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Catholic Reform and Bernardino Poccetti's Chiostro dei Morti at the church of SS Annunziata in Florence.

Most studies of the influence of the Catholic Reform movement on Italian painting of the late renaissance still focus on Rome, yet it was in Florence that this stylistic revolution was pioneered. Reformist painters such as Santi di Tito (1538 1603) and his followers directly inspired Roman commissions, including those of the youthful Society of Jesus. (1) Florence's older churches underwent major renovations before most of their Roman counterparts, beginning with the Dominican seat of S Maria Novella and the Franciscan S Croce in the 1560s and 1570s, when Duke Cosimo I had Giorgio Vasari open up their naves and systematise the sequence of side chapels to make the mass more accessible to the people. (2) These construction projects, which were the model for subsequent restorations in churches throughout northern Tuscany, involved many of the principal reform painters of the time, including Santi and Alessandro Allori (1535-1607), and they were motivated as much by a desire to return to a renaissance unity of design as they were by Tridentine concerns. (3)

One typically Tuscan form of revival with roots in the renaissance was the cloister lunette fresco cycle. This tradition of painting the lunettes under the vaults of cloister arcades with narrative scenes from the Bible, from the lives of the saints, or from the history of the founders of the religious orders, derives from prototypes such as the Chiostro Verde at S Maria Novella, with frescoes by Paolo Uccello and assistants (second quarter of the fifteenth century), and the Chiostro degli Aranci at the Badia Fiorentina (c. 1430s), and it flourished in the later renaissance with Sodoma's and Luca Signorelli's frescoes at Monte Oliveto Maggiore in the 1490s and early 1500s, the Chiostro dei Voti at SS Annunziata with frescoes by Pontormo, Rosso Fiorentino, and Andrea del Sarto (first two decades of the sixteenth century), and Andrea del Sarto's Chiostro dello Scalzo (1510-26), among others. (4) This genre owed its popularity to a combination of a straightforward and lively descriptive style with panoramic architectural and landscape settings full of naturalistic and genre detail.

In the late cinquecento, Florentine patrons seized upon the cloister lunette fresco cycle as an ideal format for reformist didactic painting. (5) It was perfectly suited for long narrative epics, since traditional Florentine cloisters could accommodate a lengthy series of lunettes on four walls, and it could address a large audience, since the lunettes were visible from a spacious, centrally-planned, and well-lit courtyard. The length of a lunette cycle was comparable to the series of illustrations found in sacred books of the period, a connection made more explicit by the frescoes' regular use of captions. (6) The sequential format of cloister lunette cycles also gave them a triumphalist aspect, since they evoked a procession and also recalled the cycles of ephemeral paintings of biographical episodes which decorated state funerals and weddings, most notably the exequies of Michelangelo in 1564 and the wedding of Francesco de' Medici in 1566. (7)

The campaign of post-Tridentine cloister lunette cycles began with the Chiostro Grande at S Maria Novella in 1581, and if was soon followed by examples at the Compagnia della SS Annunziata (or S Pierino, c. 1585), S Salvatore d'Ognissanti (1599-1624), S Maria degli Angeli (1600-1601), S Marco (1602-1604), S Spirito, and SS Annunziata in Florence (1605-18), as well as places outside of the city such as SS Annunziata in Pistoia (1601-1602). In addition to Santi and Allori, who directed the S Maria Novella cycle, a new generation of painters worked on these commissions, including Jacopo Ligozzi (1547-1627), Giovanni Battista Naldini (1537-91), and Giovanni da San Giovanni (1592-1636). Unlike their precursors, these new cycles focused almost exclusively on the founders or ideological leaders of the various religious orders or confraternities. They returned to the classicising and naturalistic narrative style of Andrea del Sarto (1486-1530), and they had a panoramic character and delight in detail which recalled earlier Florentine fresco painters such as Domenico Ghirlandaio (1449-94) or Benozzo Gozzoli (1420-97). (8) One of the main contributors to these cycles was Bernardino Barbatelli, known as Poccetti (1548-1612), from S Marino Val d'Elsa, a now rather underrated artist whom Filippo Baldinucci considered a painter 'di prima classe'. (9)

Poccetti became the premier practitioner of reformist narrative painting. Beginning in the 1590s, his works depart almost completely from the maniera, with its cool and flat light, its tendency to crowd figures against the picture plane, and its self-conscious complexity and virtuosity. (10) Combining warm and vivid pastel colours with spacious settings and rational compositions, Poccetti populated his scenes with realistic and legible figures animated by a dramatic and easily comprehensible story line. His settings and figure types alike owed a debt to Sarto, while his enthusiasm for narrative clarity was also influenced by Santi, who had worked with the younger artist at S Maria Novella. Poccetti enriched his frescoes with a wealth of detail, whether in natural landscape elements or genre, creating scenes whose visual splendour and human interest captivated viewers of the day--and achieved precisely that combination of delectare, docere, movere ('to delight, to teach, to move') which Catholic churchmen were calling for in religious painting at the time. (11)

The main inspiration for Poccetti's panoramic views and genre detail comes from the fresco cycles of quattrocento Tuscany, and the naturalism of his figures and landscapes was enhanced by an appreciation of northern painting. (12) However, Poccetti was not immune to more recent trends, notably the Catholic Reform's appeal to the emotions. The colours of Poccetti's draperies were highlighted with abrupt changes of light and flickering surfaces in the manner of Federico Barocci (1535-1612), an affective use of colour which was favoured by many reformist religious orders, most notably the Capuchins and the Oratorians (Fig. 7). (13) Yet, like Santi before him, Poccetti refused to abandon the courtly grace of the Florentine tradition, and his figures never descend to the earthier piety of much Roman painting of the time. Most notably, Poccetti stayed away from tenebrism--a manner which did not translate well into fresco anyway--preferring a more even balance between line and light. (14) This combination of piety and grace made Poccetti one of the most active and sought-after painters of his day.

Poccetti did not begin his career as a reformer. He was first known for his decorative grotteschi, earning him the nickname Bernardino delle Grottesche. (15) After studying with the Florentine painter Michele Tosini, also known as Michele di Ridolfo (1503-77), and later Bernardo Buontalenti (1531-1608), Poccetti made a living as a facade painter, and he also executed frescoes in Buontalenti's Grotto at the Palazzo Pitti. (16) In 1570, Poccetti entered the Accademia del Disegno, whose capitolo off the cloister of SS Annunziata was about to be decorated by a team including Vasari, Santi, and Allori. (17) He rented his own shop on Via Palagio from the Badia Fiorentina in 1574, and probably travelled to Rome in 1579 to study Raphael's Loggia di Psiche in the Farnesina. After his return, Poccetti devoted most of his energies to history cycles, beginning with the Chiostro Grande at S Maria Novella in 1581, one of the largest commissions of the last quarter century in Florence. (18)

Florentine patrons quickly responded to Poccetti's ability to bring clarity and pageantry to historical painting, and the young artist was in great demand. In 1585-90, he joined Naldini, Alessandro Fei (1543-92), Cosimo Gheri (active late sixteenth/early seventeenth century), and others, in a fresco commission at the cloister and church of the Confraternity of the SS Annunziata, including a Marian cycle for the church, a Passion cycle for the vestibule, and a large-scale martyrdom cycle in the cloister, the first example of this kind of Jesuit-inspired iconography in Florence. (19) Poccetti spent most of the 1590s working for various Carthusian houses, including the Certosa of Galluzzo, the Certosa of Pontignano (Siena), and the Certosa of Calci (Pisa). (20) Although he reverted to a more virtuoso and complex maniera style of the sort customarily employed for palace decoration in the Giglio Chapel at S Maria Maddalena dei Pazzi (1599), he spent the first decade of the 1600s working in his more public didactic style, in such places as the Chiostro di Ponente at S Maria degli Angeli (1600-1601) and the church of SS Annunziata in Pistoia, as well as in the three lunettes he contributed to the cycle representing the life of St Antoninus in the Chiostro di Sant'Antonino at S Marco in Florence (c. 1602-1604). (21)

The best known of Poccetti's lunette fresco cycles was also one of the last commissions he undertook before his death in 1612. (22) Executed for a church which rested at the very cote of civic life and Medici patronage, the Chiostro dei Morti (Cloister of the Dead) at SS Annunziata was arguably the most public of the cloister lunette fresco cycles of the Florentine late renaissance (Figs. 1-10, 12-13). The cloister was positioned on the left-hand side of the church, directly accessible from the Piazza della SS Annunziata, and its name came from the tomb slabs which had been placed for centuries in the pavement and the lower part of the walls. (23) The original fabric of the cloister probably dates from 1322, but it was renovated under Michelozzo in 1447 and again in the early sixteenth century, when it acquired its present renaissance character. The rectangular central space is surrounded by an arcaded portico resting on grey Corinthian columns of pietra serena, and it gives onto the refectory and the chapter house to the west, the former capitolo of the Accademia del Disegno (Cappella di S Luca) to the north, and, via the passageway to the Piazza, the Sagrestia della Madonna to the south.

[FIGURES 1-10, 12-13 OMITTED]

Unlike many of the other sites frescoed by Poccetti and his contemporaries, the Chiostro dei Morti was seen by all levels of Florentine society. The church of SS Annunziata was one of the most celebrated pilgrimage sites of Europe, thanks to its miraculous image of the Annunciation, and it was a focal point of the Feast of the Annunciation on 25 March, which marked the Florentine New Year. (24) During that festival, the Chiostro dei Morti opened its doors to the crowds gathered in the Piazza and served as a gallery for a collection of ex-voto paintings which the Servites had commissioned over the years to commemorate the most important miracles connected with the icon. (25) Probably encouraged by the success of these displays, which drew crowds from all over the Grand Duchy, the Accademia del Disegno began using the space as the location of its art exhibitions in 1674.

The Servite Order was an emphatically Florentine organisation. It was founded in 1233 by seven Florentine city councillors from prominent families who gave up their worldly goods in the service of the Virgin Mary, adopting the black habit and rule of St Augustine, and borrowing elements from the Dominican Constitutions.(26) The Order acquired official sanction from Pope Benedict XI in 1304, and swiftly expanded, enjoying a period of great success. The most celebrated hero from the early days was Father General St Philip Benizi (1233-85), scenes of whose life were depicted by Andrea del Sarto in the church's Chiostrino dei Voti. The principal devotion of the order was to the Mater Dolorosa, and the friars recited the Rosary of the Seven Sorrows in her honour. As an aristocratic Florentine order, the Servites naturally appealed to the wealthy patrons of the city. Poccetti first enters the records of the Servite monastery as early as 1588, as one of their tenants. (27) Poccetti and his wife rented a house from the Servites on the Stradina di Sitorno, near the Pitti Palace, at the rate of 154 lire biannually for life. (28) Poccetti remained in the same premises until his death in 1612, when the house was handed over to a Signor Mariano Forzoni. (29)

The four porticoes of the Chiostro dei Morti originally featured twenty-five frescoed lunettes, of which only twenty-one are now in place, most of them illustrating events in the history of the Servite Order (Figs. 2-10, 12). Apart from Andrea del Sarto's Madonna del Sacco (1526), which occupies the north-east lunette closest to the entrance to the church, the lunettes were all executed in the early seventeenth century, first by Poccetti (1604-12) and Ventura Salimbeni (1605-1609), and then by Fra Arsenio Mascagni (1608-14) and Matteo Rosselli (1614-18), who finished the series after Poccetti's death. (30) Poccetti completed fourteen narrative lunettes in the north, west, and east porticoes, in addition to a lunette of Christ the Saviour Flanked by Justice and Mercy over the entrance to the cloister from the passageway to the piazza (Fig. 13). These bustling scenes take us from the foundation of the Servite Order in 1233 to the death of the last of the founders, Alessio Falconieri, at the age of a hundred and ten.

Although documents allow us to date the fresco cycles very precisely, they remain almost entirely unpublished. The lunettes came at the end of a fifteen-year restoration campaign at the Chiostro dei Morti designed to make it more open and symmetrical so that 'the lunettes [are] proportionate and without impediments ... for the greater beauty of the said cloister', and--notably--'so that the spectators can comfortably appreciate its paintings at an appropriate distance' (see Appendix). The plastering of the walls of the cloister and entrance doorway was carried out between October 1589 and January 1590. (31) By September, the Servites had paved the portico on the south side and half the portico on the west side, purchased shullers and a window, and had new plaster laid. (32) Two years later, in July and November of 1592, arriccio, intonaco, and whitewash were applied to the buildings and loggia of the piazza, half of the structures over the cloister loggias were re-roofed, and the stairs were repaved. (33) The roofing was finished early in the first decade of the seventeenth century, along with a new stone pavement in the court, and the low garden wall which originally blocked the bases of some of the columns was replaced by paving stones, with new plinths under each of the columns. (34) Between 22 June and 1 October 1604, workmen began to 'scalcinare, et arriciare lunette' ('remove plaster and apply rough plaster to the lunettes'). (35) After the completion of the new entrance doorway in February of 1605, the cloister was cleaned. (36)

The ricordanze credit the Prior, Lorenzo Picciuoli, with the idea of painting the lunette fresco cycle with 'the origin and progress of our [Servite] Order'--a typical post-Tridentine theme in Tuscany. The same source proudly remarks that 'Mastro Ventura Salimbeni, but before him Mastro Bernardino Poccetti, [who] is esteemed and reputed generally to be one of the most exceptional, and excellent of this city, especially in fresco painting, were elected as painters by the same fathers of the convent'; however, other references show that it was the lay patrons who had the final say over the choice of artists. The fresco series was financed by members of the first families of Florence, who 'held a competition to choose the painter and have him paint the arms of their families', and Poccetti was the winner. (37) According to the ricordanze, these notables included Roberto Pucci, Francesco and Ludovico Capponi, Pandolfo Pandolfini, Monsignor Alessandro Marzi Medici (Archbishop of Florence, and another San Gimignano native), Monsignor Cosimo dell'Antella (Vicar General of Florence), Lorenzo Usimbardi (Secretary to the Grand Duke Ferdinando), Filippo Strozzi, and others, some of whom had already hired Poccetti for other projects. (38)

Poccetti began painting the lunettes in 1604, and he was paid in four instalments between 1607, when the first ten were completed (most likely Figs. 2-9, 12), and 1612, the year of his death. The quotation cited in note 37 above claims that Poccetti was paid 30 scudi per lunette, but other records show that he received a rate of 28 lire, 70 soldi per lunette, at least for the first ten lunettes (the sources use the terms 'lire' and 'scudi" interchangeably). (39) Poccetti's second payment, on 10 December 1609, was for 60 lire, an amount which would have covered two more lunettes at his going rate (possibly Fig. 10). (40) The following year, on 14 October, Poccetti received 175 lire, of which a mere 25 were singled out for a 'lunette executed in our cloister'--the lunette in question represented Beato Alessio Falconieri Benizi Brings Sinful Women to Penitence. (41) This lower rate agrees with the ricordanze, which claim that Poccetti was content to receive a mere 25 scudi for each lunette. Poccetti's final payment, made on the 30 September 1612--just over a month before his death--amounted to 112 lire, again for unspecified purposes, but probably including the fresco of General Manetti Dies During Mass. (42) Since these last two payments were far greater than his modest fee, it is likely that he handled costs for materials and also paid the salary of his assistant, Ventura Salimbeni. (43) Poccetti painted the lunette of Christ the Saviour with Justice and Mercy (Fig. 13) as an act of charity, refusing even a gift of six braccia of rascia fiorentina (serge cloth) which the fathers tried to give him in lieu of payment. Baldinucci, who wrote the longest biography of Poccetti and left a high]y detailed account of the artist's campaign at SS Annunziata, agrees fundamentally with the evidence from the account books and ricordanze. (44)

The unveilings of Poccetti's lunettes were carefully staged public events, drawing crowds from around the city. On 2 September 1609, the ricordanze announced the unveiling of the fresco of Beato Alessio Falconieri Benizi Brings Sinful Women to Penitence, whose patron was Cardinal Belisario Vinta. The painting drew crowds who 'elevated the artifice to the heavens with much praise, and each one of them was full of amazement that Mastro Bernardino could be sixty-two years old ...' (45) The fifth lunette of the same series, financed by Camillo Strozzi and depicting Beato Uguccione and Beato Sostegno Die Together at Montesenario in 1282 after Returning from France and Germany (Fig. 11), was unveiled on 13 February 1610, and it took Poccetti eighteen days to complete it working for six hours a day. (46) With characteristic hyperbole, the Servites remarked that it was one of the finest works Poccetti had ever executed.

[FIGURE 11 OMITTED]

The scenes at SS Annunziata adhered to a strict iconographic programme which Maria Cecilia Fabbri has traced to a manuscript entitled L'idea del chiostro della Nonziata di Firenze written by the Servite intellectual Arcangelo Maria Giani (d. 1632), the author of a well-known history of the order entitled Annalium sacri ordinis fratrum servorum B. Mariae virginis (Florence, 1618). (47) Giani, who wrote iconographic programmes for the Servite churches in both Florence and Pistoia, not only recounted the historical deeds of his protagonists, but also gave precise instructions to the artists. He exhorted them to avoid anachronisms when painting the scenery and costume, and to pay special attention to the time period of the episode. Giani wrote in his Preface that the Servite lunette paintings should serve as an example for narrative painting in general, and focused on their didactic function and their role as a visual stimulus to piety. (48) He also wrote that he chose the history of the 'Sette Santi Fondatori' because the story was not well known either to the general public or even to many Servite friars themselves. This comment not only emphasises the importance of historical awareness in this period, but also underscores the Chiostro dei Morti's role as a public arena.

Poccetti's frescoes fit the bill exactly. Their descriptive clarity is enhanced by rich, detailed settings with recognisable buildings such as the Baptistery and Duomo of Florence (Figs. 2, 4, 5), and genre details executed with photographic accuracy. As stated above, they recall late quattrocento cycles such as Ghirlandaio's Franciscan cycle in the Sassetti Chapel at S Trinita (begun 1483), which also gives us detailed depictions of familiar sights such as the Loggia dei Lanzi and the Palazzo Vecchio and which Poccetti would have seen when he frescoed one of the chapel vaults on the other side of the church in 1603. Although Poccetti is guilty of some anachronisms, as when he allows Brunelleschi's dome to soar over a scene set two centuries before it was built, in general the costumes and settings demonstrate a keen historical awareness. The scenes gain a sense of epic grandeur through a spaciousness and depth inspired by high renaissance models such as Sarto's lunettes at the Chiostrino dei Voti in the same church and, ultimately, Raphael's Vatican Stanze.

The didactic message of the episodes in the Chiostro dei Morti emerges through repeated references to the same basic themes. One of the most important is the Eucharist, which is given pride of place in several of the scenes, many of them set inside churches (Figs. 2, 4). Another is divine approbation, communicated through heavenly apparitions of angels, the Trinity, and the Madonna, who manifest themselves at key moments in the histories of the seven protagonists (Figs. 2, 4, 7). As in all the Florentine lunette cycles of the period, popes or sovereigns play an important role, whether the in the form of the King of France or the Austrian Emperor, emphasising the legitimacy and orthodoxy of the Servite Order (Fig. 8). Finally, Poccetti gives considerable attention to charitable acts of mercy and to confraternities, in reference to the pious life of the laity and to serve as an exhortation to the viewer. The didactic purpose of the scenes is underscored by the captions, which describe the episodes being depicted above in two lines of Italian text. Their use of the vernacular makes it clear that they were addressing the general public, and not just members of the Servite Order, who would have been conversant with Latin.

Poccetti's narrative style also recalls the presence of a Florentine institution with a close connection with this very cloister: the Accademia del Disegno. (49) Several of the most prominent members of this organisation were concerned with reform in sacred art, most notably the sculptor and architect Bartolommeo Ammannati and Santi di Tito. Their capitolo, or ceremonial headquarters, which was the focus of their religious ceremonies, was located off the north wing of the cloister, just under Poccetti's Seven Founders Begin Construction of the Monastery of Montesenario in 1234 (Fig. 6). Poccetti's cycle reflects a profound awareness of Florentine artistic tradition which would have resonated with the concerns of the Academy, as would its didactic religious message. Last but not least, the Chiostro dei Morti fresco series is like a grand procession, with panoramic scenes of the city of Florence and its countryside, bustling crowds of onlookers, and the church hierarchy in all its finery--a permanent version of the sort of pageantry and ephemeral decorations which Academy members organised at state funerals and other official ceremonies of the Grand Duchy.

APPENDIX

ASF, Corporazioni Religiose Soppresse dal Governo Francese 119, 54, fols. 40r-44v, Excerpt from the book of Ricordanze for the Monastery of SS Annunziata, Florence (1603-40).

[8 January 1609] [fol. 40r] Ricordo come questo di soprad[ett]o si e scoperto un' opera fatta dal Cavalier Ventura Salimbeni Pittore senese, et e la quarta lunetta dell'ala terza del Chiostro de' Morti, che risponde lungo l'andito dell'infermeria, nella quale dal d[ett]o e stata dipinta la morte del Beato Buonfigiuolo Monaldi capo de' setti fondatori dell'ordine n[ost]ro. Fu quest'opera da molti stimata, e lodata, e la spesa della pittura (che ascese alla somma di scudi cinquanta) fu fatta dall'ecc[ellen]te Sig[no]r Dottore Raffaello Ansaldi n[ost]ro amorevole, e Procuratore del n[ost]ro convento, che per rispetto di questa spesa fatta da lui in d[ett]a opera (come ancora si e fatto dell'altri lunetti in d[ett]o chiostro) ri si e dipinta le sue arme, ch'e un drago verde in campo giallo. [40v] E nota come fu dato principio a dipingere le lunette del d[ett]o n[ost]ro chiostro, che si chiama de' morti l'anno 1604 che fu il primo anno del Priorato dal P[ad]re Maestro Lorenzo Picciuoli fiorentino, per motivo, et opera del quale si diede principio ... Fu determinato da Padri di q[uest]o convento che in d[ett]o chiostro si dipingesse (come s'e fatto, e si fa) la storia del principio, e progresso della n[ost]ra Religione. E dalli medesimi Padri del convento furono eletti per pittori di d[ett]o chiostro gl'eec[ellen]ti Maestri M[aestro] Ventura Salimbeni soprad[ett]o, ma innanzi a lui M[aestro] Bernardino Poccetti, stimato, e reputato communem[ente] uno dei piu rari, et eccellenti, massime nel dipingere a fresco, di questa citta, di mano del quale, sino a q[uest]o di soprad[ett]o sono le sei lunette della p[rim]a Ala, che comincia dalla lunetta, ch'e a canto alla Madonna chiamata del Saccho opera rarissima dell'Ecc[ellentissi]mo pittore Andrea del Sarto, e segue sino a la lunetta, ch'e sopra la porta della clausura, per la quale s'entra in convento. La spesa della p[rim]a lunetta di d[ett]a p[rim]a Ala, che ascese alla somma di scudi venticinque (che di questo prezzo si contento sempre di ciasceduna lunetta dipinta da lui in d[ett]o chiostro il pred[ett]o M[astro] Bernardino Poccetti) fu fatta dall'Ill[ustrissi]mo Sign[o]r Roberto Pucci, Cavaliere di Santo Stefano, e Bali di Bologna. La spesa della 2.a dal Clar[issi]mo Sig[n]or Francesco Capponi. La spesa della 3a dal Sig[n]or Lodovico Capponi. La spesa della 4a dal Sig[n]or Stodiglia Spagnuolo. La spesa della 5a dal Sig[n]or Cav[alie]r Carlini. E la spesa della 6.a fu fatta dal Sig[n]or Pandolfino Pandolfini. [42r] Sono parim[ente] di mano del pred[ett]o M. Bernardino Poccetti le cinque lunette, che si veggano sino a questo giorno presente dell'Ala 4.a del pred[ett]o chiostro, ch'e lungo la chiesa, che comincia dalla lunetta, ch'e sopra la porticina, ch' entra nell'andito della Cappella della Sant[issi]ma Nunziata, sino a quella, ch'e contigua alla porta, per la quale s'entra in chiesa, et e sopra la pila dell'acqua santa. La spesa della p[rim]a lunetta di d[ett]a 4.a Ala fu fatta dall'Ill[ustrissi]mo et R[everendissi]mo Monsig[n]or Alessandro Marzi Medici Archivesc[ov]o di Fiorenza. La spesa della 2.a dal quondam M[ol]to Ill[ustrissi]mo et R[everendissi]mo Mons[igno]r Cosimo dell'Antella Vicario Generale di Fiorenza. La spesa della 3.a dal Sig[no]r Lorenzo Vsimbardi secretario del Ser[enissi]mo Gran Duca Ferdinando. La spesa della 4.a dal Sig[no]r Filippo Uguccioni. La spesa della 5.a dal S[igno]r Alessandro Strozzi. La spesa della 6.a dal S[igno]r Belisario Vinta secret[ario] di S[ua] A[ltezza] Ser[erenissi]ma. E la spesa dell'ultima fu fatta dal Sig[no]r Carlo Guidacci. Sono di mano del Cavalier Ventura Salimbeni le tre ultime lunette dell'Ala 3.a lungo l'andito dell'infermeria, che sino al presente per d[ett]o giorno si veggano in d[ett]o chiostro di mano del quale ancora, e l'ultima lunetta dell'Ala 2.a lungo il Riffettorio, dov'e l'Historia della B[eata] Vergine, che in visione appare al B[eato] Filippo, la spesa della quale fu fatta dal Clar[issi]mo Sig[no]r Piero Bonsi, e la spesa della 6.a et ultima dell'Ala 3a dall Ill[ustrissi]mo ... Conte di Pitigliano, et hoggi Marchese del Monte San Savino. La spesa della 5.a dal Sig|no]r Piero Falconieri, e la spesa della 4.a dal Sig[no]r Dottore Raffaello Ansaldi come s'e detto di sopra. E quantunque q[uest]o pittore si contentassi della [42v] p[rim]a lunetta, che egli fece, ch. fu l'edificatione della chiesa della Nunziata, di scudi venti cinque, non dimeno dell'altre lunette valse scudi cinquanta. E nota che l'arme delle Casate, che sono dipinte a pie' di d[ett]e lunette non importano ne ius, ne dominio, ne alcuna padronanza per dette case, ma solo sono state concesse, e permesse da' Padri per gratitudine, e per recognizione della spesa fatta in quella pitture da' quei Gentilhuomini, dei quali vi si veggano l'arme. Nota di piu che per render proporzionate e senza impedimenti d[ett]e lunette, per maggior bellezza di d[ett]o chiostro si fecero varij acconcimi. Si rimosse il monumento di marmo, che gia era collocato in alto al termine a punto della lunetta 5.a dell'Ala 3.a lungo la chiesa, il quale sportava in fuori, e fu collocato in terra, e senza alterare epitaffio, messo dentro nel muro a punto della medesima pred[ett]a Ala, come si vede al presente. Si transportono parim[ente] l'ossa, che furono trovate in d]ett]o monumento, e vi si posero dietro. Si servo la finestra della Cappella di Santo Ansano, che pigliava quasi tutta la lunetta per l'altezza, e senz' aperse una per la medesima cappella, ma fuori della luneta, che viene a punto sopra la pila dell'acqua santa, come si vede. Si serrano parim[ente] altre sei finestre, ch' erano nelle lunette dell'ala 3.a lungo l'infermeria, cinque delle quali rispondevano nell'andito, e camera dell'Infermeria, e l'altra nella stanza dell'opera, e (come si vede) si rifeciano piu a basso fuori delle lunette. E piu nota che il pred[ett]o anno 1604 si rinnovo tutto il legname de' tetti delle quattro Ali del pred[ett]o chiostro (e per commodita delle camere e maggior ornamento, e bellezza del chiostro, si rifeciano tutte le finestre di d[ett]e camere), che rispondano [44r] nel predetto chiostro le quali erano piccole, e di non bella forma, come si puo vedere dalla p[rim]a finestra della prima Ala, ch' e restata nella sua forma antica. E quasi tutti i Padri, che habitavano in d[ett]e camere si contentorno che le pred[ett]e finestre si rifacessino de' danari de' vestimenti, che gli sono previsti dal convento. Era il Terreno di d[ett]o chiostro molto sporco, nel quale si gettava la spazzatura della chiesa ... E vendendo il Ven[erabil]e P[ad]re fra Adriano Manozzi gl'abellimenti, che si facevano in d[ett]o chiostro. Mosso dal P[ad]re Maestro Lorenzo Priore, e dal Desiderio d'adornare la casa sua, fece petizione alli R[everendi] Padri Discreti di q[uest]o convento, che volessero restar contenti che delle limosine di confessioni, e dell'entrate, che medianti la persona sua pervenivano al n[ost]ro convento, si potessi fabbricare il bel lastrico di pietre subbiate, che al presente si vede in d[ett]o chiostro, la spesa del quale passo la somma di scudi trecento. Et affinche d[ett]o chiostro fussi piu bello, e che gli spettatori havessero commodita di godere con proporzionata distanza le pitture di quello, parve al Ven[erabil]e Padre Fra Donato Surini, mosso dal P[ad]re Priore, di chieder in grazia a Padri che dell'elemosine di confessioni, e dell'entrate, che mediante la persona sua vengano al n[ost]ro convento, si mandassero qui li muriccioli, che circondavano tutto il pred[ett]o chiostro, et in vece di quelli si facessi lo scalino, et a ciascheduna colonna la sua base, come al presente si vede. La spesa delli quali acconcimi passo scudi cento. Fu parimente nel medesimo tempo rimossa l'antica porta a canto all'opera, per la quale s'entrava nel pred[ett]o chiostro, et in vece di quella [44v] si fece fare il Portone a Arco, che al presente si vede, sopra del quale apparisce di mano del pred[ett]o M. Bernardino Poccetti la testa del Salvatore con due figure, che sono la Giustitia, e la Misericordia. E quantunque si trovassi, che volse face[re] la spesa di d[ett]o pitture, nondimeno piacque al predlett]o Poccetti di fare egli stesso di quest'opera un libero dono al convento, ricusando ancora d'accettare un amorevolezza di braccia sel di rascia fiorentina, che per ricognizione della pred[ett]a opera fatta da lui gratis, gli mando il n[ost]ro convento. Il tutto a honor di Dio, a devozione de' fedeli, a grandezza della nostra Religione, et ad abbellimento di q[uest]a Santa Casa.

(1) See Gauvin Alexander Bailey, 'Santi di Tito and the Florentine Academy: Solomon Building the Temple in the Capitolo of the Accademia del Disegno (1570-71)', APOLLO, vol. CLV, no. 480 (February 2002), pp. 31-39. For a summary of the most recent literature on the Catholic Reform movement in Rome, see ibid., p. 36, n. 1. On the impact of Florentine reformers on the Jesuits, see idem, Between Renaissance and Baroque: Jesuit Art in Rome, 1565-1610, Toronto, forthcoming.

(2) See Marcia B. Hall, Renovation and Counter-Reformation: Vasari and Duke Cosimo in Sta Maria Novena and Sta Croce 1565-1577, Oxford, 1979; Marcia B. Hall, After Raphael, Cambridge, 1998, pp. 244-48.

(3) Similar restorations took place before 1874 at the Carmine, Ognissanti, and S. Trinita. See Hall, op. cit., p. 8.

(4) Cristina Acidini Luchinat, 'Una colorata veste di chiostri', in Il Chiostro Camadolese di Santa Maria degli Angeli a Firenze, Florence, 1997, p. 9.

(5) Few studies exist on the phenomenon of the painted cloister lunette cycle in Florence and northern Tuscany, particularly in the later period. A few monographs on individual cycles have been published in the past ten years, but they rarely consider these Florentine cycles as a whole. See Licia Bertani et al., La Compagnia della Santissima Annunziata a Firenze: gli affreschi del chiostro, Florence, 1989; Perla Cappellini, Chiostri seicenteschi a Pistoia, Pistoia, 1992; Cristina Acidini Luchinat et al., Il Chiostro Camadolese di Santa Maria degli Angeli a Firenze, Florence, 1997; Peter Assmann, Dominikanerheilige und der verbotene Savonarola, Mainz and Munich, 1997.

(6) For a bibliography of studies of Jesuit illustrated printed books, particularly from, Antwerp presses, see Gauvin Alexander Bailey,' "Le style jesuite n'existe pas": Jesuit Corporate Culture and the Visual Arts', in John O'Malley, Gauvin Alexander Bailey et al., The Jesuits; Cultures, Sciences, and the Arts, 1540-1773, Toronto and Buffalo, 1999, pp. 63-71; Gauvin Alexander Bailey, 'The Jesuits and Painting in Italy, 1550-1690: The Art of Catholic Reform', in Franco Mormando (ed.), Saints and Sinners: Caravaggio and the Baroque Image, Boston and Chicago, 1999, pp. 153-69.

(7) Luchinat, op. cit., p. 11. On the ephemeral decorations used at Florentine state funerals in the second half of the cinquecento, see Rudolf and Margot Wittkower, The Divine Michelangelo and the Florentine Academy's Homage on his Death in 1564, New York, 1950; Eve Borsook, 'Art and Politics at the Medici Court III: Funeral Decor for Philip II of Spain', Mitteilungen des Kunsthistorischen Instituts in Florenz, vol. XIV, no. 1, 1969, p. 91; Zygmunt Wazbinski, L'Accademia medicea del disegno a Firenze nel Cinquecento, Florence, 1987, pp. 96-97; S. Mamone, 'Il teatro della morte', in M. Bietti, La Morte e la gloria: apparati funebri medicei per Filippo II di Spagna e Margherita d'Austria, Florence, 1999, p. 26; A.M. Testaverde, 'Episodi di architettura effimera e stereotipi iconografici di Firenze tra i secoli XVI-XVIII', in Etudes reunies par Jerome de la Gorce, Paris, 1996, pp. 29-58; Karen-edis Barzman, The Florentine Academy and the Early Modern State, Cambridge, 2000, pp. 52, 70.

(8) See the remark in Sydney J. Freedberg, Painting in Italy, 1500-1600, New Haven and London, reprinted 1993, pp. 627 and 717, note 627.14.

(9) Poccetti has hot enjoyed the critical attention he deserves. There is still no comprehensive published monograph on the artist, although there are no fewer than four theses and a number of works on his drawings or other specific aspects of the artist's oeuvre. See Stefania Vasetti, Bernardino Poccetti e gli Strozzi, Florence, 1994; eadem, Bernardino Barbatelli detto il Poccetti, 4 vols, unpublished tesi di laurea, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, 1988-89; Giuliano Briganti, La pittura in Italia: Il cinquecento, 2 vols., Milan, 1987, vol. II, p. 807; Stefania Vassetti, 'Bernardino Poccetti', in ll Seicento fiorentino, 3 vols., exh. cat., Florence, 1986, vol. III, pp. 149-52; Freedberg, op. cit., pp. 627-30; Paul C. Hamilton. Disegni di Bernardino Poccetti, exh cat., Florence, 1980; idem, The Sources of Bernardino Poccetti's Style, unpublished PhD dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 1973; G. Campani, Bernardino Poccetti, unpublished tesi di laurea, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, 1974; W. Vitzthum, Die Handzeichnungen des Bernardino Poccetti, Berlin, 1955; Ugo Nomi and V. Pescolini, Il chiostro grande della SS. Annunziata di Firenze e il pittore Bernardino Poccetti da San Gimignano, Florence, 1903; Filippo Baldinucci, Notizie de professori del disegno di Cimabue in qua, F. Ranalli (ed.), Florence, 1846, vol. III, pp. 132-57.

(10) Vasetti, op. cit. in n. 9 above (1986), p. 151; Vasetti, op. cit. in n. 9 above (1994), pp. 7-8.

(11) See Pamela M. Jones, 'Art Theory as Ideology: Gabriele Paleotti's Hierarchical Notion of Painting's Universality and Reception', in Claire Farago (ed.), Reframing the Renaissance, New Haven and London, 1995, p. 129.

(12) Poccetti quoted directly from Albrecht Durer in some of his earlier lunettes. See Hamilton, op. cit. in n. 9 above (1980), p. 12.

(13) Poccetti probably acquired his taste for Barocci's draperies from his work with Barroci's follower Ventura Salimbeni. On Barocci's work for the Capuchins, see Stuart Lingo, The Capuchins and the Art of History, unpublished PhD dissertation, Harvard University, 1998, and on his work for the Oratorians in Rome, see La regola e la fama, Milan, 1995.

(14) Hamilton, op. cit. in n. 9 above (1980), p. 17.

(15) He is often given this name in account documents, even in the early 1600s; for a case in point, see Archivio di Stato di Firenze (hererafter ASF), Corporazioni Religiose Soppresse dal Governo Francese 119, 739 (Entrate e Uscite, SS Annunziata, 1584-89), fol. 38v.

(16) The only one of his palace facade frescoes to survive is at the Palazzo di Bianca Cappello in Via Maggio. For brief accounts of Poccetti's life, see Hamilton, op. cit. in n. 9 above (1980), pp. 7-22; Vassetti, op. cit. in n. 9 above (1994), pp. 5-9; Vasetti, op. cit. in n. 9 above (1986), pp. 149-52; Freedberg, op. cit., pp. 627-29; La pittura in Italia, op. cit., p. 807.

(17) See Bailey, op. cit. in n. 1 above (2002), as well as Hamilton, op. cit. in n. 9 above (1980), p. 8; Barzman, op. cit., pp. 26, 46-47, 183; Wazbinski, op. cit., pp. 111-54.

(18) Assmann, op. cit., pp. 107-109; 142-51; 248-49.

(19) Licia Bertani, 'Gli affreschi del Chiostro di San Pierino', in La Compagnia della Santissima Annunziata, op. cit., pp. 25-27; A. Pieraccini, 'Nuove proposte per gli affreschi del chiostro della Confraternita della Santissima Annunziata', Paragone, no. 437, 1986, pp. 25-34. The chapel is now the headquarters of the Societa Dante Alighieri. The cycle was inspired by Niccolo Circignani's much larger cycle at the Jesuit church of S Stefano Rotondo in Rome (begun 1582). See Bailey, op. cit. in n. 1 above (forthcoming), Chapter 4, and Leif Holm Monssen, 'The Martyrdom Cycle in Santo Stefano Rotondo', Acta ad Archaeologiam et Artium Historiam Pertinentia, no. 2, 1982, pp. 175-317; 3, 1983, pp. 11-105.

(20) Hamilton, op. cit. in n. 9 above (1973), p. 269; Vasetti, op. cit. in n. 9 above (1986), p. 151.

(21) See Freedberg, op. cit., p. 629. For his commissions in the early 1600s, see Hamilton, op. cit. in n. 9 above (1980), pp. 59-60; Vasetti, op. cit. in n. 9 above (1986), p. 151; Lucilla Conigliello and Stefania Vasetti, 'Il chiostro di ponente agli angeli' in Il Chiostro Camadolese, op. cit., pp. 31-33.

(22) Contemporary with the SS Annunziata series are a lunette of the Marriage at Cana at Badia a Ripoli (datable 1603-1604), his frescoes at the Sala di Bona at the Pitti Palace (1608-1609), and the central bay and a splendid lunette contrasting the Massacre of the Innocents with daily life at the orphanage at the Spedale degli Innocenti (1610-12), once in the refectory (now the Ludoteca). He also executed commissions for private patrons, including the Strozzi, whose relationship with the artist has recently been the subject of a monograph, and the Pucci, for whom he and at least two assistants painted the Cappella Pucci, also at SS Annunziata (1608). Sec Hamilton, op. cit. in n. 9 above (1980), p. 16; Vasetti, op. cit. in n. 9 above (1994).

(23) Although most of the funerary monuments now visible in the cloister date from the eighteenth century, the tradition of burying people there dates back to a 1259 papal decree, and by the time Poccetti was painting there the cloister already housed two hundred tombs, mostly family vaults. The space was also known as the Chiostro del Pozzo because of the well in the centre. See: Francesca Petrucci, Santissima Annunziata, Rome, 1992, p. 71; Walter and Elisabeth Paatz, Die Kirchen von Florenz, Frankfurt, 1955, vol. I, pp. 89-90; Pellegrino Tonini, Il santuario della Santissima Annunziata di Firenze, Florence, 1876, pp. 228-31.

(24) See Shalimar Abigail Ordonez, Three Florentine Madonnas: Marian Image Cults and Popular Religion in Late Medieval and Early Renaissance Florence, Florence, 1999; Eugenio M. Casalini, Una icona di famiglia: nuovi contributi di storia d'arte sulla SS. Annunziata di Firenze, Florence, 1998.

(25) In the mid-seicento there were just under forty of these pictures, including works by Matteo Rosselli (1578-1650) and the Servite painter Fra Arsenio Mascagni (1579-1636). See Eugenio M. Casalini, La Basilica Santuario della SS. Annunziata di Firenze, Florence, 1957; Petrucci, op. cit., p. 77; Eugenio M. Casalini, 'Le tele di "memorie ex-voto"', La SS. Annunziata di Firenze: Studi e documenti sulla chiesa e il convento, Florence, 1971, vol. I, pp. 49-70; Guido Mazzoni, I Boti della SS. Annunziata in Firenza: curiosita storica, Florence, 1923.

(26) 'Servites, Order of', in F.L. Cross and E.A. Livingstone, The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 3rd edition, Oxford, 1997, p. 1488; F.A. Dal Pino, I servi di S. Maria 1233 ca-1304, Louvain, 1972, vol. I, pp. 759-1074.

(27) Intriguingly, the Servites generally referred to him as 'Bernardino delle Grottesche' when he was paying his rent and as 'Mastro Bernardo Poccetti' when they were paying him to paint their lunettes. ASF, Corporazioni Religiose Soppresse dal Governo Francese 119, 53, fol. 191r; Corporazioni Religiose Soppresse dal Governo Francese 119, 212 (Crediti/Debiti, 1612-19), fol. 11r.

(28) Selected references to Poccetti's rental payments include ASF, Corporazioni Religiose Soppresse dal Governo Francese 119, 210 (Crediti/Debiti, 1596-1602), fol. 69r, '[31 May 1596] Bernardino delle grottesche de dare a di 31 di maggio [lire] 12 p[er] diritto porto Sebast[iano] Cenni ... [lire] 12; E addi 5 di Gennaio [15]97 [lire] 154 che di tanti si fa d[a]re p[er] la pig[io]ne della n[ost]ra casa posta in sitorno p[er] duo anni da finire p[er] tutto giugno havere 1598 la quale casa gli fu concessa a vita sua et della sua p[rese]nte moglie sino a di 30 di giugno 1588 ... [lire] 154'; ASF, Corporazioni Religiose Soppresse dal Governo Francese 119, 286 (Entrate/Uscite del Sindaco, 1600-1603), fols. 6r, 21r, 36v, 66r, 101v, '[2 January 1600] Da M. Bernardo delle grottesche [lire] trentotto soldi dieci a buon conto della pigione della casa posta in sitorno, e p[er] detto reco contanti M. Andrea sua suocera, [lire] 38-10; [3 July 1601] Da M. Bernardo d[e]lle grottesche [lire] trentotto, soldi dieci a buo[n] co[n]to d[e]lla pigione d[e]lla casa posta in sitorno, reco la moglie di detto, [lire] 38.10; [1 February 1601] Da Bernardo delle grottesche lire trent'otto e soldi dieci a buon conto della casa posta in sitorno reco contanti Mastro Aliseo, [lire] 38.10; [7 January 1602] Da Bernardino delle grottesche nostro pigionale nella casa di sitorno lire trenta otto soldi 10 a bu[on] conto di sua pigione e p[er] detto reco Giuliano suo garzone, [lire] 38.10; [27 January 1603] Da Bernardino delle grottesche nostro pigionale nella casa di sitorno setta[n]ta sette a buo[n] conto di suo dare e p[er] d[etto] reco ... suo mandato, [lire] 77.' Elsewhere, records confirm that Poccetti paid 154 lire every two years, in four instalments of 38.10 lire twice a year; see ASF, Corporazioni Religiose Soppresse dal Governo Francese 119, 210 (Crediti/Debiti, 1596-1604), fols. 69r; 209, 277r-v; ASF, Corporazioni Religiose Soppresse dal Governo Francese 119, 211, fols. 25v, 439r; ASF, Corporazioni Religiose Soppresse dal Governo Francese 119, 741 (Entrate/Uscite, 1592-96), fol. 149v.

(29) The most interesting excerpts from this closing of Poccetti's account include ASF, Corporazioni Religiose Soppresse dal Governo Francese 119, 212, fols. 11r, 112r, '[9 November 1612] E de[v]e dare a di 9 di nove[m]bre 1612 [lire] venticinque [soldi] 13.4 sono [per] la pigione di detta casa di mesi quattro e 1/3 da di p[rimo] luglio 1612 a tutto 9 di nove[m]bre 1612 detto che lui passo di questa a miglior vita ... [scudi] 3.4.13.4 ... E [lire] 3.14.8 in credito a Bernardino Poccietti p[er] saldo del suo conto ... [lire] 3-14-8.' The house was handed over to Forzoni on 30 September 1612: ASF, Corporazioni Religiose Soppresse dal Governo Francese 119, 212, fol. 11r, 'Che stante la morte di quale [Poccetti] ci e ricascato detta casa e s'E data a S. Mariano Forzoni ... e de[v]e dare sin sotto 30 sett[embr]e 1612 [lire] 112 ... presto di conto di pitture delle lunette del no[st]ro primo chiostro ... [lire] 16'.

(30) Tonini, op. cit., p. 231; Vitzthum, op. cit., pp. 77-78; Paatz, op. cit., pp. 113-16; P.A. Riedl, 'Zu einigen Studienblattern des Ventura Salimbeni', in Justus Muller Hofstede and Werner Spies, Festschrift fur Eduard Trier zum 60. Geburtstag, Berlin, 1981, pp. 153-54; Petrucci, op. cit., p. 73; E. Mencarini, 'Donato Mascagni', in Il Seicento fiorentino, op. cit., vol. III, p. 119; Vasetti, op. cit. in n. 9 above (1986), p. 151; Vasetti, op. cit. in n. 9 above (1994), p. 27.

(31) ASF, Corporazioni Religiose Soppresse dal Governo Francese 119, 740 (Entrate/Uscite, 1589-90) fol. 93r, '[October 1589] A spese di fabrica [lire] venti quatro e sono p[er] moggio 3 di calcina servi p[er] resto della fabrica del cortile del chiostro d[ei] morti porto [lire] 16 Domenico Sandrini fornaciaio a S. Niccolo e [lire] 8 porto Giovanni fornaciaio alla Ciertosa, [lire] 24'; ASF, Corporazioni Religiose Soppresse dal Governo Francese 119, 739, fol. 183r, '[31 January 1590] A spese di fabrica [lire] sedici ... e sono p[er] dica muriciuoli fatti alla porta detto chiostro, [lire] 16'.

(32) ASF, Corporazioni Religiose Soppresse dal Governo Francese 119, 740, fols. 119r and v] '[6 September 1590] A spese di fabrica lire quarantacinque sono p[er] moggio cinque di calcina servi p[er] ammattonare il chiostro de' morti al lire nove il moggio p[er] t[u]tto Giovanni Fafani fornaciaio alla Certosa, [lire] 45; A spene di fabrica lire tre[n]tanove e soldi dieci sono p[er] resto di venticinque chiusini una finestra un lastrone e tre op[er]e di scarpellino, tutto servi nel chiostro de' morti p[er] t[u]tto M. Batista, [lire] 39-10; A spese di fabbrica lire centto tredici soldi quindi ci sono p[er] op[er]e quara[n]ta di maestri e op[er]e venti quatro di manovali p[or]to M. Gio[vanni] Maria muratore ... [lire] 113-15; A spese di fabbrica lire dodici et soldi dieci sono p[er] resto di rena servi p[er] cinque moggio di calcina al lire dua e soldi dieci il moggio ... [lire] 12-10; A spese di fabbrica lire cento dicianove sono p[er] resto di tremila quattro ce[n]to cinque mezane porto Bartolomeo fornaciaio ... [lire] 119'; ASF, Corporazioni Religiose Soppresse dal Governo Francese 119, 53 (Ricordanze, 1560-1602) fol. 191r, '[1 November 1590] Ricordo come p[er] t[u]tto il mese passato di 8bre 1590 si fini di ammattonare l'ala del chiostro de' morti ove E la camarlengheria mezza l'altra dove e il capitolo ...'

(33) ASF, Corporazioni Religiose Soppresse dal Governo Francese 119, 740, fols. 201v, 215r] '[July, 1592] A spese di fabbrica [lire] duamila quatro cento trenta tre [soldi] 6 e sono p[er] havesse intonicato, arricciato, e imbianchato le nostre case, e logge nella nostra piazza, e p[er] havere riffatto la meta de' tetti in sullo loggie e intonicato la facciata, e cornicione del dormitorio, e ammatonato la banchaccia e scalini mesi di nuovo ... tutto speso p[er] mano di Fr. Atanasio nostro. In tutto, [lire] 2433-6; [29 November 1592] A spese di fabrica fatte nel nostro convento ... [lire] 1242-11-8'.

(34) ASF, Corporazioni Religiose Soppresse dal Governo Francese 119, 54 (Ricordanze, 1603-40), fols. 10v-11r, '[4 December 1605] E questo presente anno dove era un orto che rendeva assai diforme il nostro chiostro, havendo p[rim]a il P.F. Donato impiegato cento scudi per disfare le muricciuoli, e fare le base alle colonne, et invece di quelli mettervi quelle pietre che sono tra una colonna e l'altra, fece fare il lastrico che al presente si vede di vive pietre di spesa di scudi 334 la cual cosa ha oltre modo aggiunto vaghezza, e comodita.'

(35) ASF, Corporazioni Religiose Soppresse dal Governo Francese 119, 743 (Entrate/Uscite, 1602-10), fol. 83v, '[31 January 1605] A spese di Fabb[ri]ca e acconcimi di n[ost]ro convento fatta q[uest'] anno alli tetti del chiostro de' morti e camere di dormitorio, e finestre di riff[etto]rio nel n[ost]ro chiostro d[ett]o de' morti, et a scalcinare, et aricciare lunette di d[ett]o cominciata a 22 di giugno pass[at]o 1604. sino a p[rim]o ottobre pass[at]o 1604 [lire] cinquemila cento sessant'otto [soldi] 10-4 e cio p[er] opere, calcine, rena, lavoro, aiuti, ferramenti, gessi, mattrapesti, pietrame, legnami, imposte, impannate, embrici, tegolini docce, teleri e core et altre cose state necessarie ... [lire] 5168.10.8 se ne distrae [lire] quatrocento cinque [soldi] 12-4 ... di ritratto di feri cambiamento di docce, pietre servite a part[i]re cio'e il P. Fr. Donato, il P. Fr. Venanzio e cosi d'opere ... d[e]tto detratto la d[ett]a soma alle [lire] 5168-10-8 costa a n[ost)ro convento, [lire] 4762-18.'

(36) ASF, Corporazioni Religiose Soppresse dal Governo Francese 119, 743, fols. 85r, 89r] '[28 February 1605] A spese di fab[ric]a et acconcimi [lire] quatrocento quaranta nove, [soldi] 6-8 spesi in calcine, rena, lavoro, opere e pietre dell'entr[at]a o arco fatto nel'chiostro da 20 di 9bre passato sino a q[uesto] di ... [lire] 449-6-8; [17 May 1605] A spese di fab[ri]ca e acconcimi [lire] ottantaquatro [soldi] 3-8 in q[uest]o modo [lire] 46-3-8 per resto di opere...nel chiostro de' morti ... [lire] 84-3-8'x; ASF, Corporazioni Religiose Soppresse dal Governo Francese 119, 211 (Crediti/Debiti, 1603-12), fol. 130r, '[31 May 1605] E addi 31 di Maggio [lire] 84-3-8 tanti spesi p[er] assett[u]ra di chiostro de' morti ... per questo, [lire] 87-3-5. E addi 25 di Giugno [lire] 59-16 p[er] assett[ur]a di dett[o] Chiostro ... [lire] 59.16.'

(37) ASF, Corporazioni Religiose Soppresse dal Governo Francese 119, 54 (Ricordanze, 1603-40), fol. 11r, '[4 December 1605] All'impresa e santo pensiero del R.P.M. Lorenzo Picciuoli Priore del convento, di far dipingere nelle lunette l'origine della nostra Religione, e le principali azzoni, e miracoli de' primi sette Beati Fior[entin]i fondatori de l'ord[in]e n[ost]ro, e questo senza spesa del convento, perche i primi nobili fanno a gara di sodisfare il pittore e farvi dipinger l'armi della famiglia loro, ne ha passato fin hora il prezzo d'una d'esse trenta scudi ch[e] di tanto si e contentato Bernardino Poccetti, il quale con universal satisfazzione solo insino a qui ci ha messo le mani.' This source was cited first in Vasetti, op. cit. in n. 9 above (1994), p. 38, note 101, and also in her unpublished thesis, eadem, op. cit. in n. 9 above (1988-89), pp. 722-34. All transcriptions and translations here are my own.

(38) For example, the Usimbardi hired Poccetti to paint the Sala Grande in the Palazzo Acciaioli-Usimbardi, and the Strozzi commissioned him to execute the Cappella Strozzi at S Trinita; see Hamilton, op. cit. in n. 9 above (1980), p. 20.

(39) ASF, Corporazioni Religiose Soppresse dal Governo Francese 119, 743, fol. 120v, '[1 February 1607] A M[astro] Bernardino Poccetti pittore [lire] dugento ottanta sette p[er] ch[e] tante gli sono state pagate dal nostro convento in piu volte, p[er] mano del P[adre] Fra Mauro gia Cam[arling]o: et da me Fr[atello] Aless[andr]o M[a]r[i]a, t[ut]to p[er] ordine dal R[everendo] P[adre] M. Lor[enz]o gia Priore, et sono danari pagatili di sopra piu, a q[ue]llo ch[e] deve havere delle dieci X lunette da lui dipinte nel nostro chiostro de Morti, ad instantia di diverssi gentilhomini ... [lire] 287'; ASF, Corporazioni Religiose Soppresse dal Governo Francese 119, 211, fols. 439r-v, 415r, '[18 February 1607] E de dare [lire] dugento ottanta sette p[aga]ti p[ri]mo detto conti sino a di 18 Febb[rai]o 1606 [1607] ... tanti sopra pagatali alle dieci lunette ... [lire] 287 se ne era dato deb[it]o al conto di spese di casa ... [lire] 287; [25 February 1607] A M[astr]o Ber[nardi]no Poccetti pittore p[er] le cause detta ... [lire] 287; [28 July, 1610] E [lire] 287 ... a Bernadino di Bart[olomme]o Poccietti p[er] le cause d[e]tte in suo conto, [lire] 287'.

(40) ASF, Corporazioni Religiose Soppresse dal Governo Francese 119, 211, fols. 439r-v, 451v] '[10 December, 1609] Bernard[in]o di Bart[olomme]o Poccetti de havere a di 10 di dicembre [lire] 60 di m[one]ta reco Fra Mauro conti a conto di suo livello ...'

(41) ASF, Corporazioni Religiose Suppresse dal Governo Francese 119, 211, fols. 439v, 451v, 'E a di 14 d'ott[o]bre [1610] [lire] 25 di m[onelta p[erl lui dal'Ill.mo S[ignore] Card[inal]e Belisario Vinta p[er] la lunetta fatta nel nostro cbiostro dal sopra detto...[lire] 175; E a di 14 d'ottobre [1610] M[ast]ro Bern[ardin]o Poccetti, [lire] 175'.

(42) ASF, Corporazioni Religiose Soppresse dal Governo Francese 119, 211, fols. 439r, 471r, 439v, 498r, 'E a di 30 Sett[embr]e 1612 [lire] 112 si consegnia deb[it]e al t[u]tto ... [lire] 112; Bernardino di Bart.o Poccietti ... [lire] 112.' Tonini, op. cit., p. 232, dates this picture to 1612, on the basis of an inscription which is now missing.

(43) Salimbeni completed four lunettes between 1605 and 1609 for a total of 175 lire, which would have been amply covered by the sum paid to Poccetti, along with almost 60 lire in spending money.

(44) Baldinucci notes that Poccetti began to paint the fourteen lunettes in 1604, and that they were funded by various prominent Florentine families, including the Pandolfini, Capponi, Pucci, Strozzi, Uguccioni, Usimbardi, Dell'Antella, and Marzi Medici. In addition, he mentions the Rinucci and Pinadori families, who are not mentioned in the ricordanze. Baldinucci also records the story about Poccetti painting the lunette of Christ the Saviour Flanked by Justice and Mercy for free, and that even when the Prior sent him some fine cloth as a gift of appreciation Poccetti had it returned (Baldinucci, op. cit., vol. III, p. 39). See also the reports in Ferdinando Leopoldo Del Migliore, Firenze: Citta nobilissima illustrata, Florence, 1684, p. 293; and Giuseppe Richa, Notizie istoriche delle chiese fiorentine, Florence, 1759, vol. VIII, pp. 61-62.

(45) ASF, Corporazioni Religiose Soppresse dal Governo Francese 119, 54, fols. 77v-78r]. '[2 September 1609] Ricordo came q[uest]o di d[ett]o si e scoperta la lunetta 6.a dell'Ala 4.a del chiostro de' morti lungo la chiesa, opera dell'Ecc.mo Artefice M. Bernardino Poccetti, nella quale apparisce dipinta la storia del Beato Filippo, che avvicinandosi ... Todi converte due meretrici. La spesa fu fatta dall'Ill.mo Sig[no]r Cavaliere Bellisario Vinta primo secretario del Ser[enissi]mo Gran Duca. Concorsi (come avveni aveva dell'altre) ... veder quest'opera assai popolo, innalzando con molti lodi l'Artefice sino al cielo, e restando ciascheduno pieno di meraviglio, che essendo lo mai il pred[ett]o M. Bernardino d'eta d'anni 62 ... e gli quanto all'eccellenza dell'opera, in vece d'andare in declinazione (come bene spesso d'alcuni haviamo veduto avvenire) si andava in esse (in vece d'andar in declinazione) in simile et... tuttavia avanzando. Il Sig[no]re lo consecui.'

(46) ASF, Corporazioni Religiose Soppresse dal Governo Francese 119, 54, fol. 47v, '[13 February 1610] Ricordo come q[uest]o di sudd[ett]o si scopersi la lunetta quinta dell'Ala 4.a del Chiostro de' Morti, nella quale S dipinta la storia della morte delli nostri Beate Uguccione, e Sostegno, opera dal Valoroso M. Bernardino Poccetti. La spesa e stata fatta dal Sig.r Alessandro del Sig.r Camillo Strozzi, la quale (come l'altre), arrivo alla somma di scudi 25, messi il pred[ett]o M. Bernardino giorni diciotto di tempo in dipingere la d[ett]a Historia, lavorandovi solo sei hore del giorno. Questa pittura per la bellezza sua fu gratissima a tutti, reputandosi comunem[ente] esser' questa una delle piu belle storie ch. habbia fatto il p[re]d[ett]o M. Bernardino in d[ett]o chiostro.' For a partially different transcription, see Vasetti, op. cit. in n. 9 above (1994), p. 27.

(47) Conigliello and Vasetti, op. cit., p. 38; Maria Cecilia Fabbri, Due interventi artistici nel complesso servita della Santissima Annunziata a Firenze (1588-1618), unpublished tesi di laurea, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, 1988-89; Vasetti, op. cit. in n. 9 above (1986), pp. 722-34.

(48) Conigliello and Vasetti, op. cit., p. 38.

(49) See Barzman, op. cit.; Wazbinski, op. cit. See also Bailey, op. cit. in n. 1 above (2002).

Gauvin Alexander Bailey is Associate Professor of renaissance and baroque art at Clark University in Worcester, Mass., and was Fellow at Villa I Tatti in Florence in 2000-2001. Publications include Art on the Jesuit Missions in Asia and Latin America, 1542-1773 (1999), Between Renaissance and the Baroque: Jesuit Art in Rome, 1565-1610 (2003) and The Art of Colonial Latin America, 1492-1820 (forthcoming, autumn 2004).
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