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Centenaries for 2014.

414 A comet appeared in the Pleiades; recorded from China.

714 In July large meteors flew northwest; seen from China.

1014 The sun and moon and other stars gave sad signs; seen from Europe.

1114 Gherardo of Cremona born; translated the Almagest and the Toletan Tables into Latin.

Bhaskara born; a Hindu astronomer; believed in a spherical earth.

The astronomical hydraulic clock tower built by Su Sung in China destroyed by barbarians.

1214 Roger Bacon born; an English philosopher; wrote on the theory and construction of the telescope.

1514 George Joachim (Rheticus) born; a student and disciple of Copernicus; wrote Naratio Prima (First Account) of tl Copernican system.

Erasmus Flock born; a German astronomer and mathematician; wrote on comets.

1614 John Wilkins born; Bishop of Chester; wrote Discourse concerning a New Planet, tending to prove that it is probable our Earth is one of the planets.

Marcus Welser died; a German scholar; a friend of Galileo who wrote on astronomy.

Mundus Jovialis anno 1609 detectus ope perspicilli Belgici by Simon Marius, February, containing his research on Jupiter in which he claimed to have seen Jupiter's moons as early as late November 1609.

Christopher Scheiner produced a map of the Moon and drew Saturn as a planet with two handle-like extensions.

1714 Giovanni Battista Audiffredi born; an Italian Dominican astronomer; built a small observatory at the top of the Monastery of Santa Maria sopra Minerva; wrote on astronomy.

Cesar Francois Cassini de Thury born; a French astronomer, grandson of Jean-Dominique Cassini; appointed Director of the Paris Observatory in 1771; undertook and completed a trigonometrical survey of France.

Walter Pope died on June 25; elected Gresham professor of astronomy in 1660.

John Radcliffe died; bequeathed funds for the building of the Radcliffe Observatory, Oxford.

William Romaine born; an English Evangelical Divine; appointed professor of astronomy at Gresham College, London.

Alexander Wilson born; the first professor of practical astronomy at Glasgow; in 1769 November he observed a very large sunspot and proposed that sunspots are cavities in the luminous matter surrounding the Sun.

Thomas Zebrowski born; a Lithuanian Jesuit mathematician and astronomer; designed an observatory on the roof of the university building in Vilnius; observed the Moon and the satellites of Jupiter.

M13, globular cluster in Hercules, discovered by Edmund Halley.

An Act of Parliamentfor Providing a Publick Reward for Such Person or Persons as shall discover Longitude at Sea received the Royal Assent of Queen Anne.

1814 Anders Jonas Angstrom born; a Swedish physicist; studied the solar spectrum; discovered hydrogen in the Sun in 1862 and was the first person to investigate the spectrum of the aurora borealis.

Gaetano Cacciatore born; a Sicilian astronomer; in 1860 appointed Director of the Palermo Observatory; wrote on astronomy.

William Fishburn Donkin born; Savilian professor of astronomy at Oxford 1842-'69; wrote The Secular Acceleration of the Moon's Mean Motion, 1861.

Herve Auguste Etienne Albans Faye born; a French astronomer; studied comets, stellar and planetary movements, parallaxes and solar physics.

Robert Grant born; professor of astronomy and Director of Glasgow University Observatory; wrote History of Physical Astronomy, 1852, and Popular Treatise on Comets, 1861.

Adolph Gottfried Kinau born; a German priest and selenographer; studied lunar rilles.

Daniel Kirkwood born; an American astronomer; studied the orbits of the asteroids; discovered the Kirkwood Gaps in the asteroid belt; wrote on comets, meteorites and asteroids.

Wolfgang Ludwig Krafft died; an astronomer and physicist of German origin who worked all his life in St Petersburg.

Erasmus Ommanney born; an English Admiral in the Royal Navy; observed the 1874 transit of Venus from Luxor; made observations of the aurora borealis.

Charles Frederick Alexander Shadwell born; a British admiral; wrote on nautical astronomy.

George Williams born; architect; erected an observatory near Dolgelly which contained a 5-inch telescope by Cooke; observed sunspots by day and the Moon by night.

A new catalogue of 7,646 stars from the Palermo Observatory published by Giuseppe Piazzi, for which he received the prize of the French Academie des Sciences.

1914 William Andrews died; an English amateur astronomer.

John Caister Bennett born; a South African astronomer; observed and studied comets.

Adriaan Blaauw born; a Dutch astronomer; Director of the European Southern Observatory 1970-'74; professor at the Leiden Observatory 1975-'81; studied the structure of the galaxy.

Lorant Dezso born; an Hungarian astronomer; devoted his studies to solar physics; established the solar department of the Budapest Observatory.

Yoshio Dohmoto born; a Japanese astronomer; head of the Asahikawa Observatory in Hokkaido; an observer of sunspots, comets, occultations, and artificial satellites.

Nils Christofer Duner died; a pioneer of astrophotography in Sweden; worked at Lund Observatory.

Charles Fehrenbach born; a French astronomer; Director of the Observatoire de Haute Provence.

Mario Girolamo Fracastoro born; an Italian astronomer; Director of the Catania Observatory 1956-'68; Director of the Pinto Torinese observatory; studied solar physics.

David Gill died; a Scottish astronomer; assistant at the Dun Echt observatory; appointed Her Majesty's Astronomer at the Cape of Good Hope in 1879; studied the parallax of stars in the southern hemisphere.

Takeo Hatanaka born; professor of astrophysics at Tokyo University and a staff member of the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory; studied planetary nebulae, the solar atmosphere, stellar evolution, and radio astronomy.

George William Hill died; an American mathematician and astronomer; worked on celestial mechanics; worked at the Nautical Almanac Office, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

William Albert Hiltner born; Director of the Yerkes Observatory; Director of the University of Michigan's observatory; discovered the interstellar polarisation of starlight.

Edward Singleton Holden died; an American astronomer; director of the Washburn Observatory of the University of Wisconsin; first director of the Lick Observatory; founder of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific.

Hermann Joseph Klein died; a German selenographer; built a private observatory in Cologne.

Zdenek Kopal born; a Czech-born astronomer; chairman of the astronomy department of Victoria University, Manchester; an authority on eclipsing variables, the terrestrial planets and the Moon.

Giuseppe Lorenzoni died; an Italian astronomer; Director of Padua Observatory; studied the solar spectrum.

Heinz von Lude born; astronomical computer; worked at the Astronomisches Rechen-Institut; calculated the orbits of asteroids.

Paul Ledoux born; a Belgian astronomer; awarded the Eddington Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1972 for investigations into problems of stellar stability and variable stars.

Jose Mateo born; Director of the La Plata Observatory.

Lyman Strong Spitzer born; an American theoretical physicist, astronomer and mountaineer; director of Princeton University Observatory; worked on star formation and plasma physics.

Eduard Suess died; an Austrian geologist and selenologist; advocated a cosmic origin of tektites.

James Alfred Van Allen born; an American space scientist at the University of Iowa; instrumental in establishing the field of magnetospheric research in space.

Mary Helen Wright Greuter born; an American historian of astronomy; worked as an assistant at Vassar astronomy department; worked at Mount Wilson, the United States Naval Observatory and the Maria Mitchell Observatory.

Yakov Borisovich Zel'dovich born; a Soviet astrophysicist; constructed a theory of the structure of supermassive stars and compact stellar systems.

Sinope (Jupiter IX) discovered by Seth Barnes Nicholson on photographs taken with the 36-inch Crossley reflector of the Lick Observatory.

A transit of Mercury on November 6.

An occultation of Jupiter I by Jupiter II observed by Fauth on October 12.

Walter Sydney Adams & Ernst Arnold Kohlschutter discovered the existence of small but significant differences between the spectra of giant and dwarf stars of the same spectral class.

A 15kg iron meteorite fell on October 13 at Appley Bridge, Wigan, Lancashire.

During World War 1, near the Polish village of Morasko, an iron meteorite was discovered half a metre underground; the Polish government declared the region of the Morasko meteorite fall to be a natural sanctuary.

Harlow Shapley became an astronomer at Mount Wilson Observatory; studied Cepheid variable pulsations.

The Cordoba Durchmusterung published, containing 580,000 stars.

Barry Hetherington

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Author:Hetherington, Barry
Publication:Journal of the British Astronomical Association
Geographic Code:4EUUK
Date:Dec 1, 2013
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