All countries share a need to more clearly define national interests, to identify threats to national security (both internal and external), to develop appropriate structures, and to refine decision-making processes that meet their new security requirements. For example, the U. S., after 9/11, re-examined its security apparatus and intelligence organizations and created the Department of Homeland Security.

How Can Defense Restructure Assist Countries?

Our in-resident two-week course (held at the NPS) provides participants with the knowledge and skills needed to become better decision-makers or advisors in designing and implementing restructuring plans for their country.

Students will learn the fundamentals of defense rebuilding applicable to their national needs, such as an understanding of the roles and missions of relevant institutions--armed forces, legislatures, ministries of defense and how they interact in interagency decision-making, defense strategy formulation, and budgeting.

Our mobile education courses (held in-country) are tailored to meet the specific needs of the requesting country.

Peacekeeping Programs

There are three specific peacekeeping programs:

--Enhanced International Peacekeeping Capabilities (EIPC)

--Planning for Peace Operations

--Center for Stabilization and Reconstruction Studies

Enhanced International Peacekeeping Capabilities (EIPC) Program:

The EIPC program was developed by the U.S. State Department and Department of Defense to increase the pool of international armed forces capable of participating in multinational peacekeeping support operations (PSO).

The program focuses on recipient countries' institutional PSO educational and training requirements to develop and standardize peacekeeping doctrine; enhance professional military education and training programs; and develop information systems to support peacekeeping training and exercises.

CCMR was designated as the Executive Agent for developing and implementing the education and training portion of the EIPC program in 1998. To date, CCMR has trained several hundred officers under the EIPC education and training program.

EIPC Courses

Focus is on "training the trainers" in PSO doctrine and training methodologies. Unlike most IMET courses which focus on training individuals for specific skills or more general professional military education, EIPC has a narrowly defined audience: peacekeeping trainers, educators, and policy officers. For every instructor trained under EIPC, CCMR expects to realize several hundred trained peacekeepers in one to three years after completion of EIPC training.

For EIPC recipient countries, there are three types of courses offered: 1) Mobile courses conducted in-country through our Mobile Education Teams (METs); 2) in-residence courses at NPS for PSO instructors; 3) delivery of tailored specific modules/courses in the host country.

Phase I (MET):

"PSO Pre-Survey". This is a three-to-five day site visit by a CCMR team. Goal is to assess host country's peacekeeping training center, evaluate existing PSO training capabilities, brief the PSO core curriculum, and tailor upcoming programs to fit the country's training needs.

Phase II (at the NPS):

"EIPC PSO Instructors' Course". A two-week seminar held at the NPS for all PSO trainers. Course is offered twice a year. The instructors' course concentrates on curriculum development and teaching skills as well as methods for PSO education and training. Topics include: PSO doctrine, education and training methodologies, and curriculum development.

Phase III (MET):

"EIPC PSO MET". This is a series of modules and courses covering various topics of the PSO core curriculum to be provided to the host country's peacekeeping training center. Phase III courses are tailored to the recipient country's needs (as developed during Phases I and II). All METs emphasize practical training exercises oriented toward a "train the trainer" format.

Planning Peace Operations Residence Course

This three-week course provides an understanding of the roles and functions of the United Nations (UN) and coalitions in international political and security matters, particularly peacekeeping, as well as those operational staff and managerial skills needed for understanding the complexities of establishing, conducting and terminating peace operations. Participants examine how peace operations forces are mobilized, trained, deployed, employed and sustained.

The key objectives of the course of instruction are to: advance international participation in peace operations; enhance other countries' capabilities to lead and participate in peace operations; enhance standardization of peace operations doctrine; and improve interoperability of staff planning for peace operations among participating countries.

This course directly contributes to achieving the U.S. foreign policy goals of enhancing the professional military education and interoperability of the participating countries in future peace operations. Tentative dates for FY05 Planning Peace Operations course are 8-26 August 2005.

Center for Stabilization and Reconstruction Studies

The activities and challenges of stabilization and reconstruction of states are a central feature of contemporary international relations and are likely to remain so for some time. Given this, the NPS established the Center for Stabilization and Reconstruction Studies in September 2004.

The premiere program is the existing Masters of Arts degree in Stabilization and Reconstruction for U.S. and international students. We believe the best learning occurs when the curriculum is multidisciplinary and interactive among a diverse student mix. Our programs will incorporate students from the complete range of actors that are involved in these activities-members of humanitarian organizations, representatives of nascent states in recovery, civilian governmental officials, and U.S. and foreign military officers.

Civil-Military Response to Terrorism Program

Our combating terrorism programs are unique. We focus on the bilateral, regional, and global approaches. Working hand-in-hand with the Office of the Secretary and Unified Commands, we are able to tailor the course to the needs of our international participants.

Program Overview:

In support of the Office of the Secretary of Defense's Regional Defense Counter- Terrorism Fellowship Program (RDCTF) or CT Fellowship Program This is a Department of Defense program that provides education and training to our international partners in the war on terror. Established in 2002, the program is a key tool for regional combatant commanders to foster regional cooperation and professionalize foreign counterterrorism capabilities to assist in the fulfillment of the command's responsibilities. We have developed a series of custom-built courses for bilateral, regional, and global audiences. The course title, "Civil-Military Response to Terrorism", describes our comprehensive approach to examining how governments can respond effectively to terrorism. This is not a course about the U.S., but rather, how governments can fight terrorism within their own political, budgetary, and societal circumstances. To date, we have educated over 1200 students from more than 66 countries.

Why Combating Terrorism?

No single government can respond effectively to the new terrorism that has global networked support. Neither can any single agency within government execute the strategy necessary to prevail over terrorist networks. These conditions place international and interagency coordination at the very center of all successful strategies for combating terrorism.


Courses are provided bilaterally (to a host country), regionally (at least a selected country), and globally (in-residence at NPS).


A one-week mobile course conducted in-country. Course addresses host nation's concerns regarding terrorism threats, realities, and responses. The program utilizes case studies and simulation exercises to provide participants with the insight needed by decision-makers and their advisors to design successful strategies to contain or defeat modern terrorism.


Regional courses are conducted in a country selected by the Regional Combatant Commander. The seminar brings together representatives from governments in the same region or subregion. Seminars allow participants to become acquainted with the common threats they face--and with each other. If the global war on terrorism is to be won, it will be won in the regions.


Global courses are conducted at NPS in Monterey, California for 24-40 international participants. This two-week seminar is offered twice per year. The diversity of students brings about the largest number of useful ideas and insights during class discussions.

International Defense Acquisition & Resource Management Program (IDARM)

Why Defense Acquisition? Defense acquisition is big business. All countries face common challenges such as, how to create and sustain the most efficient and effective defense acquisition systems? Often, decisions about what to buy and how to buy must be made in a complex, dynamic environment that demands a balance between national defense goals and those imposed through alliances.

Countries have difficult choices to make regarding the best defense acquisition solutions.

How Can IDARM Assist Countries?

Every country has unique environmental considerations which affect acquisition, procurement, and logistics at the national and international level. One of the immediate challenges that many countries face is how to develop a defense acquisition decision-making framework that is flexible enough to adjust to the operating environment, yet is transparent.

Our mobile education courses (held in-country) are tailored to meet the systemic and emergent needs of the requesting country. Moreover, IDARM pushes the educational envelope by challenging defense acquisition decision makers to understand not just how or why their world works the way it does, but how they can improve it.

Our resident courses (at NPS) provide an opportunity for defense acquisition professionals to expand their knowledge with their counterparts from all over the world.


Three courses are offered in-residence at NPS. All are two weeks in length. The three courses, listed below, are also available as in-country mobile courses (1-2 weeks depending on country's needs).

Principles of Defense Acquisition Management--provides participants with an understanding of the underlying concepts, fundamentals, and philosophies of defense acquisition management.

Principles of Defense Procurement and Contracting--new and highly interactive course. Provides an in-depth examination of policy, procedures, and best practices applicable to all phases of procurement.

Different models-U.S., EU, and NATO--are examined. Participants work in groups to conduct proposal analysis and award and manage "mock" contracts.

International and Defense Acquisition Negotiations--focuses on planning and preparing for negotiations. Special emphasis is on negotiations of complex issues in a multi-cultural environment. Extensive in-class negotiations are conducted.

Implementing Strategic Planning

Below is a sample of our various programs that can assist a country in effectively managing its strategic planning in all areas, from personnel management, defense guidance to logistics.

Developing Effective Defense Personnel Management Policies MET

Development of National Task Lists MET

Transformation Strategies for Defense Reform MET

Translating National Level Policy into Defense Guidance MET

Developing Effective Defense Personnel Management Polices MET

This course is specifically designed for international civilians and military officers with personnel management responsibilities in the areas of policy, planning, implementing, and overseeing the human resources of the armed forces. Objective of the course is to provide information about personnel practices and management policies that proved successful in Western nations which the requesting country can adopt to its specific needs and requirements.

Development of National Tasks Lists MET

This seminar is developed for international civilians and military officers working in the areas of planning, force development, and educating the armed forces. The workshop will specifically address the following areas:

1) how to create a national Universal Joint Tasks List (UJTL);

2) understanding the NATO task lists;

3) how to develop service specific tasks lists; and

4) tasks, conditions, and standards to drive force development.

Transformation Strategies for Defense Reform MET

This tailor-specific seminar is geared towards international civilian officials and military officers with responsibility in security and defense policy, strategic planning, programming, and execution. The course provides instructions on defining and codifying the roles and missions of government institutions with responsibility in national defense and formulation long-term defense guidance and plans.

Translating National Level Policy into Defense Guidance MET

Key objectives of this course is to provide instruction in:

1) organizing defense issues for effective inclusion in a National Security Strategy;

2) developing and executing the recommendations of a defense white paper/strategic review;

3) preparing and implementing an effective National Military Strategy; and

4) assessing where the recipient country is experiencing challenges.

This course has been very beneficial to countries in Eastern Europe and others.

Richard Hoffman

Director, CCMR, School of International Graduate Studies

Naval Postgraduate School

Should you have any questions about the various CCMR programs listed above, please contact Mr. Richard Hoffman, Director, CCMR or his staff at: Commercial: (831) 656-3575/x2366; Fax: (831) 656-3351; Website: You can email your questions to:
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Article Details
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Author:Hoffman, Richard
Publication:DISAM Journal
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Dec 22, 2004
Previous Article:The Defense Resources Management Institute (DRMI): helping countries to better manage limited defense resources.
Next Article:Department of National Security Affairs (NSA).

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