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Centella asiatica (L.) Urb.: ethnomedicinal uses and their scientific validations.

Introduction

Indigenous medicinal practices of various communities throughout the world have always proved to be an excellent route to discovery of many important modern drugs (Balick and Cox, 1996; Gilani and Rahman, 2005). Although the advent of allopathic medicine somewhat diminished the importance of traditional medicinal systems, yet these medicinal systems have in recent years, staged a come-back. This has happened due to a number of factors. First, allopathic medicine cannot cure all ancient and quite a number of emerging modern diseases like diabetes. Second, many allopathic medicines have developed drug-resistant vectors. Third, adverse reactions have been observed with a number of allopathic medicines. Even common over the counter painkilling drugs like aspirin and paracetamol can develop gastric ulceration or hepatotoxicity from prolonged usage or over-dose. Fourth, many rural and remote areas of the world lack allopathic doctors and modern health-care facilities making modern medicine become out of reach of the population. Fifth, and last of all, people still believe in traditional medicine out from either habit or from finding such medicines beneficial.

As a result, recent years are witnessing an upsurge in observations and documentation of traditional medicinal practices, as evidenced through the number of ethnomedicinal papers published in various scientific journals, proliferation of books on home remedies, and renewed public interest as manifested by visits to traditional medicinal practitioners. The plethora of ethnomedicinal papers published, however, lacks one important aspect. This is discussing the comparative ethnomedicinal uses of a given plant in various traditional medicinal practices of the world, along with a description of the plant's reported constituents and their pharmacological effects, and whether such pharmacological properties justify or validate the plant's traditional use. This is important, for otherwise, ethnomedicinal papers lose most of any practical significance. Conversely, such discussion can add an important dimension to further scientific research on the plant thus leading to possible safe therapeutic use of the plant in alleviating symptoms and curing diseases.

Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. (Apiaceae/Umbelliferae) is a plant that has been used from pre-historic times to cure a number of maladies. It is a small, herbaceous annual plant and is native to India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, northern Australia, Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, Melanesia, Papua New Guinea, and other parts of Asia. It has uses in traditional African medicine, traditional Chinese medicine, and the ancient Ayurvedic system of medicine in India, which dates back at least 3,500 years ago. It also has uses in the Unani system of traditional medicine in India, which began from the Greeks and was later developed by the Arabs. In Unani medicine, the plant is known as 'braahmi'. A number of its bio-active constituents have been characterized. The plant is known as 'thankuni' in Bengali, 'Indian pennywort' in English, 'gotu kola' in Sinhala, 'mandukaparni' in Sanskrit (Ayurveda), 'Hydrocotyle asiatique' in French, and 'Asiatischer Wassernabel' in German. Accepted synonyms of the plant include Hydrocotyle asiatica L., Hydrocotyle lunata Lam., Centella coriacea Nannfd., Centella cordifolia (Hooker fil.) Nannfd., Centella dusenni Nannfd., Centella floridana (C. et R.) Nannfd., Centella repanda (Pers.) Small., Centella triflora (R. et P.) Nannfd., and Centella uniflora (Col.) Nannfd. The full classification of the plant is shown in Table 1 (below).

Considering the diversified uses of the plant for treatment of a diverse variety of ailments in many traditional medicinal systems of the world, the objective of the present review was to compare such ethnomedicinal uses with reported bio-active constituents of the plant, and determine whether the traditional uses of the plant can be validated scientifically, considering reported pharmacological activities of the various plant constituents.

Methodology:

The authors first carried out a computer-aided search of the literature stored in various medical data banks. In addition, relevant information was also searched on the Internet. All publications containing original data and an adequate detailed description of methodology were considered in the present review. Data collected by the corresponding author in his previous field studies in Bangladesh with folk and tribal medicinal practitioners was also used in this review for comparative analysis of ethnomedicinal uses. Ethnomedicinal data collected on the uses of this plant for treatment of diverse diseases in traditional medicinal systems was compared with reported constituents of the plant and their reported relevant pharmacological activities or properties. On the basis of this comparison, it was determined whether traditional medicinal uses of the plant are scientifically validated or not. Moreover, the on the basis of the latter data combined with the first set of data it was determined whether the plant could serve single or multiple therapeutic purposes.

Results and Discussion

The major ethnomedicinal uses of the plant appears to be to alleviate gastrointestinal disorders like dysentery, constipation, stomach problems, indigestion and loss of appetite, and to enhance memory or to serve as nerve stimulant. Altogether twenty three ethnomedicinal uses were collected from the available literature, of which six dealt with the plant's use in gastrointestinal disorders, and four uses were linked to memory or uses associated with brain functions like stimulation of nerve or for treatment of mental retardation. However, the uses of the plant were quite diverse overall, for the plant was used for treatment of headache, toothache, cuts and wounds, leucorrhea, skin disorders (like eczema, carbuncle), hemorrhoids, as antidote to poison, urinary troubles and leucorrhea, pneumonia, syphilis, liver problems (like jaundice), sexual weakness in males, fever, sun stroke, rickets, cardiovascular disorders, leprosy, tuberculosis, asthma, and varicocele. Altogether, 12 ethnomedicinal reports were from India, 3 from Nepal, 6 from Bangladesh, and 2 from Africa. Thus the major ethnomedicinal uses of the plant seemed to be centered in the Indian sub-continent. The results are shown in Table 2.

Some other traditional uses of the plant have been referenced but have not been added in Table 2. For instance, traditional healers in Java and other Indonesian islands, as well as in the island of Madagascar have been reported to use the plant for therapeutic purposes (Madaus, 1938; Kiessewetter, 1964; Kartnig, 1988). The use of the plant in Chinese traditional medicine has also been documented (Kan, 1986).

The role of Centella asiatica in improving cognitive and other functions of the brain has been supported by a wealth of scientific evidence. Extracts of the plant reportedly improved cognition and reduced oxidative stress in rats (Veerendra Kumar and Gupta, 2002). Leaf powder has been shown to have anti-oxidant effect in brain regions of pre-pubertal mice in vivo, and ameliorate 3-nitropropionic acid-induced oxidative stress in mitochondria in vitro (Shinomol and Muralidhara, 2008). Neuroprotective effect of the plant has been observed against intracerebroventricular colchicine-induced cognitive impairment and oxidative stress (Kumar et al., 2009), and D-galactose-induced cognitive impairment, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction (Kumar et al., 2011). The anti-oxidant property of the plant has further been evaluated in relation to its memory enhancing ability (Meena et al., 2012). Treatment with the plant during postnatal period has been found to enhance learning and memory in mice (Rao et al., 2005). Leaf extract treatment during the growth spurt period has been shown to enhance hippocampal CA3 neuronal dendritic and amygdaloid neuronal dendritic arborization (regions concerned with learning and memory) in rats (Mohandas Rao et al., 2006; Gadahad et al., 2008; Mohandas Rao et al., 2009). Treatment with fresh leaf extract has been demonstrated to enhance learning ability and memory retention power in rats (Rao et al., 2007). A positive modulation of cognition and mood in healthy elderly human volunteers has been observed following administration of the plant (Wattanathorn et al., 2008).

Extract of the plant has the possibility of proving beneficial in Alzheimer's patients because it has been shown to enhance phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) in neuroblastoma cells expressing amyloid beta peptide, a component of amyloid plaques in association with Alzheimer's disease (Xu et al., 2008). It is to be noted that in Alzheimer's disease, amyloid beta peptide decreases the phosphorylation of CREB by protein kinase A (PKA) is significantly inhibited leading to possible cognitive impairment during the progress of the disease (Vitolo et al., 2002). In fact, extract of the plant reportedly decreased amyloid beta levels in hippocampus of Alzheimer's disease animal model (Dhanasekaran et al., 2009). Extract of the plant has been shown to improve behavioral deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (Soumyanath et al, 2012).

One of the active principles in the plant, which contributes to improvement in brain functions, seem to be asiatic acid. Asiatic acid derivatives have been shown to enhance cognitive performance partly by improving acetylcholine synthesis (Kim et al, 2004). Treatment of Sprague-Dawley rats resulted in significantly dose-dependently improved memory (Nasir et al, 2011). The compound has been shown to attenuate glutamate-induced cognitive deficits in mice and apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells, a human-derived cell line isolated from a four year-old female with neuroblastoma (Xu et al, 2012). Memory loss and cognitive impairment as well as behavioral deficit can be a consequence of anxiety and depression. Asiaticoside, another component of the plant has been shown to impart anxiolytic activity (Wijeweera et al, 2006). An alcoholic extract of the plant has been reported to have tranquilizing effects and the active component has been shown to a triterpene component of the plant, brahmoside. The extract has further been shown to have sedative, anti-depressant and potentially cholinomimetic activities (Sakina and Dandiya, 1990).

A number of potentially important components of possible therapeutic values and important pharmacological effects have been described for the plant (Brinkhaus et al, 2000). These compounds include terpene acetate, germacrene, beta-caryophyllene, p-cymol, and pinene (from essential oil); the flavone derivatives--quercetin glycoside, kaempferol in its free and glycoside form (3-glucosyl kaempferol and 7-glucosyl kaempferol); sesquiterpenes--beta-elemene, bicycloelemene, trans-farnesene, ermacrene D; triterpenic steroids--stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol; triterpenic acids--asiatic acid, 6-hydroxy asiatic acid, madecassic acid, madasiatic acid, betulinic acid, thankunic acid and isothankunic acid; and triterpenic acid sugar esters like asiaticosides A and B, braminoside, brahmoside, brahminoside, thankuniside and isothankuniside. Rhizomes, particularly are rich in various bio-active components like the mono-terpenes--1,8-cineole, limone, pinene, borneol, camphene, terpenine-4-ol, borneol acetate, carveol I, carveol II, citronellol acetate, p-cymene, pcymenol, geraniol acetate, linalool, myrcene, nerol acetate, sabines, and terpineolenes; diterpenes like galanal A and B, galanalactone, (E)-8(17),12-labdiene-15,16-dial, and (E)-8(17)-epoxylabd-12-en-15,16-dial; sesquiterpenes like bergamotene, bisabolene 2, trans-farnesene, caryophyllenol I, caryophyllene oxide, caryophyllenol II, curcumin, copaene; sesquiterpenes--humulene, santalene, and sesquiphellandrene; alkenes--n-heptadecene; alkanes--pentadecane and tridecane; phenyl-propanoids--chavicol, chavicol acetate, 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate, 1'-hydroxychavicol acetate, 4-hydroxy-trans-cinnamaldehyde, 3,4-dimethoxy-transcinnamyl alcohol, 4-methoxy-trans-cinnamyl alcohol, trans-coniferyl diacetate, trans-para-coumaryl diacetate, eugenol acetate, 1'-acetoxyeugenol acetate, and eugenol methylether. Other reported compounds include 3-glucosyl quercetin, betulic acid, bicycloelemene, brahmic acid, campesterol, camphor, centellic acid, centellinic acid, centellose, centelloside, centoic acid, elaidic acid, germacrene-D, hydrocotyline, indocentoic acid, isobrahmic acid, isothankunic acid, lignoceric acid, medicassic acid, oxyasiaticoside, and vellarine (Duke, 1992).

Ursane--and oleanane-type triperne oligoglycosides, centellasaponins B, C, and D and sceffoleoside has been isolated from aerial parts of the plant (Matsuda et al, 2001). Aerial parts further reportedly yielded ursolic acid lactone, ursolic acid, pomolic acid, 2alpha,3alpha-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid, 3-epimaslinic acid, asiatic acid, corosolic acid, and rosmarinic acid (Yoshida et al, 2005). Methanolic extract of aerial parts yielded 3,5-di-O-caffeoyl quinic acid, 1,5-di-O-caffeoyl quinic acid, 3,4-di-O-caffeoyl quinic acid, 4,5-di-O-caffeoyl quinic acid and chlorogenic acid together with asiaticoside, kaempferol, quercetine, kaempferol-3-O-beta-Dglucoside, and quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside (Satake et al, 2007). Centellin, asiaticin, and centellicin has also been reported from aerial parts of the plant (Siddiqui et al, 2007). Other chemical compounds reported from the plant include docosyl ferulates, bayogenin, 3beta-6beta-23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid, 3beta-6beta-23 trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid and D-gulonic acid (Yu et al, 2007).

Extract of the plant has been shown to have beneficial effects in various chemical or stress-induced ulceration in animal models, like cold restraint stress ulcer (Ravokatra et al, 1974; Chatterjee et al, 1992), ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions (Cheng and Koo, 2000), and physical and chemical factors-induced gastric ulceration (Sairam et al, 2001). The active factor for healing at least acetic acid-induced gastric ulceration and phenylchinolincarbonic acid-induced gastric lesions appear to be asiaticoside (Catania, 1960; Cheng et al, 2004). The anti-bacterial activity of Centella asiatica has been demonstrated against a number of enteric pathogens, showing that the plant may prove useful in treatment of diarrhea and dysentery (Mamtha, 2004). The presence of flavonoids and tannins in the plant may also contribute to its anti-diarrheal effect. Flavonoid type of compounds can inhibit the development of fluids that result in diarrhea by targeting of the intestinal cystic fibrosis trans-membrane conductance regulator (Schuier et al, 2005). Rosmarinic acid, a constituent of the plant, and also isolated from Anchusa azurea Mill., reportedly demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer activities (Kuruuzum-Uz et al, 2012).

The analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Centella asiatica has been described, thus validating its ethnomedicinal uses for treatment of headache and toothache (Somchit et al, 2004). Ayurveda, the ancient Indian traditional medicinal system of India, describes the plant as being good, particularly for treating wounds, leprosy, and for various mental disorders. The plant is also used in the folk medicine of Malay Peninsula, Java and Madagascar for treating wounds; in China it is used historically for various psychotropic applications. The official Chinese and European Pharmacopoeia lists the plant for treatment of fever, heat stroke, ulcerations, diarrhea, and traumatic diseases. The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia of 1983 recommends using the plant as a mild diuretic and anti-rheumatic. In Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, the dried plant is used in 'raktapitta' (hemorrhagic diseases), 'kustha' (leprosy), 'meho' (polyurea), 'kasa' (cough), 'jvara' (fever), 'aruchi' (loss of appetite, anorexia), 'pandu' (anemia), 'sotha' (edema), and 'raktadosa' (poisoning of blood) (Bhavna and Jyoti, 2011). The anti-leprotic property of the plant has been attributed to asiaticoside (Barbosa-Filho et al., 2007).

In Unani medicine, the plant is said to be useful for treatment of skin disorders like eczema (Jamil et al., 2007). The essential oil from Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit leaves have been found to be effective against pathogenic Aspergillus species, including species which can cause cutaneous aspergillosis, and aspergillar onychomycosis (Moreira et al, 2010). The active constituents have been reported to be gamma-elemene, betapinene, trans-beta-caryophyllene, and germacrene. Some of these components have been found in essential oil from Centella asiatica, suggesting that the plant may prove useful in treatment of skin disorders, particularly caused by various fungi. Anti-bacterial activity has been reported with the essential oil from Monticalia greenmaniana (Hieron) C. Jeffrey containing germacrene against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumonia (Cardenas et al, 2012). The essential oil from Acanthospermum hispidum DC. containing beta-caryophyllene and germacrene D has been found to be inhibitory to pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis (Alava et al., 2012). Pinene and germacrene were among the constituents of essential oil from the leaves of Annona vepretorum with antimicrobial activity (Costa et al., 2012). Germacrene was also among the constituents of essential oil of Salvia reuterana Boiss showing anti-microbial activity (Ghomi et al., 2012).

Extract of the plant containing total triterpenoid fraction has been shown to help patients with varicose venous disorders like hemorrhoids and varicose vein (Arpaia et al., 1990). According to the Siddha system of Indian medicine, leaves have been traditionally used for treatment of syphilis. In Ayurveda, the plant is also used for treatment of tertiary syphilis and tuberculosis (Tiwari et al., 2011). It has been reported that leaf juice of the plant following administration decreased systolic blood pressure and heart rate in hypertensive rats. Additionally, the juice significantly increased cutaneous blood flow as well as regional cerebral blood flow in both normal and hypertensive rats, suggesting that the plant may prove useful in treatment of cardiovascular disorders (Muangnongwa, 2004). Cardiac glycosides present in the plant (Singh et al., 2012) explain its use for treatment of cardiovascular disorders (as observed in the present study), and for treatment of congestive heart failure and cardiac arrhythmia (Krishnaiah et al., 2009). The anti-hyperlipidemic effect of ursolic acid, a component of the plant, has been observed in isoproterenol-induced myocardial ischemic mice (Radhiga et al., 2012).

Varicocele is a hypogonadism of testicular origin caused by the varicose dilation (varix) of the veins of the spermatic cord, and can be a cause of male infertility. Asiatic acid present in the plant can be used for treatment of this disease, for the compound acts on the connective tissue in the biosynthesis of collagen (Paris and Hurabielle, 1981).

Our review clearly demonstrates two things. The first is that virtually all ethnomedicinal uses of Centella asiatica can be scientifically validated on the basis of scientific research on the properties of the various bioactive components of the plant. This fact highlights the importance of ethnomedicinal surveys to further scientific research in the quest for discovery of newer and better medicines. The second is that the possible therapeutic uses of the plant are yet to be totally explored considering that the plant contains numerous chemicals of potential therapeutic significances. To cite a few instances, ursolic acid (which is present in the plant) or its derivatives have been found useful in the potential treatment of epilepsy (Kazmi et al., 2012). The anti-depressant like effect of ursolic acid [mediated through the activation of dopamine D(1) and D(2) receptors], isolated from Rosmarinus officinalis L. has been observed in mice (Machado et al., 2012). Pomolic acid, another constituent of the plant, (also isolated from Licania pittieri Prance) has been shown to be a competitive antagonist of ADP-induced aggregation of human platelets and can form a new generation of nonnucleotide anti-platelet drugs (Alvarado-Castillo et al., 2012). The anti-cancer properties of pomolic acid have been shown in MCF7 human breast cancer cells (Youn et al., 2012). The modulatory efficacy of rosmarinic acid on premalignant lesions and anti-oxidant status in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced rat colon carcinogenesis has been reported (Karthikkumar et al., 2012).

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Rownak Jahan, Sophia Hossain, Syeda Seraj, Dilruba Nasrin, Zubaida Khatun, Protiva Rani Das, Md. Tabibul Islam, Ishtiaq Ahmed, Mohammed Rahmatullah

Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Corresponding Author: Dr. Mohammed Rahmatullah, Pro-Vice Chancellor University of Development Alternative House No. 78, Road No. 11A (new) Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka-1205 Bangladesh.

E mail: rahamatm@hotmail.com, Ph: 88-01715032621, Fax: 88-02-8157339.
Table 1: Systematic classification (Taxonomy) of Centella asiatica.

Classification   Name
Kingdom          Eukaryota
Subkingdom       Embryophyta
Division         Spermatophyta
Subdivision      Angiospermae
Class            Dicotyledoneae
Subclass         Rosidae
Superorder       Aralianae
Order            Araliales (Umbelliflorae)
Family           Apiaceae or Umbelliferae
Subfamily        Hydrocotyle
Genus            Centella
Species          Centella asiatica

Table 2: Ethnomedicinal uses of Centella asiatica (L.) Urb.
(Apiaceae/Umbelliferae).

Serial   Tribe/people and location     Ailment(s) treated
Number

1        People of Kasaragod           To improve memory, headache.
         district, Kerala State,
         India

2        People of Kedarnath           Dysentery, constipation.
         Wildlife Sanctuary, Western
         Himalaya, India

3        Tribal people of              Wounds.
         Tirunelveli Hills, Southern
         India

4        Newar community of Pharping   Antidote to poison, cuts and
         village of Kathmandu          wounds, urinary trouble.
         district, Nepal

5        Meche people of Jhapa         Heating and tenderness of
         District, Eastern Nepal       limb skin.

6        Manipuri people of Manipur    Stomach treatment, to
         State, India                  improve brain power.

7        Malasars tribe of             Leucorrhea, eczema.
         Velliangiri holy hills,
         India

8        Local people of the           Not reported.
         lowlands of Konta Special
         Woreda, Ethiopia

9        People of Buldhana District   Mental retardation.
         of Maharashtra State,
         India.

10       People of Dolpa District,     To stimulate nervous system,
         Nepal.                        pneumonia, skin diseases,
                                       toothache, indigestion,
                                       dysentery.

11       Chakma communities of         Syphilis, ulcer.
         Chittagong Hill Tracts,
         Bangladesh.

12       Tai-Khamyang people of        Carbuncle hemorrhoids.
         Sivasagar District, Assam,
         India.

13       Manavalakuruchi people of     Fever, sun stroke.
         Kanyakumari District, Tamil
         Nadu State, India.

14       People of Bansoa, West        Varicocele [widening of the
         Cameroon, Africa.             veins along the cord that
                                       holds up a man's testicles
                                       (spermatic cord)].

15       Kol, Gond and Mawasi tribes   Rickets (softening and
         of Chitrakoot region,         weakening of the bones due
         Madhya Pradesh, India.        to lack of vitamin D).

16       People of NR Pura taluk in    Cardiovascular problems,
         Chikmagalur District of       stomach disorders.
         Karnataka State, India.

17       Lushai tribe of North         Leprosy, tuberculosis,
         Cachar District of Assam,     asthma.
         India.

18       Folk medicinal                Gastric disorders, liver
         practitioners and Khasia      troubles.
         tribal medicinal
         practitioners of Sylhet
         District, Bangladesh.

19       Folk medicinal                Leucorrhea.
         practitioners of Fullbari
         village, Bogra District,
         Bangladesh.

20       Folk medicinal                Indigestion, appetite
         practitioners of Sylhet       stimulant.
         Division, Bangladesh.

21       Soren clan of the Santal      Sexual weakness in males.
         tribe in Rajshahi District,
         Bangladesh.

22       Hodi tribe of Bangladesh.     Jaundice.

23       Baiga tribe of Amarkantak     Syphilis, mental disorder,
         Biosphere Reserve, India      skin disease.

Serial   Tribe/people and location   Part of plant used with
Number                               formulation, if any

1        People of Kasaragod         Extract from leaves and whole
         district, Kerala State,     plants taken orally to improve
         India                       memory and used topically to
                                     treat headache.

2        People of Kedarnath         Leaf.
         Wildlife Sanctuary,
         Western Himalaya, India

3        Tribal people of            Flowers of Ixora coccinea L.
         Tirunelveli Hills,          (Rubiaceae) are mixed with leaves
         Southern India              of Coldenia procumbens L.
                                     (Boraginaceae), Centella asiatica
                                     and stem bark of Madhuca
                                     longifolia Koen. (Sapotaceae) and
                                     boiled with water. The decoction
                                     thus obtained is topically
                                     applied along with coconut oil to
                                     wounds.

4        Newar community of          Whole plant juice.
         Pharping village of
         Kathmandu district, Nepal

5        Meche people of Jhapa       Whole plant extract (30-50 ml) is
         District, Eastern Nepal     taken for 30 or more days.

6        Manipuri people of          About 100g of fresh leaves and
         Manipur State, India        stems is taken once early in the
                                     morning for stomach treatment.
                                     Extracted juice (1/2 glass) is
                                     mixed with yolk of an egg and 12
                                     teaspoon of honey to improve
                                     brain power in young learners.

7        Malasars tribe of           Not reported.
         Velliangiri holy hills,
         India

8        Local people of the         Not reported.
         lowlands of Konta Special
         Woreda, Ethiopia

9        People of Buldhana          Powder of entire plants mixed in
         District of Maharashtra     cow's ghee is boiled slightly and
         State, India.               filtered. It is stored in a red
                                     bottle for one day in sunlight.
                                     Ten drops of it in one cup of
                                     cow's fresh milk is advised twice
                                     daily for a month.

10       People of Dolpa District,   Fresh leaf is used to stimulate
         Nepal.                      nervous system. Plant extract is
                                     taken for pneumonia, skin
                                     diseases, toothache, and
                                     indigestion. Leaf paste is used
                                     to treat dysentery.

11       Chakma communities of       Whole plant juice is taken.
         Chittagong Hill Tracts,
         Bangladesh.

12       Tai-Khamyang people of      For treatment of carbuncle, paste
         Sivasagar District,         of Centella asiatica and Bonnaya
         Assam, India.               reptans (Roxb.) Spreng.
                                     (Scrophulariaceae) is mixed with
                                     leaves and tender leaf buds of
                                     Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae)
                                     and a little amount of Nicotiana
                                     tabacum L. (Solanaceae) and is
                                     warped over the affected area
                                     with a banana leaf and tied with
                                     a soft cloth for the whole night.
                                     For treatment of hemorrhoids,
                                     resin of Artocarpus lakoocha
                                     Roxb. (Moraceae) is mixed with
                                     crushed leaves of Centella
                                     asiatica and meat of fire roasted
                                     Channa punctatus (fish species).
                                     Three tablets are prepared from
                                     the mixture and are taken one by
                                     one at any time of the day.

13       Manavalakuruchi people of   Whole plant.
         Kanyakumari District,
         Tamil Nadu State, India.

14       People of Bansoa, West      Dried and powdered whole plant is
         Cameroon, Africa.           swallowed with water.

15       Kol, Gond and Mawasi        Leaf juice is given to children
         tribes of Chitrakoot        once daily for one month.
         region, Madhya Pradesh,
         India.

16       People of NR Pura taluk     For cardiovascular problems, leaf
         in Chikmagalur District     infusion of Centella asiatica
         of Karnataka State,         with flowers of Nyctanthes arbor
         India.                      tristis L. (Oleaceae) and onion
                                     bulb [Allium cepa L. (Liliaceae)]
                                     is administered orally. For
                                     stomach disorders, leaf extracts
                                     of Centella asiatica and Mimosa
                                     pudica L. (Fabaceae) are mixed
                                     with lemon juice and taken orally
                                     on an empty stomach.

17       Lushai tribe of North       Crushed whole plant parts are
         Cachar District of Assam,   used.
         India.

18       Folk medicinal              Juice obtained from macerated
         practitioners and Khasia    leaves and stems is orally
         tribal medicinal            administered.
         practitioners of Sylhet
         District, Bangladesh.

19       Folk medicinal              Juice obtained from macerated
         practitioners of Fullbari   whole plant is orally
         village, Bogra District,    administered.
         Bangladesh.

20       Folk medicinal              Juice from whole plant is orally
         practitioners of Sylhet     taken.
         Division, Bangladesh.

21       Soren clan of the Santal    1g roots of Eclipta alba (L.)
         tribe in Rajshahi           Hassk. (Asteraceae) is mixed with
         District, Bangladesh.       leaves of Centella asiatica, 1g
                                     roots of Abroma augusta L.f.
                                     (Sterculiaceae), roots of Bombax
                                     ceiba L. (Bombacaceae) and boiled
                                     in water. Fruits of Croton
                                     tiglium L. (Euphorbiaceae) and
                                     powdered seed husks of Plantago
                                     ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae)
                                     are then mixed with the
                                     decoction, and the decoction
                                     taken with ripe bananas, sugar
                                     and cow milk.

22       Hodi tribe of Bangladesh.   Juice obtained from macerated
                                     leaves of Centella asiatica is
                                     taken with roots of Costus
                                     speciosus daily in the morning on
                                     an empty stomach till cure.

23       Baiga tribe of Amarkantak   Not reported.
         Biosphere Reserve, India

Serial   Tribe/people and location     References
Number

1        People of Kasaragod           Unnikannan et al., 2012.
         district, Kerala State,
         India

2        People of Kedarnath           Singh and Rawat, 2011.
         Wildlife Sanctuary, Western
         Himalaya, India

3        Tribal people of              Ayyanar and Ignacimuthu, 2009.
         Tirunelveli Hills, Southern
         India

4        Newar community of Pharping   Balami, 2004.
         village of Kathmandu
         district, Nepal

5        Meche people of Jhapa         Rai, 2004.
         District, Eastern Nepal

6        Manipuri people of Manipur    Yumnam et al., 2012.
         State, India

7        Malasars tribe of             Ragupathy et al., 2008.
         Velliangiri holy hills,
         India

8        Local people of the           Bekalo et al., 2009.
         lowlands of Konta Special
         Woreda, Ethiopia

9        People of Buldhana District   Dushing and Patil, 2010.
         of Maharashtra State,
         India.

10       People of Dolpa District,     Kunwar and Adhikari, 2005.
         Nepal.

11       Chakma communities of         Khisha et al., 2012.
         Chittagong Hill Tracts,
         Bangladesh.

12       Tai-Khamyang people of        Sonowal and Barua, 2011.
         Sivasagar District, Assam,
         India.

13       Manavalakuruchi people of     Britto et al., 2010.
         Kanyakumari District, Tamil
         Nadu State, India.

14       People of Bansoa, West        Noumi et al., 2011.
         Cameroon, Africa.

15       Kol, Gond and Mawasi tribes   Sikarwar et al., 2008.
         of Chitrakoot region,
         Madhya Pradesh, India.

16       People of NR Pura taluk in    Prakasha et al., 2010.
         Chikmagalur District of
         Karnataka State, India.

17       Lushai tribe of North         Sajem and Gosai,
         Cachar District of Assam,     2010
         India.

18       Folk medicinal                Shaheen et al.,
         practitioners and Khasia      2010
         tribal medicinal
         practitioners of Sylhet
         District, Bangladesh.

19       Folk medicinal                Hossan et al., 2010.
         practitioners of Fullbari
         village, Bogra District,
         Bangladesh.

20       Folk medicinal                Rahmatullah et al., 2010.
         practitioners of Sylhet
         Division, Bangladesh.

21       Soren clan of the Santal      Rahmatullah et al., 2012.
         tribe in Rajshahi District,
         Bangladesh.

22       Hodi tribe of Bangladesh.     Rahmatullah et al., 2011.

23       Baiga tribe of Amarkantak     Kapale, 2012.
         Biosphere Reserve, India
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Title Annotation:Original Article
Author:Jahan, Rownak; Hossain, Sophia; Seraj, Syeda; Nasrin, Dilruba; Khatun, Zubaida; Das, Protiva Rani; I
Publication:American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9BANG
Date:Oct 1, 2012
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