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Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection Facts.

* Catheter-associated urinary tract infections account for approximately 40% of hospital-acquired infections and affect an estimated 800,000 patients per year, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The pathogens in approximately 70% of hospital-acquired infections are resistant to at least one antibiotic, making prevention a key strategy in managing hospital infections.

* Every year, an estimated four million patients undergo urinary tract catheterization to: relieve urinary tract obstruction, allow urinary drainage in patients who cannot void because of nerve damage, aid in urologic surgery or other surgery, and obtain accurate measurements of urinary output in critically ill patients.

* Reported infection rates vary widely, ranging from 1% to 5% after a single brief catheterization, to virtually 100% for patients with indwelling urethral catheters for at least 4 days.

* Recent studies show that more than 20% of patients catheterized and maintained on closed drainage can become infected due to errors in handling and predisposition of patients to infection.

* Catheter-associated UTIs can lead to such complications as prostatitis, epididymitis, cystitis, pyelonephritis, and gram-negative bacteremia (infection of the blood), resulting in increased risk for patients and a longer hospital stay.

* Catheter-associated UTIs are caused by a variety of organisms, including Escherichia coil, Kiebsiella, Proteus, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, Enterobacte, Serratia, and Candida. Many of these organisms are present in healthy individuals, but they can also be acquired by cross-contamination from other patients, hospital personnel, or by exposure to contaminated solutions or nonsterile equipment.

* Infectious organisms can gain access to the urinary tract when the catheter is inserted even briefly; however, the organisms introduced by this route often are removed from healthy individuals by voiding or by the natural antibacterial mechanisms of the bladder mucosa.

* With indwelling catheters, infectious organisms can attach, multiply, and migrate up the catheter's inner or outer surface into the bladder after the collection bag or a catheter-drainage tube junction has been contaminaed.

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Publication:Urologic Nursing
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jun 1, 1999
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