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Celebrating African-American Librarians and Librarianship.

ABSTRACT

THIS ARTICLE CELEBRATES THE ACHIEVEMENTS of African-American librarians and their contributions to librarianship. It identifies and reviews records of scholarship that can serve as starting points for students and scholars. It chronicles the achievements of numerous individuals and provides additional resources for further investigation. Although it includes major studies, major organizations, and recurring themes in the literature, attention is also given to lesser known individuals and facts that appear in primary and secondary sources. Suggestions are made for areas of further investigation where the history of library services to African-Americans remains to be written.

INTRODUCTION

Throughout their history, African-American librarians have been pioneers, visionaries, risk-takers, hard-workers, innovators, organizers, and achievers. Through dedication and persistence, they have developed library collections and archives in spite of limited resources. They have provided reference and information services, and their libraries have served as cultural centers for many blacks in all types of communities. African-American library educators at Hampton Institute (1925-35), Atlanta University (1941--now Clark-Atlanta), and the University of North Carolina Central (1939-) have had the leading role in educating black professionals to pursue careers in librarianship and leadership positions. Together, library educators and librarians have pioneered and persisted in achieving access to, and participation in, professional organizations. They have served as mentors and role models for many individuals and have contributed to the scholarly record of librarianship. These achievements are an inspiration worthy of continued emulation and cause for celebration. Therefore, this article will chronicle some of these individuals and their achievements, note major organizations, review major studies, and indicate recurring themes of African-American librarianship. It is intended to bring together and identify records of scholarship to serve as a starting point for continued research.

The issue of minority librarians to serve new diverse clientele in the twenty-first century has been explored in the literature, been the subject of conferences, and been addressed in part by schools of library and information science and by professional organizations such as the American Library Association through increased scholarship funding to recruit new members to the profession. Therefore, a review of demographics is important.

DEMOGRAPHICS

As of November 1, 1999, the U.S. Census Bureau estimated the U.S. population to be 273,866,000 persons. Blacks make up 12.8 percent of the population or 35,078,000 persons. In 1991, 82 percent of all blacks 25 to 34 years of age had completed four years of high school, up from 75 percent in 1980. Approximately 12 percent of those blacks were college graduates. In 1991, the American Library Association's Office for Library Personnel Resources prepared the statistical report "Race and Ethnicity in Academic and Public Libraries" based on the 1990 Census. The table reflects the number of librarians.

Table. Academic and Public Librarians by Race and Ethnicity
 Am. Asian/
Ethnicity Indian Pacific Black Hispanic

Number 898 6,776 15,000 6,164

Ethnicity White Total

Number 171,470 200,800


Source: 1990 Census, Civilian Labor Force (librarians, p. 164). Library Personnel News (1993, November-December), p. 7.

The Statistical Abstract of the U.S. 1998 lists a total of 217,000 librarians, archivists, and curators employed in the civilian labor force. Of that number, 77.1 percent were female; 7.8 percent were black; and 1.6 percent were of Hispanic heritage. Using 1996-1997 data, the ALA Office for Library Personnel Resources (1999) reported that the ALA-accredited master's degree was awarded to 193 (4.4 percent) African-Americans; 1 (2.2 percent) post master's to African-Americans; and 3 doctorates (8.5 percent) to African-Americans.

Although the American Library Association is beginning to collect statistics, no general database currently exists that reflects salaries or positions of employed minority or African-American librarians. As part of its Annual Salary Survey, the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) includes a table on the number and average salaries of minority U.S. librarians. The numbers are analyzed further to include minority librarians by region. During 1997-98, the number of librarians employed in ARL libraries totaled 6,834 individuals. Of this number, 11 percent of the population, or 848 individuals, were minorities. Of the minority population, black librarians accounted for 32.4 percent or 275 individuals. Within Wilder's (1995) broad study of ARL libraries, he provided age distributions for minority librarians and related his findings to recruitment to the profession. He found that the Asian-American population had the most striking distribution, with 14.5 percent in the 60 to 64 age group, suggesting that new efforts at recruitment for minority entrants have kept this population fresh, with matching retirement and recruitment levels. On the other hand, 8 percent of Hispanic librarians were 65 years and older, suggesting a significant loss of positions if not refreshed by new recruits to the profession. African-Americans composed the youngest age group with the highest proportion of librarians between 20 and 49 years of age, suggesting that past discrimination and new recruitment efforts are evident from data studied (Wilder, 1995). AS a black dean of an ARL library, Williams (1994) provided a historical analysis and perspective of black librarians employed for the years 1981-89.

The Association for Library and Information Science Education (ALISE) publishes an annual statistical report that includes documentation on enrollment and degrees conferred in library and information science programs as well as faculty, employment, ranks, and salaries of minorities. The number of African-American students enrolling and graduating from schools of library and information science represents approximately one-third of the U.S. black population, now estimated at 12.8 percent. For example, fifty-one schools reported a total of 12,480 students enrolled in ALA-accredited master's programs during 1997-1998. Of that number, only 558, or 4.8 percent African-American students, were enrolled. During 1997-98, with forty-eight schools reporting, there were only thirty-five black library educators in schools of library and information science in the United States or 6.4 percent of a total population of 547 faculty. Of that number, three were deans, six were professors, eight were associate professors, fifteen were assistant professors, and three were lecturers (ALISE Statistical Report, 1998, Table 1-17). Frost (1994) provided an interesting analysis of the 1989-90 data as it related to the characteristics and accomplishments of black library educators in the 1990s. She found that their contributions were significant in terms of deanships, scholarly publications, and other contributions to the profession.

DOCUMENTATION OF THE AFRICAN-AMERICAN LIBRARY EXPERIENCE(1)

Generally, the African-American contribution to librarianship is reflected in research articles and secondary analysis of original studies, monographs, surveys, doctoral dissertations, and masters' theses; in biographies of individual pioneers and trailblazers; by major contributors and important firsts; in studies of library development by state, region, and individual counties; and in individual libraries. Master's theses, particularly the early ones produced at Atlanta University, document the African-American experience. Research papers to fulfill requirements of the master's degree in programs of library and information science, such as those written at Texas Woman's University and Kent State University, are other sources of important information. Association activities, including the American Library Association's early efforts in library education of African-Americans, are represented in the literature.(2) Goedeken (1998) discussed those general library historical sources and specific histories of African-American librarianship that he considered essential for historical research in this area.

GENERAL STUDIES AND KEY MONOGRAPHS

Although accessible through the library literature, it is important to note some general works and studies on African-Americans. Several sources combined provide an overview. In his chronological research essay, Marshall (1976) documented the African-American experience in librarianship from 1865 to 1975. He included historical events that impacted library developments affecting African-Americans, important studies and major efforts to establish services, important legislation, and responses to changes. Jordan and Josey (2000, pp. 3-18) provided a "Chronology of Events in Black Librarianship from 1808 to 1998," and Jordan (2000) identified and profiled important forerunners (pp. 24-35). Monographs, such as the Handbook of Black Librarianship (Josey & Shockley, 1977; Josey & DeLoach, 2000), document the early developments of library education and library services for blacks, important events and organizations, and pioneers. Gunn (1986) studied the early education of African-American librarians in the United States. DuMont (1986) examined the historical position of the library profession on the question of racial attitudes toward blacks in providing library service and library education for blacks. Josey (1994) documented the reluctant steps of the American Library Association in incorporating African-American participation in the organization and the profession, a recurring theme in the literature of librarianship. Some key authors provided an overview and study of developments related to the African-American experience in librarianship (Shores, 1932; Barker, 1936; Jackson, 1940; Wilson, 1949; International Research Association, 1963; Carmichael, 1988). Several dissertations were produced through the years on various aspects of the African-American experience; for example, academic libraries (Gaymon, 1975; Taylor, 1980; Young, 1980; Fisher, 1991; Sherpell, 1992); school libraries (Jones, 1945); public libraries (Gleason, 1941; Shockley, 1960; Franklin, 1971; Malone, 1996; Graham, 1998); careers (Rhodes, 1975; Merriam,1983); library education (Gunn, 1986); and racism (Fisher, 1991; Sherpell, 1992). See the listing of representative titles at the end of this section.

The publication, What Black Librarians are Saying (Josey, 1972), framed the issues of the day, but Josey's; (1970) seminal work, Black Librarian in America, is considered the publication that launched the modern period of African-American librarianship. Prior to this publication, "Black librarians were unseen, unheard, and unknown," according to Josey (2000, p. 82). Black Librarian in American Revisited (Josey, 1994), a collection of thirty autobiographical and issue essays, presented important African-American figures from the original collection and added the experiences of new African-American librarians. Between 1992 and 1999, the black caucus of the American Library Association (BCALA) held four national conferences around the theme of African-American librarians as culture keepers of their communities. The papers and presentations contained in the proceedings are important sources of information on a variety of topics and individuals. A recent valuable collection of essays entitled Untold Stories: Civil Rights, Libraries, and Black Librarianship, edited by John Mark Tucker (1998), is presented around three distinct themes: Legacies of Black Librarianship; Chronicles from the Civil Rights Movement; and Resources for Library Personnel, Services, and Collections.

Scholars also examined the research record and provided an assessment of the scholarship produced up to 1995. For example, Fisher (1983) reviewed studies on all the major minority groups, including African-Americans, and suggested additional areas of research. Tucker (1996) concentrated on works that would be of interest to African-American library historians. Fisher's (1983) "Minority Librarianship Research" provided a state-of-the-art review of studies that appeared in monographs, the periodical literature, dissertations, and other resources. She focused on early developments, the civil rights era and contemporary developments of that period, and professional and advisory organizations. For Afro-American librarianship, she reviewed the works of Gleason (1941); Jones (1945); Shockley (1960); Ballard (1961); Florida A&M University, Urban Resource Center (1974);Jordan (1974); Clack (1975); Rhodes (1975); Craft (1976); Smith (1977); and Taylor (1980). In his article, "Let the Circle Be Unbroken: The Struggle for Continuity in African-American Scholarship, 1970-1995," Tucker (1996) reviewed those works produced during the period that should be of interest to historians of African-American librarianship. In addition to reviewing key monographs and articles, he provided valuable coverage of sources of information on black book publishers (i.e., Gatekeepers of Black Culture: Black Owned Book Publishing in the U.S., 1817-1981; Black Book Publishing in the United States: An Historical Dictionary of Presses 1817-1990; Black Bibliophiles and Collectors: Preservers of Black History, 1990), and sources that cover important black personalities (i.e., Dictionary of American Library Biography, 1978; Dictionary of American Negro Biography, 1982; Notable American Women, 1607-1950, Notable Black American Women, 1992; and Black Women in America: An Historical Encyclopedia, 1993). A representative listing of dissertations produced on the African-American experience is included below.

Dissertations

Clack, D. H. (1973). Investigation into the adequacy of Library of Congress Subject Headings for black subjects. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh.

Craft, G. (1976). Communications network system in selected Negro state-supported colleges and universities. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale.

Fisher, E. M. (1991). Modern racism in academic librarianship towards Black Americans: A California study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh.

Franklin, H. R. (1971). The relationship between adult communication practices and public library use in a northern, urban, black ghetto. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Rutgers University.

Gaymon, N. E. (1975). Attitudes of academic library directors of traditionally black institutions of higher education toward whites and the effect of their attitudes on their hiring practices. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Florida State University.

Gleason, E. A. (1940). Government and administration of public library service to Negroes in the South. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Chicago.

Gleason, E. A. (1941). Southern Negro and the public library: A study of the government and administration of public library service to Negroes in the South. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Graham, P. T. (1998). Segregation and civil rights in Alabama's public libraries, 1918-1965. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Alabama.

Gunn, A. C. (1986). Early training of black librarians in the U.S.A.: A history of the Hampton Institute Library School and the establishment of the Atlanta University School of Library Service. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh.

Jones, V. L. (1945). Problems of Negro public high school libraries in selected Southern cities. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Chicago.

Malone, C. K. (1996). Accommodating access: Colored Carnegie libraries, 1905-1925. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Texas.

Merriam, M. M. (1983). Augusta Baker: Exponent of the oral art of storytelling: Using video as medium. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Texas Woman's University.

Rhodes, L. G. (1975). A critical analysis of the career patterns backgrounds of selected black female librarians. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Florida State University.

Sherpell, B. (1992). Racial and gender integration patterns of professional librarians in Texas academic libraries. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Texas Woman's University.

Shockley, A. (1960). A history of public library service to Negroes in the South, 1900-1955. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Delaware State College.

Taylor, C. R. (1980). Contributions of black academic libraries in providing services to the black community. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Florida State University.

Young, E. M. W. (1980). A study of self-perception of the leadership behavior of black library directors. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Florida State University.

KEY FIGURES AND BIOGRAPHICAL SOURCES

Six African-American librarians were selected by American Libraries (October, 1999) as leaders of the twentieth century: Augusta Baker, Sadie Peterson Delaney, Virginia Proctor Powell Florence, Virginia Lacy Jones, Joseph Henry Reason, and Charlemae Rollins. These and other key pioneers, trailblazers, and library educators are represented in major biographical sources. The following profiles therefore are brief sketches with citations for further study. The author made no attempt to determine who is an African-American library leader but tried to include as many firsts as possible as already identified in the literature. A list of biographical sources follows the profiles and indicates other persons included for each source. These sources cart also be used to identify other African-American firsts, African-American authors, and their personal and professional work experiences.

Regina M. Anderson (librarian, playwright, arts patron). Anderson, an integral figure of the Harlem Renaissance, served as an assistant to Ernestine Rose at the 135th Street Branch of the New York Public Library (later renamed the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture) and held a variety of managerial positions with the New York Public Library. She was an acclaimed playwright of that period, and her works include Climbing Jacob's Ladder. She received her library degree from Columbia Library School. Source: Notable American Women, 1992.

Augusta Baker (1911-1998; storyteller, librarian, educator). Baker is cited as the first lady of storytelling by American Libraries (1999, December) in its "100 Leaders of the 20th Century." Jessie Carney Smith described her as "a catalyst for social change brought about through books that give a positive portrayal of people regardless of race, culture, or religion and made an impact on literature and libraries as a promoter of accurate portrayals of ethnic, cultural, and religious groups in children's literature" (Smith, 1998). Sources: McCook, 1998; Merriam, 1983; Rhodes, 1975; Rollock, 1952; Smith, 1992, 1998; American Libraries, December 1999).

Hannah Diggs Atkins (librarian, educator, state legislator). A graduate of the University of Chicago Graduate Library School, Atkins served as school, public, and academic librarian, as well as library educator in Tennessee and Oklahoma. She was the first African-American woman to sit in the State Legislature in Oklahoma and first African woman Secretary of State of Oklahoma. Sources: Notable American Black Women, II, 1998; Black Women in America, 1993.

Thomas Fountain Blue (pioneer librarian). Blue served as head of branches for Negroes in the Louisville, Kentucky, public library, the first public library to establish branch library services for blacks in the South. He was the first African-American to deliver a speech before the American Library Association. Sources: Van Jackson, 1939; Wright, 1955; Jordan, 1977.

Virgia Brocks-Shedd (1943-1992; actress, poet, archivist, and librarian). A poet and humanist, she served as librarian at Tougaloo College. She was a founding member of the Society of Mississippi Archivists and the African-American Librarians Caucus of Mississippi. Brocks-Shedd was the first black appointed to the Mississippi Library Commission. Source: Hunter, 1993.

Doris Hargett Clack (author, educator, cataloger, activist). Professor of library science at Florida State University, she is remembered for her effective teaching of cataloging courses; her scholarly work on Library of Congress subject headings for resources on black studies; and her active involvement in professional, civic, and religious organizations. Sources: Stone, 1996; Wilkes, 1998.

Jean Ellen Coleman (librarian and founding director of ALA's Office for Outreach Services, now Office for Literacy and Outreach Services). Coleman guided the activities of the Office for Outreach Services from 1973 to 1986. She wrote often in the library literature about ALA's role in providing adult and literacy services in libraries. She also encouraged librarians to accept responsibility for literacy education. At the 1996 ALA conference, Coleman was honored for her work in libraries at the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Office for Literacy and Outreach Services (OLOS). Source: Obituaries, American Libraries, 1997, January, vol. 28, p. 69).

Gwendolyn Cruzat (librarian, educator). She received the first "Distinguished Service Award" to be bestowed upon a faculty member by the University of Michigan. Now retired, she worked in hospital and medical libraries, including a long association with the National Library of Medicine. Medical bibliography and collective bargaining were her specialties. Source: Personality plus, American Libraries, 9(February), 81, 1978.

Sadie Peterson Delaney (librarian, bibliotherapist). Delaney began her professional career at the 135th Street Branch of the New York Public Library. She is best known for her work as Chief Librarian (thirty-four years) at the U.S. Veterans Administration Hospital in Tuskegee, Alabama, where she provided library services to recuperating African-American veterans. She is cited in American Libraries as one of the leading librarians of the twentieth century. Sources: Gubert, 1993; Jordan, 1077; "100 of the Most Important Leaders We had," 1999.

Virginia Proctor Florence (pioneer librarian). In 1923, Virginia Proctor Florence became the first African-American woman to complete a professional education program in librarianship. Sources: Gunn, 1989; "100 of the Most Important Leaders We had," 1999.

George W. Forbes (1864-1927; Assistant in the Boston Public Library, editor). He served as assistant in the West End Branch of the Boston Public Library from 1896 to 1927 and was editor with the Boston Courant, Boston Guardian, and other publications. Source: Van Jackson, 1939.

Nicholas Edward Gaymon (library director, educator, campus leader). Personal portrait of his career's work and as library director, Florida A&M University. Source: Gaymon, 1999.

Eliza Gleason (librarian, library administrator, educator). First African-American to receive a doctorate in library science from the University of Chicago Graduate School of Library Science; first dean of the School of Library Service, Atlanta University; first comprehensive study of public library services for African-Americans. Sources: Rhodes, 1975; Josey & Shockley, 1977; Smith, 1992, 1998.

Vivian Harsh (librarian). First black to head a branch library in the Chicago library system; established black collection for Chicago; made library a cultural center. Source: Smith, 1992.

Jean Blackwell Huston (library administrator and curator). Famed for guiding the development of the world's leading public repository of materials that document the history and culture of peoples of African descent, the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture. Source: Cooper-Johnson, 1996.

Mollie Lee Huston (librarian, civic leader, organizational leader). Cited as one of the most distinguished African-American librarians during the segregation era, she established a library for blacks in Raleigh, North Carolina, creating an outstanding collection of black materials. She was instrumental in organizing the North Carolina Negro Library Association in 1934. It became the first association controlled by blacks to be admitted as a chapter of ALA. Sources: Valentine, 1998; Smith, 1998.

Althea Jenkins (librarian, administrator). First African-American executive director of the Association of College and Research Libraries, former president of the Florida Library Association and Florida Chapter of the Association of Research Libraries, and university librarian. Source: Smith, 1992, p. 8.

Clara Stanton Jones (librarian, activist). First African-American to serve as director of the Detroit Public Library; first African-American to serve as president of the American Library Association; an author and international library leader. Numerous biographies are available on Clara Stanton Jones. Sources: Smith, 1992; McCook, 1998.

Virginia Lacy Jones (librarian, educator). Numerous biographies are available of Virginia Lacy Jones, second dean of the Atlanta University Library School and second black to receive a doctorate from the University of Chicago. She was active at local, state, and national levels, elected president of the American Association of Library Schools (now ALISE), and honored for her outstanding contributions to librarianship in general and black librarianship in particular. Sources: Jordan, 1994; Rhodes, 1975; Smith, 1992.

Casper Leroy Jordan (librarian, educator, scholar). Jordan's contributions to the scholarly record of African-American librarianship is evident in his writings. He tells his own story "I Have Paid My Dues," in Josey's (1970, pp. 98-119) Black Librarian in America. Jordan is former associate professor of library services at Atlanta University and deputy director of the Atlanta-Fulton County Public Library.

E. J. Josey (librarian, writer, activist). First African-American male to be elected President of the American Library Association. He is founder of the Black Caucus of the American Library Association, a leader, mentor, and scholar. Various biographies exist for this outstanding librarian and library educator. One of the most important, E.J. Josey, an Activist Librarian, edited by Ishmaul Abdullahi (1992), contains twenty-two essays, poems in his honor, and a bibliography of his writings. Sources: Abdullahi, 1992; Smith, 1999; Josey, 2000.

Catherine A. Latimer (librarian). First black professional librarian appointed by the New York Public Library. Source: Smith, 1992.

Mary F. Lenox (librarian, African-American library science dean in a majority university). Her career path includes elementary school librarian, both head of the Education Materials Center and member of the faculty at Chicago State University. In 1978, she was appointed associate professor in the School of Library and Information Science at the University of Missouri-Columbia. In 1984, she became dean and first black dean in the 145 year history of the largest public university in Missouri. Source: E.J. Josey, 1994.

Ruby Stutts Lyles (librarian, pioneer in establishing library services for blacks in Mississippi). First professional librarian in Mississippi and librarian at Alcorn State University. Source: Hunter, 1994.

Albert P. Marshall (librarian, activist, writer). His positions included serving as librarian at Winston-Salem State University and dean of academic services at Eastern Michigan University. He was active in the development of the North Carolina Negro Library Association and was the first African-American member (1965) of ALA to be appointed to chair a nominating committee. An articulate spokesman for equality of African-American librarians, Marshall received the BCALA Leadership in the Profession Award in 1992. Sources: Phinazee, 1980.

Emily Mobley (special librarian, academic librarian, library educator). In 1989, Mobley became the first dean of libraries and professor of library science at Purdue University. Responsible for fifteen campus libraries and the University Press, Mobley was named the Ellis Norton Distinguished Professor of Library Science in 1997. Before going to Purdue in 1986 as its associate director, Mobley held positions in corporate libraries and served as a science librarian at Wayne State University library. Active in professional organizations, she served as president of the Special Libraries Association in 1987-88. She has authored publications on special libraries, serials pricing, and activities of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions. Sources: Biographical Sketch (1988). ALA Yearbook of Library and Information Science, number 13, p. 74; Sheets (1997). Dean of libraries receives award (http://ftp.cioe.com/~eonline/archives/ June6_97/campus/dean.html).

Daniel Murray (librarian at the Library of Congress, bibliographer, collector of black materials). He served 52 years with the Library of Congress in various capacities. Began in 1871 as personal assistant to Ainsworth Rand Spofford. "He made the greatest single attempt to stimulate interest in materials by or about persons of African ancestry in the Library of Congress to date" (Render, 1975, p. 67). Sources:Jordan, 1977; Van Jackson, 1939; Render, 1975; Smith, 1999).

Major R. Owens (librarian, U.S. Congressman). The country's only librarian in the U.S. Congress, Owens is a graduate of Morehouse College and Atlanta University. He is an articulate spokesman for education and library issues everywhere. Source: Josey, 1994.

Annette L. Phinazee (librarian, educator, trailblazer). She is known for her contributions to cataloging and classification, as effective library educator, and dean of the School of Library Science at North Carolina Central University. She was the first black president of the North Carolina Library Association, the first black controlled library association to be admitted as a chapter of ALA. Honored by the Black Caucus, she was recipient of many awards for dedicated service to librarianship. Numerous articles are available on Annette Phinazee's life and works. Sources: Smith, 1992; McAllister-Harper, Jones, & Schell, 1998.

Joseph Harry Reason (librarian, administrator, first African-American President of ACRL). Included in American Libraries' 100 leaders, Reason was elected the first African-American President of the Association of College and Research Libraries in 1971. In 1965, he was the first African-American nominee for ALA president. He had a long career as librarian of Howard University. Sources:Josey, 1970; "100 of the Most Important Leaders We Had," 1999.

Charlemae Rollins (librarian, storyteller, author). She was the first African-American to receive honorary membership in the American Library Association. Rollins gained national prominence for her crusade against stereotypical images of blacks in children's literature. Author, storyteller, librarian, Rollins received many awards and has been profiled in numerous publications and is cited as one of American Libraries' 100 leaders of the twentieth century. Sources: Smith, 1992; American Libraries, December 1999, p. 45.

Henrietta M. Smith (librarian, educator, author, consultant). Henrietta M. Smith, Professor Emerita at the University of South Florida, School of Library and Information Science, is editor of The Coretta Scott King Awards Book: From Vision to Reality (Chicago: American Library Association, 1994) and The Coretta Scott King Awards Book: 1970-1999 (Chicago: American Library Association, 1999). Smith was the first African-American professor at the University of South Florida, School of Library and Information Science and also taught at Florida Atlantic University. Prior to earning the doctorate, she was a children's librarian at New York Public Library, a media consultant and media specialist for Broward County Public Schools. She has been active in numerous activities for the American Library Association, including the Coretta Scott King Task Force, the Newbery and Caldecott Awards Committee; the Florida Association of Media Educators; and the Florida Library Association. She is a prolific author. Source: McCook, 1998.

Jessie Carney Smith (librarian, administrator, author, editor). University librarian at Fisk, Smith's historical research and publication efforts have focused on African-American women and, more recently, African-American men. Her published biographical sources are standard references in academic and public libraries. Her Black Academic Libraries and Research Collections: An Historical Survey is a seminal work. Recipient of numerous awards, Smith was selected the Association of College and Research Libraries' Academic Research Librarian of the Year in 1985. She received the BCALA for Leadership in the Profession Award in 1992. Sources: Rhodes, 1975; Josey, 1970, 1994; Culture Keepers: Enlightening and Empowering Our Communities. Proceedings of the First National Conference of African-American Librarians. September 4-6, 1992, Columbus, Ohio.

Lucille C. Thomas (teacher, school librarian, library administrator, BCALA Trailblazer Award winner). Lucille C. Thomas was the first and only African-American elected president of the New York Library Association; the first African president of the New York City School Librarian's Association, and first African-American elected president of the New York Library Club. She has also served as president of the International Association of School Libraries. She held positions as a teacher, librarian, district supervisor of school libraries, director of elementary school libraries for the New York City Board of Education, and as a librarian in the Brooklyn Public Library. She is recipient of many awards including the Grolier Foundation Award for her contribution to the stimulation and guidance of reading by children and young people and the ALA Humphry Jury/OCLC/ Forest Award for her significant contribution to international librarianship. She was recipient of a BCALA Leadership in the Profession Award in 1992 and recipient of the 1995 BCALA Trailblazer Award. Source: Stanton Biddle, 1999, July 9 on AFAS-L@listserv.KENT.EDU.

Robert E. Wedgeworth (library administrator, educator, organization executive). Wedgeworth became the first African-American Executive Director of the American Library Association in 1972, the first black dean of the library school at Columbia University, the first black library director at the University of Illinois, and the first African-American as well as non-European to head the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) in more than sixty years. He is also a prolific author. Source: Smith, 1999.

Dorothy Porter Wesley (curator, librarian, scholar, consultant). Known as the dean of ethnic collections libraries, she is responsible for building the Moorland-Springarn Research Center, Howard University. Sources: Britton, 1994; Davis & Tucker, 1992; Rhodes, 1975; Lubin, 1973.

John F. N. Wilkerson (Assistant in the Library of Congress Law Library from 1857 to 1912). Wilkerson represents the many African-Americans who have worked at the Library of Congress, providing exemplary services. Source: Render, 1975.

Edward Christopher Williams (first professionally-trained African-American librarian; educator, writer). He is cited as one of American Libraries' 100 library leaders of the century. He graduated from the New York State Library School in 1900. His library career began at Adelbert College. As one of the organizers of the library school at Western Reserve University, he served as both library director and instructor in the library school. He taught reference work, bibliography, and criticism, and selection of books. After fifteen years at Western Reserve, he served as principal at the M Street School in Washington, DC and then as director of the library at Howard University from 1916 to 1929. In 1921, he was appointed head of the romance languages department and taught courses in Italian, French, and German. He wrote classical dramas, short stories, and poetry. Sources: Van Jackson, 1939; Josey, 1969, p. 111; Jordan, 1977, 1999; Latimer, 1994; Smith, 1999.

Monroe Nathan Work (bibliographer, editor). Founder and director of the Department of Records and Research at Tuskegee in Alabama. Known best for his annual cyclopedia, the Negro YearBook, and Bibliography of the Negro in Africa and America. Cited by Jordan as an Afro-American forerunner in librarianship. Sources: Jordan, 1977; Tucker, 1991.

SOURCES OF BIOGRAPHIES OF AFRICAN-AMERICAN LIBRARIANS

100 of the most important leaders we had. (1999). American Libraries, 30(December), 38-48.
 [Profiles: African-American library leaders named are Augusta Baker, Sadie
 Peterson Delaney, Virginia Proctor Powell Florence, Virginia Lacy Jones,
 Joseph Henry Reason, and Charlemae Rollins.]


Abdullahi, A. (1992). E.J. Josey: An activist librarian. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press.

Britton, D. P. (1994). Dorothy Porter Wesley: A bio-bibliographic profile. In O. Williams (Ed.), American black women in the arts and social sciences, 3d ed. (pp. 3-23). Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press.

Columbia Civic Association. (1937). A list of Negro graduates of accredited library schools 1900-1936. Washington, DC: Columbia Civic Association.

Cooper-Johnson, G. (1996). African-American historical continuity: Jean Blackwell Huston and the Schomburg Center for Research and Culture. In S. Hildenbrand (Ed.), Reclaiming the American library past: Writing the women in (pp. 27-51). Norword, NJ: Ablex.

Culture keepers: Enlightening and empowering our communities. (1992). In S. Biddle (Ed.), Proceedings of the first national conference of African-American librarians (September 4.6, 1992, Columbus, OH). New Jersey: Black Caucus of the American Library Association.

Davis, D. G., & Tucker, J. M. (1992). Before the waters parted: Minority leadership in academic and research libraries. In T. G. Kirk (Ed.), Academic excellence in higher education (pp. 48-53). Chicago: American Library Association.

Gaymon, N. E. (1999). The tedious but rewarding professional journey of a Negro, colored, black, and African-American male librarian. Journal of Educational Media & Library Sciences, 36, 305-318.

Grant, G. (1991). Directory of minority information professionals. Winter Park, FL: Four G Press.

Gubert, B. K. (1993). Sadie Peterson Delaney: Pioneer bibliotherapist. American Libraries, 24,124-125+.

Haith, D. M. (1978). Some black librarians that hold terminal degrees, 1939-1977. Huntsville, AL: Information Exchange System for Minority Personnel (IESMP).

Haith, D. M. (1976). Southeastern black librarian. Huntsville, AL: Information Exchange System for Minority Personnel (IESMP).

Hines, D. C. (1993). Black women in America: An historical encyclopedia. Brooklyn, NY: Carlson Publishing Company.

Hunter, C. W. (1994). Mississippi's library heritage: Ruby Stutts Lyles--A woman for all seasons. Mississippi Libraries, 58(Spring), 4145.

Hunter, C. (1993). Mississippi's library heritage: Virgia Brocks-Shedd. Mississippi Libraries, 57(Spring), 19-20.

Jones, R. F. (1996). African-American librarians in Kentucky. Kentucky Libraries, 60(Fall), 4-9.
 [Profiles: Thomas Fountain Blue; Eliza Gleason, Virginia Lacy Jones,
 Rebecca L. Bishop, Ouida Herring, Tezeta Lynes, Shawn Libingston, Karen
 McDaniel, Michael Razeeq, Carmen Samuels, Raamesie Umandavi, Linda
 Umbayemake, Veronica Walker, Bettie P. Whitlock.]


Jordan, C. L. (1977). Afro-American forerunners in librarianship. In E.J. Josey & A. A. Shockley (Eds), Handbook of black librarianship (pp. 24-35). Littleton, CO: Libraries Unlimited.
 [Profiles: Arthur Alphonso Schomburg, Henry Proctor Slaughter, Monroe
 Nathan Work, S. W. Starks, Daniel A. P. Murray, George Washington Forbes,
 Edward Christopher Williams, Thomas Fountain Blue, Susan Dart Butler, Sadie
 Peterson Delaney.]


Jordan, C. L. (2000). African-American forerunners in librarianship. In E. J. Josey & M. L. DeLoach (Eds.), Handbook of black librarianship, 2d ed. (pp. 19-33). Latham, MD: Scarecrow Press.

Jordan, L. J. (1996). The multifaceted career of Virginia Lacy Jones. In E. J. Josey (Ed.), Black librarian in America (pp. 75-83). Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press.

Josey, E.J. (1969). Edward Christopher Williams: A librarian's librarian. Journal of Library History, 4 (April), 102-122.

Josey, E.J. (1970). Black librarian in America. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press.
 [Autobiographical essays and issues: Virginia Lacy Jones, Miles M. Jackson,
 Milton S. Byam, Robert Wedgeworth, Emily American Copeland, James
 Welbourne, Casper Leroy Jordan, Augusta Baker, Louise Moses, Spencer Shaw,
 A.P. Marshall, Edward Mapp, Jessie Carney Smith, Frederick P. Willerford,
 Herman Totten, Ann Allen Shockley, Mary Lee Toomes Tsuffis, Magdalene
 O'Rouke, Vivian Hewitt, Carrie Robinson, William Cunningham, Geraldine
 Clark, E. J. Josey.]


Josey, E.J. (1994). Black librarian in America revisited. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press.
 [Autobiographical essays and issues: Ngozi Abgim, Lisa Biblo, D. Alexander
 Boyd, Charles M. Brown, Ina Brown, Doris Clark, Margaret Collins, Marva
 DeLoach, Carolyn O. Frost, Carla Harden, Vivian Hewitt, Monteria Hightower,
 Glendora Johnson-Cooper, Michael D. Jones, Casper Jordan, E. J. Josey,
 Thomas L. King, Rodney Lee, Mary Lenox, Samuel Morrison, Major Owens, Edna
 O. F. Reid, Lou Helen Sanders, Harriet Jackson Scarupa, Ann Allen Shockley,
 Jessie Carney Smith, Herman Totten, James C. Welbourne, James F. Williams,
 II, Wendell Wray, and Ella Gaines Yates.]


Josey, E. J. (2000). To be black and a librarian: Talking with E. J. Josey (interviewed by Leonard Kiniffel). American Libraries, 31(January), 81, 82.

Josey, E. J., & DeLoach, M. L. (2000). Handbook of black librarianship, 2d ed. Latham, MD: Scarecrow Press.

Josey, E. J., & Shockley, A. A. (Eds.). (1977). Handbook of black librarianship. Littleton, CO: Libraries Unlimited.

Latimer, C. (1994). Edward Christopher Williams and his impact on librarianship. Unpublished master's thesis, Kent State University (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 376 857).

Lubin, M. (1973). An important figure in black studies: Dr. Dorothy B. Porter. CLA Journal, 16, 154-158.

McAllister-Harper, D.; Jones, V.J.; & Schell, M. B. (1998). Annette Lewis Phinazee: Visionary, cataloguer, educator. Cataloging and Classification Quarterly, 25, 227-241.

McCook, K. (1998). Women of color in librarianship: An oral history. Chicago: American Library Association, Committee on the Status of Women in Librarianship.

[Profiles: Augusta Baker, Clara Stanton Jones, Henrietta M. Smith.]

McCormick, E. (1996). Select seven celebrated. American Libraries, 27(May), 23. [Profiles: Alex Boyd, Charles Brown, Wayne Crocker, Hardy Franklin, Gregory Reese, Samuel Morrison.]

McPheeters, A. L. (1988). Library service in black and white. Some personal recollections, 1980. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press.

Merriam, M. M. (1983). Augusta Baker: Exponent of the oral art of storytelling: Using video as medium. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Texas Woman's University.

Neely, T. Y., & Abif, K. K. (19915). In our own voices: The changing face of librarianship. Latham, MD: Scarecrow Press.
 [African-American Contributors: Khafre A. Abif, Kimberly Black, Malore
 Brown, Lisa Burwell, Jon E. Cawthorne, Doris H. Clack, Vicki Coleman, Edna
 Dixon, Tanya Elder, Dexter Evans, Joni Flowers, Madeline Ford, Deborah
 Hollis, E. J. Josey, Teresa Y. Neely, Lisa Pillow, Sherin Rice, Kelly
 Richards. Terri Well, Sheree D. White, Mark Winston.]


Nosakhere, A. S., & Robinson, S. E. (1988). Library service for African-Americans in Georgia: A legacy of learning and leadership in Atlanta. Georgia Library Quarterly, 35 (Summer), 9-12.

Personality plus: Profiles of contemporary black librarians. (1978). American Libraries, 9(February), 81-85.
 [Profiles of Gwendolyn S. Cruzat, James C. Partridge, Jr., Pamela Cash,
 William A. Miles, Harry Robinson, Jr., Lucille C. Thomas, Dock Alexandria
 Boyd, Dianne McAfee Williams (Hopkins), Lelia G. Rhodes, Barbara A. Clark.]


Phinazee, A. L. (1980). Black librarian in the southeast: Reminiscences, activities, challenges (Papers presented for a colloquium sponsored by the School of Library Science, North Carolina Central University, October 8-9, 1976). Durham, NC: NCCU School of Library and Information Science.
 [Papers recording profiles and activities of librarians in the Southeastern
 states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina,
 South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia.]


Render, S. L. (1975). Black presence in the Library of Congress. Library Lectures (Nos. 21-28) (pp. 63-79). Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Libraries.
 [Profiles: John F. N. Wilkinson, Daniel Alexander Payne Murray, including
 source materials to study African culture at the Library of Congress.]


Rhodes, L. G. (1975). A critical analysis of the career patterns backgrounds of selected black female librarians. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Florida State University.
 [Profiles: Augusta Baker, Dorothy Collins, Eliza Gleason, Vivian Hewett,
 Jean Hudson, Alma Jacobs, Clara Stanton Jones, Virginia Lacy Jones,
 Ernestine Lipscomb, Effie Lee Morris, Annette Phinazee, Dorothy B. Porter,
 Carrie Robinson.]


Rollock, B. (1952). Augusta Baker: Storyteller and librarian. Catholic Library World, 52(March), 336-337.

Smith, J. C. (1998). Black women, civil rights, and libraries (profiles of seven black women librarians). In J. M. Tucker (Ed.), Untold stories: Civil rights, libraries, and black librarianship (pp. 120-150). Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois, Graduate School of Library and Information Science.
 [Profiles: Anne Spencer, Effie Lee Newsome, Charlemae Rollins, Augusta
 Braxton Baker, Virginia Lacy Jones, Annette Phinazee, Hannah Diggs Atkins.]


Smith, J. C. (1992). Sweet sixteen: Black women in libraries, 1982-1992. In S. F. Biddle (Ed.), Culture keepers: Enlightening and empowering our communities (Proceedings of the First National Conference of African-American Librarians, September 4-6, 1992, Columbus, OH). Newark, NJ: Black Caucus of the American Library Association.
 [Profiles: Regina Anderson Andrews, Augusta Baker, Sara Delaney, Eliza
 Gleason, Vivian Harsh, Constance Marteena Hill, Jean Blackwell Huston,
 Clara Stanton Jones, Virginia Lacy Jones, Nella Larsen, Catherine Latimer,
 Audre Lord, Effie Lee Newsome, Annette Phinazee, Doris Saunders, Anne
 Spencer, Dorothy Porter Wesley, Eleanor Young.]


Smith, J. C. (Ed.). (1992). Notable black American women. Detroit: Gale Research, Inc.
 [Profiles: Regina Anderson Andrews, Augusta Baker, Sara Delaney, Eliza
 Gleason, Vivian Harsh, Jean Blackwell Huston, Clara Stanton Jones, Virginia
 Lacy Jones, Nella Larsen, Catherine Latimer, Audre Lord, Effie Lee Newsome,
 Annette Phinezee, Doris Saunders, Anne Spencer, Dorothy Porter Wesley.]


Smith, J. C. (Ed.). (1998). Notable black American women II. Detroit, MI: Gale Research, Inc.
 [Profiles: Hannah Diggs Atkins, Zenobia Coleman, Mollie Dunlap, Mollie
 Huston Lee, Eleanor Young Love, Constance Hill Marteena, Charlotte
 Stevens.]


Smith, J. C. (Ed.). (1999). Notable black American men. Detroit, MI: Gale Research, Inc.
 [Profiles: Charles Blockson, Thomas Blue, Howard Dodson, E. J. Josey,
 Daniel Murray, Arthur Schomburg, Robert Wedgeworth, Christopher Edward
 Williams.]


Stone, A. T. (1996). Doris Hargett Clack, 1928-1995: Educator, gentle activist, and mentor. Library Resources & Technical Services, 40(April), 197-200.

Thomas, F. H. (1992). Black Mother Goose: Collective biography of African-American children's librarians. In S. A. Biddle (Ed.), Culture keepers: Enlightening and empowering our communities (Proceedings of the First National Conference of African-American Librarians, September 4-6, 1993, Columbus, OH) (pp. 196-200). Newark, NJ: Black Caucus of the American Library Association.
 [Profiles of Charlemae Hill Rollins, Augusta Braxton Baker, Effie Lee
 Morris, Jean St. Clair, Barbara Theresa Rollock.]


Tucker, J. M. (1991). You can't argue with facts: Monroe Nathan Work as information officer, editor, and bibliographer. Libraries and Culture, 21, 151-168.

Valentine, P. M. (1998). Mollie Lee Huston: Founder of Raleigh's public libraries. North Carolina Libraries, 56(Spring), 23-26.

Van Jackson, W. (1939). Some pioneer Negro library workers. Library Journal, 64(March 15), 215-217.
 [Profiles: Edward C. Williams, George W. Forbes, Thomas F. Blue, S. W.
 Starks, J. A. Jackson, Daniel E. P. Murray.]


Wilkes, A. W. (1998). Doris Hargett Clack, 1928-1995: Called to teach. Cataloging and Classification Quarterly, 25, 111-125.

PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

Historically, professional organizations have been pivotal in the careers of librarians. Before the 1960s and full participation in state and regional associations, blacks joined a professional group of another organization, became an adjunct to another professional organization, or formed their own associations. There were also problems with ALA in terms of development of library services and collections, the education of blacks, and full participation in association activities (American Library Association Committee on Discrimination, 1937; Segregation and ALA Membership, 1962; Josey, 1994). Therefore, blacks in the South formed their own state associations and professional groups. The North Carolina Negro Library Association became the first black library association admitted as a chapter of the American Library Association in 1943 (McPheeters, 1988, p. 9). The Handbook of Black Librarianship also provides documentation of several of the early black professional organizations Josey & Shockley, 1977). At the national level, African-American librarians formed the ALA Black Caucus to work within ALA to effect desired changes.

Black Caucus of the American Library Association

Organized January 1970, the history, mission, goals, and accomplishments of the Black Caucus of the American Library Association are well-documented in the library and information science literature (Axum, 1972; Josey, 1977; Cunningham, 1987; Josey, 1992; Biblio, 1994; Bracey, 1995; Josey, 2000). Therefore, only a capsule overview is provided. For regular communication with members, the organization publishes the BCALA Newsletter, and the BCALA Membership Directory, and maintains a Web page at www.bcala.org. Members may also subscribe to a listserv at bcala@listserv.kent.edu. The BCALA defines its mission as:
 The Black Caucus of the American Library Association serves as an advocate
 for the development, promotion, and improvement of library services and
 resources to the nation's African-American community; and provides
 leadership for the recruitment and professional development of
 African-American librarians.


Activities of the black caucus are guided by eight purposes that require ALA to respond to the needs of the African-American community. Those purposes include caucus review and evaluation of positions of candidates and active participation of black librarians. The caucus also serves as a clearinghouse of information and channel of communication to ALA. Finally, its purposes are to facilitate library services to meet the information needs of black people and to encourage the development of authoritative information resources about black people and the dissemination of this information to the larger community.

The black caucus is governed by an executive board of elected officers (president, vice president/president elect, secretary, treasurer), and the immediate past president and the fifteen members elected by the membership to serve on the executive board (Article VII. Section 2. Constitution and By Laws of the Black Caucus of the American Library Association as amended February 5, 1995). The BCALA meets at the ALA Midwinter and ALA Annual conferences. Seventeen presidents have served between 1970 and 2000. They are, in order of service: E. J. Josey, William D. Cunningham, James R. Wright, Harry Robinson, Jr., Avery Williams, George C. Grant, Dorothea R. Madden, Robert L. Wright, Barbara Williams Jenkins, Marva L. DeLoach, Edith M. Fisher, John C. Tyson, D. Alex Boyd, Stanton F. Biddle, Sylvia Sprinkle-Hamlin, Gregory Reese, and Gladys Smiley Bell.

The ALA Black Caucus has presented four national conferences on major issues and concerns of black librarians. The conferences offer opportunities for shared discussion and reflection on services to black communities, histories, authors, artists, and publishers. They also offer to the membership continuing education and networking opportunities; management and recruitment strategies; updates on technology; cultural enrichment through shared discussions with black artists and authors; and a celebration of heritage through legacies and retired African-American librarians.

1st National Conference of African-American Librarians: Culture Keepers: Enlightening and Empowering Our Communities, September 4 - 6, 1992, Columbus, Ohio.

2nd National Conference of African-American Librarians: Culture Keepers II: Unity Through Diversity, August 5-7, 1994, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

3rd National Conference of African-American Librarians: Culture Keepers III: Making Global Connections, July 31-August 3, 1997, Winston-Salem, North Carolina.

4th National Conference of African-American Librarians, Culture Keepers IV: Challenges and Opportunities in the New Millennium, July 1923, 1999, Las Vegas, Nevada.

BCALA has established several awards that include its literary award, award for excellence in librarianship, trailblazer's award for outstanding service, and other awards as determined by the BCALA Board, and the E. J. Josey Scholarship.

The BCALA Literary Awards were founded by Alex Boyd, director, Newark Public Library, and Cecil Hixon, Adult Programming specialist, New York Public Library, to recognize outstanding works of fiction and nonfiction by African-American authors for adult audiences. The first awards were presented in 1994 at the Second National Conference of African-American Librarians in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in August 1994. The co-chairs of the first awards were Cecil Hixon and Brenda Mitchell-Powell who established the award criteria and procedures. In the fiction category, the award and honorable mention recognize books of exceptional merit relating to the African-American experience. In the nonfiction category, the award and honorable mention recognize achievements that significantly add to the body of knowledge within the African-American experience. Winners of the BCALA Literary Award for fiction and nonfiction receive the BCALA Medallion and an honorarium of $500. Certificates are given to the authors of books named as Honor, First Novelist, and Outstanding. Citations for "Contribution to Publishing" are honored for outstanding depictions of the cultural, historical, and sociopolitical aspects of the black diaspora experience. The books must be published in the year prior to the award. Beginning in 1995, winners are announced during the Midwinter meeting of the American Library Association and presented at file ALA Annual Conference. The first awards were presented August 1994 as follows:

Fiction winner: Ernest J. Gaines for A Lesson Before Dying (Knopf).

Nonfiction winner: David Levering Lewis for W E B. DuBois: Biography of a Race 1868-1919.

First Novelist Award: Alexis D. Pate for Losing Absalom (Coffee House Press).

Outstanding Contribution to Publishing Award: Darlene C. Hine and Carlson Publishing for Black Women in America: An Historical Encyclopedia.

The DEMCO/ALA Black Caucus Award for Excellence in Librarianship is an annual award of $500 presented to the librarian who has made significant contributions to promoting the status of African-Americans in the library profession. Specific contributions may include, but are not limited to, research and scholarship, recruitment, professional development, planning or implementation of programs, or advocacy (public relations). The award is made possible by a grant from DEMCO, Inc. of Madison, Wisconsin. In 1994, E. J. Josey received the first Black Caucus Awards for Excellence in Librarianship. Other recipients include Mohammed M. Aman (1995); John Tyson (1996); Samuel F. Morrison (1997); Rebecca Bingham (1998); and Bobby Player (1999).

The Trailblazer's Award is the highest award given by the Black Caucus of the American Library Association. It is presented once every five years in recognition of an individual for outstanding and unique pioneering contributions, and whose efforts have "blazed a trail" in the profession. The first BCALA Trailblazers Awards were granted at the 20th Anniversary Celebration of BCALA in 1990 to E.J. Josey, Virginia Lacy Jones, Clara Stanton Jones, and Dorothy Burnett Porter Wesley. The second 5th Trailblazer Award was presented during the BCALA 25th Anniversary Celebration in 1995 to Lucille Cole Thomas.

Other BCALA Awards are presented on an annual basis and are administered by the BCALA Awards Committee. These include the Black Caucus Distinguished Service Award, Black Caucus Certificate of Appreciation, and Black Caucus Special Recognition Plaques. Additional awards are authorized in connection with the BCALA national conferences. They are administered by special committees established in conjunction with the individual conferences.

The E. J. Josey Scholarships are two unrestricted grants of $2,000 (beginning in 1997) awarded annually to African-American students enrolled in, or accepted by, ALA-accredited programs. Applicants are judged on the basis of application essays of 1,000 to 1,200 words discussing issues, problems, or challenges facing library service to minority populations such as African-Americans and other supporting documentation submitted for review by the scholarship committee. Beverly Huda Abdus-Sabur was the first recipient of the E. J. Josey Scholarship followed by Tamara Stewart (1995); Steven Haynie (1996); E. Murell Dawson and Steven G. Fullwood (1997); Danielle M. Green, Roland Lemonius, and Patricia M. Richard (1998); and Sterling Coleman (1999).

Related Black Professional Associations

Related professional organizations exist within and without the American Library Association. Fisher (1983) identified several and also reviewed early associations, such as the "Work with Negroes" round table in ALA (Fisher, 1983, pp. 12-13). The African-American Studies Section (AFAS) of the Association of College and Research Libraries is an example of librarians at the national level addressing information needs of a unique clientele.

Established in 1989 as a section within the Association of College and Research Libraries of the American Library Association, AFAS is the outgrowth of a discussion group consisting of dynamic librarians with interest in and concern for African-American Studies and librarianship. Its circle of founding leaders includes Wendral Wray, Clarence Chisholm, Stanton Biddle, Doris H. Clack, William Welburn, and others. The purposes of AFAS are to study librarianship and collection development as it progresses and relates to the Afro/African-American Studies collection; to conduct an ongoing evaluation and discussion of research in the area of Afro/African-American Studies collections; to focus on areas such as resource sharing, archival materials, bibliographic control, retrospective collecting/ purchasing, mechanized information retrieval, selection policies and procedures, oral history, and others as they relate to collection development and librarianship of African-American studies; and to encourage and promote professional development opportunities for librarians providing service to researchers of the African-American experience.(3) The section publishes the AFAS Newsletter, provides a discussion list at AFASL@listserv. Kent.edu, and maintains a Web page: http://www.library.kent.edu/~gladysb/afas.html.

Within the American Library Association, many groups, committees, and task forces work on minority issues. Reflecting on aspects of African-American librarianship, it is of historical importance to recognize the establishment of the youth-oriented Coretta Scott King Award in 1969. During the 1960s, a small group of African-American librarians, under the leadership of Glyndon Flynt Greer and Mabel McKissick, focused their energies on a strategy to bring public attention to the work of outstanding authors and illustrators of African-American heritage. The "movement" was based on the observation that records of the prestigious Newbery and Caldecott indicated that the work of no African-American had been selected for either award since their establishment--one in 1922 and the other in 1938. Interest in the concept grew as other librarians joined the group, among them: Effie Lee Morris, Virginia Lacey Jones, Augusta Baker, Barbara Rollock, E. J. Josey, and supporter Basil Phillips. With criteria developed, the first award was presented in 1970 to the late Lillie Patterson for her biography of Martin Luther King, Jr. The first illustrator award was presented in 1974 to George Ford for the art in Sharon Mathis's Ray Charles.

From its fragile beginning, the Coretta Scott King Award has grown in prestige and importance. Under the umbrella of the Social Responsibilities Round Table, the voice of the Coretta Scott King Task Force continues to be more forcibly heard by librarians, parents and, in particular, the publishers of books for children and young people. This constant growth was marked by an important milestone in 1994 when the Coretta Scott King Award celebrated twenty-five years of lauding African-American authors and illustrators. The gala occasion included the presentation of the historical document, The Coretta Scott King Awards Book: From Vision to Reality (ALA, 1994). Edited by Henrietta M. Smith, the book includes the history of the award, biographical sketches of winners and honor recipients in both art and literature, and an annotation for each title. The color reproductions of the works of all the artists add a visual treat to the volume. Continuing the saga, The Coretta Scott King Awards 1970-1999, with similar format, marks the next five years of the award. This edition also includes the biography of the winners of the New Talent Award, established in 1993, along with annotations and current art reproductions (Smith, 1999). "Those who serve diligently on the Coretta Scott King Task Force continue to seek and select only the best, even as we remember the words of author, poet, Walter Dean Myers, "let us celebrate the children."(4)

LIBRARY DEVELOPMENT AND SERVICES IN PUBLIC, ACADEMIC, AND SCHOOL LIBRARIES

The literature that addresses the information needs of African-American librarians and African-American library communities exists in every form. These include opinion pieces, general articles, histories, incidence reports, dissertations, biographies, legislation, monographs, and others. Historical coverage of the various areas is uneven at best and in some instances still needs to be written. Josey's Black Librarian in America Revisited provides the most comprehensive overview presented as thirty autobiographical essays into six parts. The parts include library education, the public library, academic libraries, the state library, and profiles and issues. Handbook of Black Librarianship (2d ed., 2000), designed as a reference tool, it updates the first edition of the handbook published in 1977. In seven parts and 816 pages, this second edition covers "Pioneers and Landmark Episodes: Early Library Organizations; Vital Issues; African American Resources; African Americans and the Knowledge Professions; Health Sciences and Blacks; and African Library Information Resources and Education." Tucker (1998) observed that an important study on African-American scholarship appears approximately every ten years.

Public Libraries

Attention has been given to early public library development for African-Americans, and recent studies are appearing with some regularity. The types of works produced include dissertations, histories, incidence reports, articles, opinion pieces, biographies, and legislation. Examples that exist within the literature include studies on all types of public library development for blacks (Gleason, 1941; Parker, 1953; Shockley, 1960; Bell, 1963; International Research Associates, 1963). Malone (1996) focused on select Carnegie libraries established for library services to African-Americans, and Graham (1998) studied segregation and civil rights in Alabama's public libraries. Histories continue to be written of public, county, and state library development (Huston, 1944; Bell, 1963; Cole, 1976; Malone, 1995; Lee, 1998; Williams, 1998).

Fascinating accounts of early and alternative services to blacks are included in a recent volume of essays entitled Untold Stories: Civil Rights, Libraries, and Black Librarianship edited by John Mark Tucker. This collection includes such works as Albritton's "Founding and Prevalence of African-American Social Libraries and Historical Societies, 1828-1918" and Pettit's "Library and Literacy: Sunday Schools and Reading for African-American Females in New York City, 1719-1826." Lee's (1991) "Faith Cabin Libraries: A Study of Alternative Library Service in the Segregated South, 1932-1960" is another example for this category (Ball, 1995).

The histories of public library development in relation to African-Americans in some states remain to be written. For example, Reed (1931) reported that early library history in Louisiana appeared in the minutes of the Louisiana Library Association (LLA). The LLA was organized in 1909 and integrated in 1966. The Bulletin of the Louisiana Library Association began publication in 1931. It is interesting to note that, between 1937 and 1944, the editorial board provided for an "Assistant editor, libraries for Negroes." Idella Washington became the first African-American to serve as president in 1998-1999. Nathaniel Stewart, university librarian at Dillard University, the second of the African-American editors, was a prolific author and provided detailed reports on libraries of all types for Negroes. In addition, he conducted studies of library services for African-Americans in the South that were published in the LLA Bulletin and Library Journal. Subsequently, he became the chair of the College and Reference Section of the LLA and served as the editorial representative on the board of the LLA Bulletin. The history remains to be written where Webster Parish became, in 1931, the first public library system to offer library service to blacks and where Juanita S. Barker became the first African-American public library director in 1938 (Louisiana Library Commission Fourteenth Biennial Report, 1950-51, pp. 24-25). Annual and other reports of state libraries can serve as rich sources of history about library developments in library services to African-Americans. The Louisiana Library Commission reported several activities in its biennial reports on the development of library services to African-Americans. The Louisiana Library Commission reported such developments as Webster Parish was the first public library system to serve African-Americans in Louisiana (Parish Library Progress, Webster, 1931, fourth biennial report). Other annual or biennial reports noted progress: "Service for Colored People," Tenth Biennial Report, 1942-43; "Negro Service, Mrs. Adele Washington, Librarian, Negro Branch of the State Library," Fourteenth Biennial Report, 1950-51, pp. 24-25). Juanita Barker became the first library director of the Washington Parish Library in 1998 and Gertiana Williams became director of the New Orleans Public Library in 1999.

Finally, Morrison (1994) and Welbourne (1994) discussed issues of access and the urban public library respectively as new issues of concern for African-American librarians in public libraries.

Academic Libraries

Studies exist on academic library development and services for African-Americans. The types of literature include monographs, surveys, articles, histories, opinion pieces, and related materials. The areas covered include library development; types of black institutions--public, private, land grant, historically black, black faculty and students in majority institutions; and personnel, collections, and services. Smith's (1977) Black Academic Libraries and Research Collections is still considered the seminal study and serves as a guide for development of special collections. Early studies of academic library development include those of Robinson (1941), Hulbert (1943); Baker (1943, 1947); Lyells (1945); Totten (1969); Jordan (1971, 1974); Smith (1974); Taylor (1980); and Olbrich (1986). Studies have been done on various categories of personnel. Library directors were studied by Smith (1951); Shockley (1967); Young (1980); and Ball (1995). Sherpell (1992) examined racial and integration patterns of professional librarians in Texas academic libraries. More recent studies include those of Preston (1998) and Yang (1999) on "Present-Day Attitudes of African-American Librarians Towards Their Profession and Work Environment." Aside from the U.S. Census Bureau's various statistical reports, the National Center for Education Statistics, among other agencies, provides periodic studies (Historically Black Colleges and Universities, 1976-1994, 1996).

Special collections and archives on African-Americans, including those in the historically black institutions, were specifically addressed during the National Conferences of African-American Librarians. For example, "The Plight of Archives in Black Colleges and Universities" was addressed in panel session at the First National Conference held in Colombus, Ohio, September 4-6, 1999. The Second National Conference held August 5-7 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, focused on "Diversity in Special Materials, Special Collections, and Collection Development." Through programming at conferences and identifying archives and special collections, the African-American Studies Section (AFAS) of ACRL provides a continuing dialogue and documentation of key sources for the study of African-American librarianship. Black archives and special collections are too numerous to list. The African-American Studies Section (ACRL) addresses these resources in its programming and through links to major sites on the section's Web page.

School Libraries

Virginia Lacy Jones appears to have written the first dissertation on school libraries for African-Americans in 1945: school librarians were often associated with teacher organizations in their respective states; research in this area must tie in with the history of those organizations. Jones (1997) offers an example in her work, "The Early Kinship: Kentucky Negro Public Education, Libraries, and Librarians (Kentucky Libraries, 61[3], 12-16). In addition, children's and young adult literature, represented by the works of Charlemae Rollins and Augusta Baker, is an appropriate area to examine in relation to school library services for African-Americans. Although beyond the scope of this article, school librarians are addressing issues of diversity in school media services, and black book publishers, such as Just Us Books, Inc., are providing new titles that present positive role models for African-American children.

LIBRARY EDUCATION

The role of black academic libraries in providing training for African-Americans is indicated in short notices in the literature and offers new areas for investigation (Negro Library Training Agencies, 1947). Several publications exist on the education of African-Americans. Early works describe American Library Association and other efforts to meet training needs of African-Americans and the role of black schools in meeting these needs (Rising, 1935; Barker, 1936; Smith, 1940; Dumont, 1986; Gunn, 1986; Jones, 1979; Phinazee, 1981; DuMont & Canyon, 1990; Shiflett & Martin, 1996; Speller, 1991; Jordan, 1994).

Studies have focused on the declining numbers of minorities entering the field of librarianship and the need to both recruit and make available funding opportunities. McCook's (1987) research has been significant in the study of occupational entry, minority student enrollment, and graduation rates in LIS programs. The study focused on under-representation in library and information science education and was the basis for the ALA Spectrum Initiative. Using McCook and Moen's (1988) "LISSADA Survey," Brown (1992) studied the distribution of population demographics for the purpose of advising library and information programs and offered suggestions for the local level. Randall's 1988 study sets a standard, but the library literature in this area is rich in recruitment strategies (i.e., Moen & Heim, 1989; Totten, 1992; Wright, 1992; Hayden, 1994; Reese & Hawkins, 1999).

Committees, task forces, individuals, and many organizations are addressing minority shortages for professions in library and information agencies. For example, the Association of College and Research Libraries established the ACRL Racial and Ethnic Diversity Committee in 1991 to develop strategies and initiatives for its strategic directions (ACRL Racial and Ethnic Diversity Committee Report to the ACRL Executive Board, June 1997). In 1997, an updated set of diversity initiatives was presented to the ACRL Executive Board These initiatives supported recruitment, retention, and advancement of minorities at all levels in libraries. The Association of Research Libraries (ARL) and other organizations have similar structures and initiatives. ARL's diversity program includes a career resources Web site, minority mailing list, the publication Leading Ideas, Leadership and Career Development Program, and Academic and Research Internship Database. The issues of recruitment of all minorities, job satisfaction, discrimination, racism, retention, and advancement of minorities are recurring themes in the literature.

RECURRING THEMES: CIVIL RIGHTS, RACE, SEGREGATION, DISCRIMINATION, DIVERSITY, TECHNOLOGY, AND LEADERSHIP RECRUITMENT

There is still ample evidence from the literature to indicate that civil rights, discrimination, and racism are still concerns of African-American librarians. Renewed efforts to increase the numbers of minority students in the information profession is a recurring theme, important in terms of the needs of developing diverse staffs for twenty-first century information agencies. Josey and DeLoach (2000) devote a section on vital issues to current information professionals reflective of the above named topics. Examples of early works and recent works are listed below. Many of these works tell the story but also enable the progress made in providing services to African-Americans to be noted, celebrated, and offered as sources of inspiration for future developments and plans. The selected examples are in alphabetical order.

ALA membership and segregation. (1962). Wilson Library Bulletin, 36 (April), 668-669.

Clark, D. H. (1985). Segregation and the library. In A. L. Kent & J. E. Daily (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science, vol. 27, pp. 184-204.

Collins, M. (1994). Employment discrimination faced by black librarians. In E. J. Josey (Ed.), Black librarian in America revisited. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press.

Cresswell, S. (1996). The last days of Jim Crow in Southern libraries. Libraries and Cultures, 31(3-4), 557-573.

Curry, D. A. (1994). Your worries ain't like mine: African-American librarians and the pervasiveness of racism, prejudice and discrimination in academe. Reference Librarian, nos. 45-46, 299-311.

DuMont, R. R. (1986). Race in American librarianship: Attitudes of the library profession. Journal of Library History, 21(3), 488-509.

Fisher, E. M. (1991). Modern racism in academic librarianship towards black Americans: A California study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh.

Graham, P. T. (1998). Segregation and civil rights in Alabama 5 public libraries, 1918-1965. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama.

Holden, A. (1954). The color line in Southern libraries. New South, 9(January), 1-11.

Jackson, S. L. (Ed.). (1976). Service to ethnic minorities other than Afro-Americans and American Indians. In A century of service: Librarianship in the United States and Canada (pp. 42-61). Chicago, IL: American Library Association.

Jones, V. L. (1962). How long, Oh how long? Library Journal, 87(December), 4504-4505, 4513.

Josey, E. J. (1975). Affirmative action for blacks and other minority librarians. Negro History Bulletin, 38(5), 423-427.

Josey, E. J. (1994). Black librarian in America revisited. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press.

Josey, E. J. (1971). Coddling segregation. School Library Journal, 18(May 15), 40-41.

Josey, E. J. (1963). Libraries and emancipation centennial. Negro History Bulletin, 26(7), 219-221.

Josey, E. J. (1974). Library and segregation. In A. L. Kent & J. E. Daily (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science, vol. 16, 22-43. New York: Marcel Dekker.

Josey, E. J. (1994). Race issues in library history. In W. A. Wiegand & D. G. Davis (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Library History (pp. 533-537). New York and London: Garland Publishing.

Josey, E. J. (2000). To be black and a librarian: Talking with E.J. Josey (interviewed by Leonard Kniffel). American Libraries, 31(January), 81, 82.

Lee, D. R. (1998). From segregation to integration: Library services for blacks in South Carolina, 1923-11962. In J. M. Tucker (Ed.), Untold stories: Civil rights, libraries, and black librarianship (pp. 93-109). Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois, Graduate School of Library and Information Science.

MacCann, D. (1989). Libraries for immigrants and "minorities": A study in contrasts. In Social responsibility in librarianship: Essays on equality (pp. 97-115). Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Musmann, K. (1998). The ugly side of librarianship: Segregation in library services from 1900 to 1950 (pp. 78-92). In J. M. Tucker (Ed.), Untold stories: Civil rights, libraries, and black librarianship. Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois, Graduate School of Library and Information Science.

Owens, M. R. (1994). The spector of racism in the age of cultural diversity. In E. J. Josey (Ed.), Black librarian in America revisited (pp. 285-297). Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press.

Preston, C. (1988). Perceptions of discriminatory practices and attitudes: Survey of African-American librarians. College & Research Libraries, 59(September), 434-445.

CONCLUSION

As African-American librarians plan and visualize library and information services for twenty-first century users, the struggles and experiences of early pioneers and visionaries can serve as inspiration, as road maps, as reminders of the cultural and information needs of current and future African-American populations. Those written histories of individuals, organizations, and foundations tell only part of the story and are partially written. The resources appear in various sources, but are accessible only through diligence and through road maps provided by library historians, library educators, and practicing professionals. These authors demonstrate the need for current African-American professionals to write their stories and experiences to encourage and inspire new librarians and new recruits to the profession who will serve a growing population of diverse library users.

NOTES

(1) Bibliographic tools that provide access to the African-American experience and contributions in American library experience require persistence through various name changes of negro, colored, black, Afro-American, African-American, minority, multicultural, and diversity. For example, from 1921 to 1978, Library Literature used the subject terms "Negro and the Library" and "Negro Librarians." These subjects were subdivided by such topics as "segregation and training." Abstracts of major studies and articles were provided. With the rise of different types of libraries, Library Literature of the 1950s used specific subject areas, such as "College Libraries (Negro)"; "University Libraries (Negro)"; "Public Libraries--Services to Negroes"; and "School Libraries (Negro)" (Library Literature 1952-54, p. 522). During the 1960s and 1970s, the subject term "segregation" provides the most citations. Although the term "Negroes" continued to be used, the subject term "black" appeared--e.g., Black Caucus (Library Literature, 1970-71, p. 89). The term "black" replaced "Negroes" in 1979 (Library Literature, 1979, p. 70). Although "black" is still used and searchable in Library Literature, the subject terms "Afro-American" and "African-American" are also currently used for retrieval purposes.

(2) African-American popular journals, but most importantly, scholarly titles such as the Journal of Negro Education and Negro History Bulletin, are valuable sources on early library development. Newspapers and archives of libraries in historically black institutions and organizations provide rich resources (Smith, 1977). WPA records and reports of state libraries provide a rich array of background resources.

(3) Historical notes were provided by Mary G. Wrighten, Chair, 1999-2000 and Stanton Biddle, one of the founders.

(4) Historical notes provided by Henrietta M. Smith.

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Alma Dawson, School of Library and Information Science, Louisiana State University, 267 Coats Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-3920

ALMA DAWSON is Assistant Professor in the School of Library and Information Science at Louisiana State University. She also served as Head of the Library and Information Science Library at LSU, Head of the Serials Department at Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, Texas, and as a teacher-librarian for the Natchitoches Parish Louisiana School System. An active member of the American Library Association, Ms. Dawson has recently chaired the ACRL Racial and Ethnic Committee, serves on the National Research Library Seminar 2 Planning Committee, and is incoming chair of the ACRL Academic Librarian of the Year Committee. In the Association for Library and Information Science Education (ALISE), she has chaired both the Recruitment Committee and the Multicultural, Ethnic, and Humanistic Concerns Interest Group. She co-founded the Minority Recruitment and Professional Concerns Interest Group within the Louisiana Library Association and serves as advisor to the group and director of the mentoring program for library and information science students. She is a member of Beta Phi Mu and Phi Delta Kappa. A graduate of Grambling State University, she received her M.L.S. from the University of Michigan and Ph.D. from Texas Woman's University.
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