Cataloging music sound recordings in the United States: an evolution of practice and standards.
An example of a departure from the norms, which MLA was attempting to establish and maintain, is described in Ralph Moritz's article, "Cataloging Phonograph Records for the Veterans Hospitals." He reported a then-unique approach to the production and use of sound recordings. Specially produced recordings were made for veterans hospitals, each recording being a single program that was played over the public address system in each hospital. The Library of Congress provided tailored cards for these recordings. Because each disc was meant to be played through in one hearing, the unit of cataloging was the whole disc, which was a long-playing recording that contained about eight to ten "transcriptions," pieces that were selected and put together into a thirty-minute program (fifteen minutes per side). Discs were released weekly as parts of various series. Main entry was the series title and number, under which was "the number of the unit in which the transcription appeared, the date of issue and a general description of the program. Contents give the title of each composition, the composer when well-known, the performer, and the medium and duration of performance." (50) Added entries were made to the extent that they were deemed essential for finding content. Title was considered most important, since most of the music was popular. Composer was added only if there is no distinctive title, and for works by well-known popular composers; composer-title cross-references were made for all classical music. No entries or descriptions were made for subjects, medium of performance, or authors of texts. No description of size or number of sides was needed since all the discs were the same size and duration. Imprint was replaced by date of issue and the statement "AFRS transcriptions." Consequently, each transcription received "a unit card, filed under the title of the series, a card for each performer, one for each title, and various cross references from composers to titles. ... This procedure for cataloging transcriptions differs from usual cataloging rules in its emphasis on the title as the most important element in finding a composition." (51)
In keeping with the ethos of simplifying the cataloging of recordings, in 1948 Elaine von Oesen published "Simple Cataloging of Audio-Visual Materials." In a statement that would seem to be refuted by the present discussion thus far, von Oesen claims:
It seems, however, that one aspect of the use of this material--cataloging--has been somewhat slighted in library literature.... The outlines that follow have been designed to help the cataloger of the small library--public, college, or school--to adapt her cataloging policy for books to cover phonograph records (musical and nonmusical).... (52)
The "simple cataloging" presented appears to be a very boiled-down version of MLA's code with some local differences. As with MLA in 1942, the unit of cataloging is the work, and the main entry is composer. Subject entries are as for books, with "(Phonograph record)" added. Von Oesen emphasizes the similarities to cataloging print materials:
Catalog cards for music records will be almost identical with cards for the scores of the same compositions except for imprint and collation and added entry or entries for performers.... Cognizance of this relation in the cataloging of printed and audio-visual materials will erase some of the strangeness which seems to cause many librarians to shun the inclusion of nonbook materials in their libraries. (53)
Added entries are made for title, conventional title, performer, and sponsoring society (if considered important). Conventional title is given in square brackets on the line immediately under main entry. Label title appears in the next line after conventional title (if used). Imprint comprises place and producing agency (as with MLA code, place may be omitted if agency is well-known, like Columbia or Victor); but date is omitted. Disc number may be placed in a note; omit matrix number. Collation is number of sides and size of disc; include rpm only if not 78. Series note is after collation in the usual place. In a fashion similar to that of Maywhort, von Oesen provides a prescribed order of ten types of notes:
1. Album number
2. Binder's title or other title
3. Original producer
4. Unusual method of recording
5. Performer and medium; arrangement if different from original
6. Language, if different from title, or not in English
7. Author of text
8. Analytical booklet or descriptive notes
9. Contents (for collected works cataloged as a unit)
10. Other works on same disc; last side of album (54)
Rex M. Potterf's article, "Recordings in Our Library," stands in sharp contrast to the trend toward simplification and leanness of cataloging. Thoroughness and completeness of cataloging for the sake of access to all works on all recordings is the emphasis. Cataloging is based on MLA's 1941-42 Code for Cataloging Music, and the 1942 Code for Cataloging Phonograph Records. Potterf's account is particularly notable for his observations about the time, effort, and resources involved in the cataloging of recordings. Although expense is often mentioned in discussions about cataloging, the numbers that Potterf brings to bear are memorable:
It was a somewhat startling fact that about as much personnel was engaged in cataloging recordings as was usually employed in the library in cataloging books.... The cataloging has been done with all desirable thoroughness at considerable expense.... In addition to shelf-list and manufacturers' cards, they made 11 other cards, inclusive of composer, title, artist (both vocal and instrumental), orchestra, subject, author of text, arranger, cross-reference, composer, title and subject analytic.... There are approximately 10 cards for the typical album, but frequently 25 or 30 are required. One album required a total of 53 cards. Probably the most valuable single aspect of the catalog to musicians is the use of conventional titles in every case.... This makes identification complete. It has, however, immensely lengthened the cataloging process. (55)
In 1951, Celia Moore, LaHache Music Library, New Orleans, described the physical processing and cataloging of recordings in her library. Her system mostly follows the MLA codes (both for print and for phonograph records). The unit of cataloging is the work, not disc or album. Main entry is composer (in keeping with the MLA code). Differences occur in some of the details for collation, added entries, and notes. For example, cross-references are made for popular and variant titles. Collation includes not only the number of sides, or fraction of a side, taken up by the work, and the disc diameter in inches; it also includes playing speed; automatic or manual sequence; and whether the disc is shellac or nonbreakable. As needed, a series note follows collation in parentheses, but no series cards are made. Notes may be made for variant titles, performers, accompanying materials, authors of texts, cuts, contents, and reverse sides. Subject headings are applied as for scores. Added entries are made for "joint composers," as well as composer of original theme for variations, arranger, performers, orchestra, conductor, and title (if the library has more than one recording of a work). (56)
In 1952, the "preliminary edition" of the Rules for Descriptive Cataloging in the Library of Congress: Phonorecords was issued. The rules were specifically "designed to cover the several physical types of recordings and are regarded as applicable to all kinds of recorded sound, i.e., speech, music, etc.," (57) and were meant for use in conjunction with the 1949 edition of the Rules for Descriptive Cataloging in the Library of Congress. Indeed, it is labeled "chapter 9a. Phonorecords," to indicate its relationship with chapter 9, "Music," in the 1949 publication.
One very important distinction of this chapter of rules is the use of the term, "phonorecords":
The term "phonorecords" is used to fill the need for a single term to describe all types of aural media. By using the combining term "phono," economical and uniform terminology is provided, which is particularly important for filing devices and physical description. Hence, the following terms are used: phonodisc ... phonocylinder, phonotape and phonowire ... phonofilm, and phonoroll.... (58)
The unit of cataloging is not explicitly stated in this chapter of code. That it is usually the whole item in hand is implicit, however, in the rule governing main entry:
The choice and form of the main entry (governed by the A. L. A. Cataloging Rules for Author and Title Entries, 1949) is the same as for visual materials.... For phonorecords consisting of two or more works issued without a collective title, entry is made for each work, a "With" note being added in each case. (59)
The elements described in these 1952 rules for phonorecords are outlined in table 3. Physical medium is deemed extremely important, not only because more than one type of recording may be described, but also because a differentiation must be made between works of the same title in printed form and recorded form. It is placed after the conventional title (if there is one) in italics, or after a (distinctive) title in italics and bracketed.
Imprint varies by the method of production. "Processed" recordings are those pressed from a matrix, while "nonprocessed" recordings are instantaneous recordings ("live" or field recordings). Collation varies by type of recording; in all cases the number of pieces or sides (as appropriate to the medium) are recorded. Size is included for phonodiscs, phonocylinders, phonotapes, and phonofilms. Playing speed is given for phonodiscs, phonotapes, and phonofilms.
Notes are generous and in a prescribed order (see table 3, which lists them in that order). If the same performance is issued on recordings of varying speeds, sequence, or medium, the physical items are treated as issues or copies and are indicated in separate notes. Different performances of the same work are treated as different editions, and receive their own full cataloging.
The precept encapsulated in the 1952 LC rules--that is, of treating recordings as similarly as possible to books and scores--was not isolated to ALA, MLA, and Library of Congress. Librarians from around the country and a variety of types of libraries continued to share their approaches to cataloging recordings, which reflected the desire to keep processes as simple and cohesive as possible. Two brief examples:
In 1952, Stella R. Townsend, of the Library Department of the Greensboro (North Carolina) Public Schools, described cataloging more than 5,000 recordings for the entire school system. They were treated like books as closely as possible, and thus the unit of cataloging was the work. The description is similar to the 1952 rules, although at the time that she wrote the article, Townsend would not have had access to it. Reverse sides were treated as "bound-with." Some recordings could receive 20-30 cards. Cards for recordings were interfiled with cards for books, so that all curriculum-supporting materials could be found in one index. (60)
Sister Mary Janet, of Rosary College (Illinois), presented in 1953 a system that adheres as closely as possible to cataloging for books and scores. Unlike the printed materials, though, the unit of cataloging is ambiguous: each side of a disc receives full cataloging because it has its own label, which is considered to be the cognate of the title page. Reverse sides, however, are also noted on each card, which implies that the unit is the whole disc. Otherwise, main entry and title treatment are the same as for scores. Imprint and collation are treated in a fashion similar to the 1952 LC rules. But unlike those rules, which omitted matrix numbers, matrix numbers are explicitly equated by Sister Mary Janet with scores' plate numbers, and album numbers take the place of scores' series numbers. (61)
Similarly, Sister M. Edmund, of St. Catherine's College (Minnesota), described in 1955 a system based on both MLA's 1942 code and LC's 1952 rules. She included a generic example of a catalog card, reproduced in figure 5. (62) The unit of cataloging is more clearly the item in hand. The primary differences in this treatment are the use of matrix numbers in the imprint, and the method of recording in the collation.
In 1957, Frances Hamman reported on a survey conducted by a Special Committee on the Bibliographic Control of Audio-Visual Materials. Of particular interest here is that 56 percent of the responding libraries that cataloged phonograph records replied that they used the LC rules or an adaptation of those rules. About 20 percent adapted both LC and MLA rules. The essential catalog elements were identified as composer, title, serial identification, trade name, number of albums, number of sides, size, speed, performers, medium, contents, and added entries for titles. (63) The report concluded that widely acceptable standardization of the essential elements of cataloging these materials had yet to be achieved. A call was made for simplification and flexibility in such a standard, based on "studies of catalog use, [and that] some consideration be given to research on the approach of audio-visual catalog users to this material." (64)
Fig. 5. Sister Edmund's generic catalog card for recordings used at St. Catherine's College (1955) Composer (or author), dates. [Conventional title] Title. Company Disc numbers (matrix numbers) Number of albums or sides Size Method of recording (Series) Performers Other notes (language of text, details of recording, program notes, etc.) Contents. With:
The Music Library Association and the American Library Association jointly published the Code for Cataloging Music and Phonorecords in 1958. This represented the completion of a task that the associations' Joint Committee on Music Cataloging had begun in 1946, which was originally the revision of the 1941-42 preliminary edition of MLA's Code for Cataloging Music. But it went beyond mere revision. As noted in the preface: "This is actually more than a revision of the preliminary edition. The fundamental principles basic to the cataloging process have been reexamined, and the analysis and conclusions of the committee have resulted in some variances from the preliminary Code." (65)
The 1958 MLA-ALA code is a combination with revision, in essence a harmonization, of codes from three organizations: "Entry" comes from rule 12 of ALA's Cataloging Rules for Author and Title Entries (1949); "Description" is primarily chapter 9 of Library of Congress's Rules for Descriptive Cataloging (1949), informed by material from chapter 2 of the old MLA code; and "Phonorecords" is almost verbatim chapter 9a from LC's rules (that is, the "preliminary edition" of the phonorecords chapter of 1952). See the relevant rows in table 1 for a comparison. One note type (species) was deleted, and some explanatory notes were added, most notably an expansion on main entry, which allows for the cataloging unit to be either the item in hand or the individual works on the item: "For a single work (whether on one or several discs) or for two works (whether on one disc or in an album) the unit of entry is the individual work. For three or more works by one composer issued as a collection, enter under the composer; for three or more works by various composers issued as a collection, enter under title." (66)
Even before the 1958 code had been available for a full year, it was criticized as being unnecessarily extensive. Beryl McPherson (of Free Public Library, Elizabeth, New Jersey) and Carolyn Berneking (of University of Kansas) coauthored an article, in which they note, "We have found that our catalogs are used mainly as a finding list and not as a bibliographic tool. In many places we recommend that certain entries be omitted entirely; whether or not this is done depends on the demand for this information in a particular library." (67)
In many respects, however, they do follow the practices of the new code, and the procedures they present indicate that the unit of cataloging is the item in hand, not individual works, which are generally treated as title analytics. The body of the card primarily consists of the title, company trade name, album number, and size and number of discs. Subject headings are generous, but added entries are limited to title and composer (of any additional works on a given item).
1960s-1980s: FROM SCORES AND RECORDINGS TO CONSOLIDATED TREATMENT OF FORMATS
The "second preliminary edition" of the Library of Congress's Rules for Descriptive Cataloging in the Library of Congress: Phonorecords, published in 1964, is substantially the same as the 1952 edition. The primary differences are in the updated examples that reflect the physical changes in the technology of sound recording (notably "microgroove" cutting and stereophonic sound, which were not universal to recordings at the time). The section concerning imprint includes more detail, in that if the publisher is not known as a publisher of recordings, instead of trade name, the place and company name are provided, followed by date of release. The section on "Issues and copies" has been omitted and replaced with a paragraph regarding serials. The list of notes and their order is different from the 1952 edition.
"Nonprocessed" phonorecords receive separate treatment in the 1964 edition. The differences between processed and nonprocessed phonorecords lie mainly in the construction of titles, the omission of imprint information, and the importance of notes that give as much specific information as possible. Catalogers are instructed: "The entries are as brief as possible, giving all of the essential data without citation of source and without the use of brackets, except for conventional titles." (68) Notes, however, are considered important, particularly name of participants, details of the event, duration and supplementation of collation. Additional notes may also be given, especially variants or translations of well-known titles, and the location of the work on the recording itself.
In 1967, the Anglo-American Cataloging Rules: North American Text (AACR) was published. It was the result of a conscious effort to simplify, unify, and standardize cataloging rules and practices in British and American libraries, especially the Library of Congress. (69) But even with the unification of many rules and practices, nonbook formats were recognized as needing some specialized treatment. Sound recordings (still called "phonorecords") are treated in chapter 14. The contents of this chapter are in a slightly different order to be parallel to the construction of the rest of AACR, but are otherwise virtually the same as the 1964 edition of the Rules for Descriptive Cataloging in the Library of Congress: Phonorecords. The chapter is divided into "Entry" (rules 250 and 251) and "Description" (rules 252 and 253). (70) Rule 250, "Main entry," has been more clearly broken down into two categories: (1) "Single works and excerpts" and (2) "Collections," to make clearer when name or title is appropriate for use as the main entry. Although not explicitly stated, the distinction indicates that generally the item in hand is the unit of cataloging, with the exception of two or more works by different persons that are on an item without a collective title. Rule 251, "Added entries," immediately follows "Main entry," and contains the content of the 1964 "Secondary entries," as well as additional guidelines for broadcasts or telecasts.
"Description" comprises rule 252, "Processed phonorecords," and rule 253, "Nonprocessed phonorecords," maintaining the separation of treatment of the two types of recordings that was made in the 1964 rules. The term "uniform titles" is used instead of "conventional titles." Another slight difference from the previous rules is that "Series statement" is separated out before "Notes" instead of being identified as the first note. This is parallel to the treatment of visual materials in AACR rules 143 and 247. Otherwise, the notes are presented nearly verbatim from the 1964 rules. Likewise, all of rule 253 ("Nonprocessed phonorecords") was taken straight from the 1964 rules.
The fall 1975 issue of the Library of Congress Cataloging Service's Bulletin contains substantial changes to chapter 14 of AACR. (71) It forms the basis of a revised edition of that chapter that was published separately and meant to supersede the original version of 1967. The changes were enacted in the United States and Canada. It was subsequently published separately in 1976 (see n. 72).
The revision of AACR, chapter 14, brought, among other things, another change in terminology. All of the previous terms that began with "phono" were replaced by the single term "sound recording."
The term "sound recording" is used as the generic medium designator for all works in aural media cataloged under the provisions of this chapter. In the collation the following more specific terms are used to particularize the medium: disc (for what is commonly called a phonograph record, gramophone record, or "victrola" record); cylinder (for cylinder recordings); and roll (for either player-piano or player-organ rolls). For sound recordings in other forms, such as film, wire, or various experimental media, it is necessary to use appropriate special terms in the collation, which, with notes, should furnish a sufficiently detailed physical description. (72)
To accord with this change of terminology, where formats needed to be specified, the term "phonorecords" was edited to "recordings," while for other terms, the prefix "phono" was removed (so that "phonodisc" became "disc," and so on). The rules and references to phonowire and phonofilm were deleted entirely.
The location of the generic medium designator remains the same as its predecessor: either (1) after the uniform title, but placed in brackets and not italicized; or (2) after the title, in brackets, and not italicized.
Other changes in chapter 14 include: a provision in the imprint for supplying an approximate date, as well as copyright dates ("p" dates) that are different from release dates; an allowance in collation to account for the same recording in different formats (rather than putting the information in a note); an expansion in collation for tapes to include the different types of tapes, to accommodate cassettes and cartridges; relegation of visual accompanying materials to a note; and a change to the order of the notes to begin with "With" notes, and to include summaries of content if the item is a nonmusical recording.
In 1977, the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) issued ISBD(NBM): International Standard Bibliographic Description for Non-Book Materials. IFLA's purpose with the ISBD program was to establish "Universal Bibliographic Control," (73) by which the descriptions of documents can be shared throughout the world. Nonbook materials were recognized as having particular problems and issues that could not be addressed by the ISBD(G): General International Standard Bibliographic Description, which was published concurrently.
ISBDs may be used with other cataloging codes. They contain content elements, but they are intended for an international standardization of the markup and presentation of the content prescribed in other codes, so that content may be interchangeable between coding systems of different countries. (74) The most essential feature of the ISBDs is the detailed, prescribed punctuation for every element in each area. Thus only the actual description of the item being cataloged is treated, and the construction of main and added entries is not discussed. (75) All ISBDs follow the same pattern. The eight areas of an ISBD are outlined in table 4, with a comparison of the comparable elements from the Rules, second preliminary edition (1964), from the Library of Congress. ISBD(NBM) has a ninth part, "Items having multiple parts or components," that allows for unique circumstances that are often found with nonbook materials.
Compare these elements also with Ellsworth's example (see fig. 1). Precursors to these examples and discussions appeared in the Catalog Rules: Author and Title Entries (1908, which predates any consideration of recordings in libraries). In the 1908 rules, the table of contents (see fig. 6) reflects the elements and the order in which they were to occur, and in the preface the typefaces and line assignments of the elements are prescribed. Some details of punctuation are given in the discussions of the elements themselves. Generic examples are not provided. (76)
The establishment of the ISBD was a primary factor leading to a complete revision of AACR. The Joint Steering Committee for Revision of AACR purposely cooperated with IFLA's Committee on Cataloguing to achieve some harmonization between the two standards. (77) The Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2d edition (AACR2), was published in 1978. Each chapter of "Part I: Description" (comprising chapters 1 through 13) is organized according to the eight areas of the ISBD. "Sound recordings" is chapter 6. Rules for constructing the main and added entries for sound recordings, however, are located in chapter 21.23, within "Part II: Headings, Uniform Titles, and References."
Fig. 6. Table of contents from Catalog Rules: Author and Title Entries (1908) CONTENTS PREFACE DEFINITIONS ENTRY AND HEADING a) Personal authors--under whom as author b) Personal authors--under what part or form of name Entry under surname Entry under forename, title, etc Titles, designations, and epithets to be added in the heading Pseudonyms, change of name, etc Greek, Latin, and Oriental writers Editors, etc c) Corporate bodies as authors Government publications Societies Institutions (Establishments) Miscellaneous bodies or organizations d) Title entry e) Miscellaneous rules TITLES IMPRINT, COLLATION, SERIES NOTE CONTENTS, NOTES, ADDED ENTRIES, ANALYTICAL ENTRIES, REFERENCES CAPITALS, PUNCTUATION, FIGURES APPENDIXES 1 Abbreviations 2 Transliteration 3 Sample cards
Of itself, the content of the description of sound recordings in chapter 6 of AACR2 is still identifiably related to AACR; it was primarily restructured to follow the ISBD framework. Generally, in AACR2, the item in hand is cataloged as a whole. But if the item is a collection without a collective title, the catalogei has the option to "either describe the item as a unit ... or make a separate description for each separately titled part ...," (78) Otherwise, the content is, in essence, a combination of the ISBD and LC's 1964 rules (see table 4). AACR2's sections 6.9 and 6.10 ("Supplementary items" and "Items made up of several types of material") are cross-referenced to chapter 1, which roughly follows ISBD(NBM) area 9. The final section of AACR2's chapter on sound recordings (6.11, "Nonprocessed sound recordings") is a direct descendant of AACR chapter 14 revised (section 253).
The rules for entry in 21.23 are somewhat more specific than those of AACR (or, to be more precise, the LC rules from 1964). See table 5 for an outline summary of AACR2's approach.
The commonly named "rule of three" that was introduced with AACR2, especially as it applied to sound recordings, (79) caused much consternation and discussion in MLA. In a representative response to a draft of AACR2 in 1977, Dena Epstein (then president of MLA) wrote to John Byrum (chair of the RTSD Catalog Code Revision Committee):
One more rule shall be singled out for comment: 21.26A [.sir] for Sound recordings. Added entries are the concern here. "If there are more than three principal performers, make an added entry under the one named first." In the cases of operas, oratorios and other large-scale works requiring the combined efforts of soloists, chorus and orchestra, the result of this rule will be that one singer, usually the soprano, will receive the sole added entry. For most record collections this procedure will be wholly unsatisfactory. An option to make more added entries when wanted seems essential here. (80)
Nevertheless, the option that Epstein requested was not supplied when AACR2 was published the following year.
Many books and articles have been written since the release of AACR2 (and its revisions), criticizing, interpreting, expounding upon, and applying its concepts and prescriptions, especially in the context of the MARC format. (81) The mechanization and automation of bibliographic control developed in parallel with most of the work being done with AACR and ISBD. Indeed, it may be argued (and has been) that MARC could not have developed the way it did without ISBD, and vice versa. As Michael Gorman noted,
[A]rriving at a standard set of elements in a standard order and delimited in a standard manner was in the mutual interest of the effort to achieve an international standard for bibliographic description (what became the ISBD); MARC; and the use of both, each in accord with the other, in achieving national and international standardization, cooperation, and sharing; leading, ultimately, to Universal Bibliographic Control. (82)
MARC, however, is not a content or descriptive standard. It is a markup and tagging scheme, and thus lies outside the scope of the present discussion.
In 1982, compact discs entered the audio market. But digital formats would not be formally accommodated in the cataloging standards until the 1988 revision of AACR2. In practical cataloging terms, the questions of description and access remained the same.
In 1983, the International Association of Music Libraries (IAML) issued its code for the cataloging of sound recordings: Code international de catalogage de la musique, vol. 5: The Cataloging of Sound Recordings. The founding premises for this document are different from those of the other standards, in that they seek to establish "logical ground rules" without duplicating existing rules. It recognizes the work behind ISBD(NBM), but the IAML Cataloguing Commission, by concentrating mainly on sound recordings in disc format, felt that "it seems that the standardization of sound recording cataloging still has to be further thought through and refined before it can be accepted in terms of national bibliographies and discographies, as well as libraries." (83) No single method or standard is given preference. The discussion is based on laying out the principles and problems presented by sound recordings. The IAML code is presented in the following order:
1. Preliminary note
1.1 The cataloging unit
1.2 Type of catalog
1.3 Type of cards
2. Catalog of unit cards without main entry
3. Catalog of main entries
3.1 Works of a single author
3.2 Works of two or more authors (joint authors)
3.3 Works of corporate authors
3.4 Works of an unknown author (anonymous works)
3.5 Collections of two or more works by several authors or unknown authors, on a single carrier
4.1 Title proper
4.2 Additions of the title proper
4.3 Imprint and collation
4.4 Other elements of description
5. Secondary entries
Although the "unit of entry" is discussed in each of the previously discussed standards, this code is the first one to outright define the concept of "cataloging unit." It recognizes that different types of libraries may be better served if every work on a recording is cataloged, but in general, the preference is to treat the entire item in hand as the "bibliographic unit." (84)
The Code international's treatment of main entry is similar to that of AACR2. The primary difference comes in the treatment of collections of works by different composers without collective title. If a compiler is named, main entry is under that name; if no compiler is named, then a main entry is constructed for each work, not just the first one, constituting an exception to the principle of the entire item in hand as the cataloging unit. Other elements of description, such as imprint, collation, and notes, are presented in a manner that acknowledges Anglo-American standards as well as other systems.
In 1987, IFLA issued a revised edition of the ISBD(NBM). Its basic content was not changed. However, the ninth section of the original version ("Items having multiple parts or components") was removed; the material was moved to the end of area 5 ("Physical description") and expanded in an appendix as "multi-level description" for describing parts. (85) Many of the revisions were informed by IAML and IASA (International Association of Sound Archives), and consist of clarifications or corrections of specific technical descriptions especially with regard to physical description. But the ISBD Review Committee consciously chose not to go so far as to separate sound recordings into its own ISBD. (86)
In 1988, a revision of AACR2 was published (AACR2r), which comprises a compilation and harmonization of three previous revisions released between 1982 and 1986. (87) Revisions in the description of sound recordings (chapter 6) include provision for describing compact discs, and the deletion of the old rule 6.11 ("Nonprocessed sound recordings," which are covered under rule 6.4 instructions as unpublished materials).
"Access points" (i.e., entries) for sound recordings also received revision, particularly to collections of works by different composers. Those items with collective titles receive the same treatment as before. But items with no collective titles that are to be cataloged as a unit are subject to one of two rules, depending on the nature and content of the recording. These are spelled out in a rewritten 21.23D, broken out as rules 21.23D1a and 21.23D1b (see table 6). The restriction of the "rule of three" was lifted in the United States by a Library of Congress Rule Interpretation for added entries under 21.23D1b.
1990s-2010s: FROM DESCRIPTION TO ACCESS
In 1995, the MP3 digital audio format was introduced and became popular. It allowed audio data to be stored as digital files that could be played back by a variety of digital devices. The user was freed from the necessity of separate dedicated playback equipment. It also has meant that individual tracks (i.e., works) from physical digital formats (e.g., compact discs) could be isolated from their physical units, bringing into question (again) the issue of unit of cataloging.
In 1998, IAML published "The Core Bibliographic Record for Music and Sound Recordings" in Fontes Artis Musicae, (88) It outlines what are considered to be the essential elements needed for description and access. The "level of description" is illustrated as an ISBD in paragraph form. Main entry is still to be constructed as is done for full cataloging. Added entries must include "primary relationships" such as arrangers, librettists, etc.; name-title entries as appropriate; and performers. (89) The remainder of the article outlines MARC coding required for each area of the ISBD. The "core bibliographic record" as it is used here in reality refers to the MARC coding that is mandatory or required for a complete and basic ISBD.
In RDA (Resource Description and Access), which was released in 2010, the descriptive elements are all present, but within a completely different organization. Instead of being organized in general categories that conflated function and display of bibliographic data--as was done from 1908 through the ISBDs, or by additionally isolating the considerations of various formats into discrete chapters, as was done from MLA's 1942 code through AACR2--the elements are described by their function within the work-expression-manifestation-item relational hierarchy of the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR). As noted in the introduction to the 2013 revision:
In RDA, there is a clear line of separation between the guidelines and instruction on recording data and those on the presentation of data. This separation has been established in order to optimize flexibility in the storage and display of the data produced using RDA. Guidelines and instructions on recording data are covered in chapters 1 through 37; those on the presentation of data are covered in appendices D and E. (90)
RDA identifies the unit of cataloging as the whole item ("resource") in hand, or perhaps more accurately, at hand. It acknowledges two types of description: "comprehensive," and analytical, both of which rest on the assumption that the resource in toto is the ultimate unit that must be acknowledged in any description:
When preparing a comprehensive description for a resource issued as a single unit (e.g., a textbook in one volume, an audio recording) that is not an integrating resource (see 220.127.116.11), choose a source of information identifying the resource as a whole (e.g., a source with a collective title). If the resource embodies multiple works (e.g., a compact disc embodying multiple works), prefer a source that has a collective title. If there is no source of information identifying the resource as a whole, but one source has a title identifying a main or predominant work or content (e.g., a single videodisc containing a feature film, along with trailers, outtakes, interviews, or other material related to the feature film), consider that source to identify the resource as a whole. (91)
Terminology for sound recordings changed again with RDA. Where "phono" had given way to "sound," in RDA "sound" gives way to "audio." Other changes include the abolition of the "rule of three" for added entries, and provisions for describing the roles of various contributors.
Because of RDA's arrangement to emphasize FRBR's relational hierarchy, resources are not treated by physical format or area of description. Describing resources that comprise multiple features requires looking at the individual rules for each feature. For example, digital audio formats will require examining rules for both audio characteristics (e.g., 3.16, "Sound Characteristic") and digital file characteristics (3.19, "Digital File Characteristic"). See table 4 for comparison of several RDA elements in relation to standards since 1964.
In 2011, a consolidated ISBD was published that takes into account a variety of digital formats, and harmonizes the various individual ISBDs. (92) It also reflects some aspects of the development and adoption of the FRBR, most notably using the term "resource" instead of "item," since the latter term has a specific meaning in FRBR. The consolidation resulted in a new area 0 for content form and media type, and the elimination of general material designation, which allows it to align with RDA. Provision was also made to distinguish between single-part resources, multipart monographic resources, and continuing resources. Multiple formats are also recognized, so that each different carrier or medium receives its own bibliographic treatment. Area 7 (Notes) was reconfigured somewhat to support these changes. See the right-most column of table 4 for a selected list of the elements that are pertinent for cataloging sound recordings. For the most part, they have remained the same.
CONCLUSION: THE MORE THINGS CHANGE ...
Sound recordings have been a challenge to catalog from the very' beginning, and will continue to be. As new works and formats are created by new technologies, there will always be a need to update descriptions and means of access. The nature of sound recordings themselves has not changed: there will always be the issue of "what" is to be described and cataloged. Even with the popularity of the MP3 digital format since the mid-1990s, and online streaming audio after that, and the consequent ability of users to isolate and separate tracks from album sets, the question does not change. It is simply a new manifestation of an old problem: the variety of ways in which works have been packaged and the subsequent conundrum of what to describe, at what level and to what extent, so that users can have access to the resources they are looking for.
The emergence of new formats (audio and otherwise) will continue to necessitate changes to cataloging and description standards in order to consistently display information to users to support their decision making. That long-standing problems are still under much debate (i.e., the unit of cataloging, construction and display of entries and headings, how much of the container needs to be described, and in what order to display the information) has revealed that these are issues that technology alone cannot solve.
In 2013, Notes published "Music Discovery Requirements: A Guide to Optimizing Interfaces." While it is a position paper that primarily addresses the technological side of the issue, it exemplifies the tension between describing the musical works themselves, and the formats and containers by which they may be accessed:
Music as a discipline depends on the use of information in different formats, including scores, sound recordings, videos, and texts. In FRBR terminology, content type (score, audio, video) is usually an expression-level attribute, while carrier type is a manifestation-level attribute. These content types, particularly recordings, exist in many different carriers, including compact disc, LP, audiocassette, videocassette, videodisc, mp3, and other formats. Users need to be able to find, identify, and select the form of information they need. (93)
For sound recordings, as for all formats, the discussions continue. As new formats are created, developed, and made accessible, the current standards embodied in RDA and the consolidated ISBD will continue to be refined and to evolve, just as they (formats and cataloging practices) have evolved from their predecessors.
C. Rockelle Strader is authorities librarian, and catalog maintenance and Western languages cataloging coordinator at The Ohio State University Libraries in Columbus, Ohio. She holds a Ph.D. in music theory. She wishes to thank Bonnie Jo Dopp (for her help in 2004), and Vin Novara and Amanda May (for their help in 2014), at the Special Collections in Performing Arts, University of Maryland, which houses the Music Library Association Archives. This article is a result of a project that received MLA's Carol June Bradley Award in 2004 and further funding support in 2014 from the Academic Library Association of Ohio and Northern Ohio Technical Services Librarians.
(1.) Gordon Stevenson, "Classification Chaos," Library Journal 88 (15 October 1963): 3792.
(2.) Arthur E. Bostwick, The American Public Library (New York: D. Appleton, 1910), 71.
(3.) Library Concurrent (Public Libran-Commission of Indiana) 2, no. 10 (March 1911): 203.
(4.) R. R. Bowker, "Music Selection for Public Libraries," Library Journal 40, no. 8 (August 1915): 582.
(5.) Edah F. Burnett, "The Care of Phonograph Records," Libraries 31, no. 1 (January 1926): 22.
(6.) Roland Gelatt, The Fabulous Phonograph: From Tin Foil to High Fidelity (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1955), 252-54, 265.
(7.) Arthur E. Bostwick, "Music in Public Libraries," Library Journal 62 (15 October 1937): 766.
(8.) Carol June Bradley, "Music Library Association: The Founding Generation and Its Work," Notes 37, no. 4 (June 1981): 773.
(9.) Minutes of the meetings of the Music Library Association at the Eastman School of Music, Rochester, New York, 3-4 May 1932, in the Music Library Association Archives, Special Collections, University of Maryland Libraries.
(10.) Irene F. Jaynes, "Springfield Lends Phonograph Records," Library Journal 58, no. 2 (15 January 1933): 86.
(11.) Ralph E. Ellsworth, "Phonograph Records in the Library," Library Journal 58, no. 12 (15 June 1933): 529.
(12.) Ibid., 530.
(13.) Guy Redvers Lyle and Rose Krauskopf, "Phonograph Collection in Antioch College Library," Library Journal 59, no. 6 (15 March 1934): 267.
(14.) Gelatt, The Fabulous Phonograph, 272.
(15.) Ibid., 276-77.
(16.) Report of the representative of Columbia University, Music Library Association meeting, New Haven, 23-24 October 1936, in Music Library Association Archives.
(17.) Ethel Louise Lyman, "Arrangement and Care of Phonograph Records," Library Journal 62, no. 4 (15 February 1937): 152.
(18.) Dorothy G. Amesbury, "Phonograph Records in the Library," Library Journal 62, no. 11 (1 June 1937): 453.
(19.) Ibid., 454.
(20.) Harold Spivacke, "The Cataloging of Folk-Song Records," Notes [ser. 1] 5 (November 1937): 9.
(21.) Ibid., 10.
(22.) Ibid., 11-12.
(23.) Ibid., 14.
(24.) Philip Lieson Miller, "Cataloging and Filing of Phonograph Records," Library Journal 62, no. 13 (July 1937): 545.
(27.) Carol June Bradley, American Music Librarianship: A Biographical and Historical Survey (New York: Greenwood Press, 1990), 115.
(28.) Quoted in ibid., 116.
(29.) Minutes of MLA meeting, Columbia University, 23 June 1937, in Music Library Association Archives.
(30.) Lucile M. Morsch, Catalog Department Manual: The Enoch Pratt Free Library (Baltimore: Enoch Pratt Free Library, 1940), 76-78.
(31.) George Sherman Dickinson to Eva Judd O'Meara, 23 January 1940, in Music Library Association Archives.
(32.) Everett O. Fontaine to George Sherman Dickinson, 30 September 1940, in Music Library Association Archives.
(33.) Committee for Publications of the Music Library Association, draft of Code for Cataloging Phonograph Records (October 1940), in Music Library Association Archives.
(34.) Notes [ser. 1] 10 (April 1941): 11.
(35.) Gelatt, The Fabulous Phonograph, 276-79.
(36.) Music Library Association, Code for Cataloging Phonograph Records ([Washington, DC]: Music Library Association, 1942), 3.
(38.) Sidney Butler Smith, "Simplified Procedures for Recordings," Library Journal 69, no. 5 (1 March 1944): 211.
(39.) "Notes for Notes," Notes 1, no. 4 (September 1944): 62.
(40.) "Association Activities," Notes 2, no. 1 (December 1944): 12.
(41.) Inez Haskell, "The Cataloging of Records, Musical and Non-Musical, for a General Library," PNLA Quarterly 9 (July 1945): 150.
(42.) Ibid., 152.
(43.) Ibid., 153.
(44.) Ibid., 154.
(45.) Helen Maywhort, "All on the Card: Sullivan Memorial Library Has Record Cataloging Plan," Library Journal 71, no. 11 (1 June 1946): 807-8.
(46.) Muriel Fairbanks, "Report of the National Meeting," Notes 3, no. 3 (June 1946): 233.
(47.) "Association Activities," Notes 4, no. 2 (March 1947): 229.
(48.) Muriel L. Kemp, "The Worcester Free Public Libran' Gives Discs Full Treatment," Library Journal 73 (1 March 1948): 406.
(49.) Gelatt, The Fabulous Phonograph, 290-92.
(50.) Ralph Moritz, "Cataloging Phonograph Records for the Veterans Hospitals," Journal of Cataloging and Classification 5, no. 1 (Fall 1948): 3.
(52.) Elaine von Oesen, "Simple Cataloging of Audio-Visual Materials," Wilson Library Bulletin 23, no. 3 (November 1948): 251.
(54.) Ibid., 252.
(55.) Rex M. Potterf, "Recordings in Our Library," Library Journal 74 (15 March 1949): 431.
(56.) Celia Moore, "Housing and Processing Phonograph Records," Library Journal 76 (1 November 1951): 1783.
(57.) Library of Congress, Descriptive Cataloging Division, Rules for Descriptive Cataloging in the Library of Congress: Phonorecords, prelim, ed. (Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 1952), iii.
(58.) Ibid., 1.
(60.) Stella R. Townsend, "Cataloging of Phonograph Records," North Carolina Libraries 10, no. 3 (April 1952): 38.
(61.) Sister Mary Janet, "Cataloging of Non-Book Materials," Catholic Library World 24, no. 5 (February 1953): 153-54.
(62.) Sister M. Edmund, "Techniques for Handling Phonograph Records," Catholic Library World 27, no. 3 (December 1955): 109.
(63.) Frances Hamman, "Bibliographic Control of Audio-Visual Materials: Report of a Special Committee," Library Resources and Technical Services 1, no. 4 (Fall 1957): 184.
(64.) Ibid., 189.
(65.) Music Library Association and the American Library Association Division of Cataloging and Classification, Joint Committee on Music Cataloging, Code for Cataloging Music and Phonorecords (Chicago: American Library Association, 1958), iii.
(66.) Ibid., 40.
(67.) Beryl McPherson and Carolyn Berneking, "Phonorecord Cataloging--Methods and Policies," Library Journal 83 (1 October 1958): 2623.
(68.) Library of Congress, Descriptive Cataloging Division, Rules fur Descriptive Cataloging in the Library of Congress: Phonorecords, 2d prelim, ed. (Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 1964), 8.
(69.) Anglo-American Cataloging Rules: North American Text, prepared by the American Library' Association, the Library of Congress, the Library Association, and the Canadian Library Association, ed. C. Sumner Spalding (Chicago: American Library Association, 1967), v.
(70.) Ibid., 321-28.
(71.) Library of Congress, Cataloging Service, Bulletin 115 (Fall 1975): 3-10.
(72.) Anglo-American Cataloging Rules: North American Text: Chapter 14 Revised: Sound Recordings (Chicago: American Library Association, 1976), 1.
(73.) International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, IFLA Committee on Cataloguing, ISBD(NBM): International Standard Bibliographic Description for Non-Book Materials (London: IFLA International Office for UBC, 1977), vii.
(74.) Ibid., 1.
(75.) Ibid., 2.
(76.) Catalog Rules: Author and Title Entries, compiled by committees of the American Library Association and the (British) Library Association, American ed. (Chicago: American Library Association, 1908), iii.
(77.) Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2d ed., prepared by die American Library Association [et al.], ed. by Michael Gorman and Paul W. Winkler (Chicago: American Library Association; Ottawa: Canadian Library Association, 1978), viii.
(78.) Ibid., 6.1G1.
(79.) "Make added entries under the headings for the principal performers ... unless there are more than three. If there are more than three principal performers, make an added entry under the one named first" (AACR2, 21.23A).
(80.) Dena T. Epstein to John Byrum, 27 July 1977, in Music Library Association Archives.
(81.) See, for example, manuals by Nancy B. Olson and Richard P. Smiraglia based on AACR2: Nancy B. Olson. Cataloging of Audiovisual Materials: A Manual Based on AACR2 (Mankato, MN: Minnesota Scholarly Press, 1981), which guides the cataloger on the content of AACR2 and MARC tagging. This manual was subsequently issued in two more editions (1985 and 1992) and was followed by several other similar manuals for nonprint media as were warranted by updates to AACR2 and MARC. Richard P. Smiraglia, Music Cataloging: The Bibliographic Control of Printed and Recorded Music in Libraries (Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1989), which contains references to a number of additional historical and contemporary resources; and Smiraglia. Describing Music Materials: A Manual for Descriptive Cataloging of Printed and Recorded Music, Music Videos, and Archival Music Collections, for Use with AACR2 and APPM, 3d ed., rev. and enlarged, Soldier Creek Music Series, no. 5 (Lake Crystal, MN: Soldier Creek Press, 1997), which itemizes each rule of AACR2 and includes extensive notes on Library of Congress Rule Interpretations (LCRIs) and Music Cataloging Decisions as found for each AACR2 rule.
(82.) Michael Gorman, "The Origins and Making of the ISBD: A Personal History, 1966-1978," Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 52, no. 8 (September 2014): 826-7.
(83.) International Association of Music Libraries, International Cataloging Code Commission, Code international de catalogage de la musique, vol. 5: Le catalogage des enregistrements sonores = The Cataloging of Sound Recordings = Die alphabetische Katalogisierung von Tontragem, ed. Simone Wallon, Kurt Dorfmuller, et al. (Frankfurt: C. F. Peters, 1983), 29.
(84.) Ibid., 30.
(85.) International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, Section on Cataloguing, ISBD(NBM): International Standard Bibliographic Description for Non-Book Materials, rev. ed. (London: IFLA Universal Bibliographic Control and International MARC Programme, 1987), 63.
(86.) Ibid., vi.
(87.) Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, 2d ed., 1988 revision (Chicago: American Library Association, 1988), xiv.
(88.) Anders Cato, et al., "The Core Bibliographic Record for Music and Sound Recording," Fontes Artis Musicae 45, no. 2 (April/June 1998), 139-51. The IAML core bibliographic record may be found online at http://www.iaml.info/core-bibliographic-record-sound-recordings (accessed 27 August 2015).
(89.) Ibid., 147.
(90.) RDA: Resource Description and Access, developed in a collaborative process led by the Joint Steering Committee for Development of RDA (JSC), representing the American Library Association [et al.], looseleaf (Chicago: American Library Association, 2010-), section 0.1, "Key Features."
(91.) Ibid,, section 18.104.22.168, "Resource Issued as a Single Unit."
(92.) International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, ISBD Review Group, ISBD: International Standard Bibliographic Description, consolidated ed., IFLA Series on Bibliographic Control, 44 (Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter Sauer, 2011).
(93.) Nara L. Newcomer, Rebecca Belford, Deb Kulczak, and Kimmy Szeto, with Jennifer Matthews, Misti Shaw, "Music Discovery Requirements: A Guide to Optimizing Interfaces," Notes 69, no. 3 (March 2013): 509.
Table 1. Comparison of elements from local practices and other standards, 1933-1964 Unit of Main entry Title cataloging Ellsworth 5A. When single 1. Main entry 3. Title in 1933 side has more under title original than one piece: language, with catalog whole translation on side as a unit, card. Make and make author- cross-ref from title entries. translated title to original. 5B. When each 4. Opus number side of record in parentheses. has distinct Make cross-ref pieces, catalog to regular title each side from opus number separately, and (opus number include under name of statement of composer). contents on other side. 6. Single piece on more than one record (such as symphonies and operas): catalog whole set as a unit. Indicate number of parts (records) at end of title statement. Lyman Not explicit, Composer Label title 1937 but appears to be item in hand. Amesbury Disc is implied. Composer 1937 Miller Each work Essential Essential: 1937 element: Conventional Composer title (opus numbers part of conventional title) Original title in original language Label title Spivacke Song (work) Title As found on 1937 recording. After title: "sung by ..." Morsch Work Composer Standardized title 1940 (same as scores) MLA Work 1. As for 2. Conventional 1942 scores: usually title in composer brackets (as for scores) 4. Form in conventional title 3. Label title Kemp Not clear Conventional Album title below 1948 title in conventional title brackets LC Item in hand As for scores: As for scores: "preliminary usually Conventional edition" composer title in 1952 brackets, but followed by physical medium in italics. MLA-ALA If item has 1 As for scores: As for scores: joint code or 2 works: Unit usually Conventional 1958 = work composer title in brackets, but If it is followed by collection by physical medium same composer, in italics. As unit = item for scores: (main entry = Transcribed composer) title, line below If it is conventional collection of title. works by different composer, unit = item (main entry = collective title) Does not address items w/ o collective title. LC Item in hand As for scores: As for scores: "second usually Conventional preliminary composer title in edition" brackets, but 1964 followed by physical medium in italics. As for scores: Transcribed tide, line below conventional title. AACR Item in hand Single works: As for scores: 1967 Exception: 2 or as for scores: uniform title in more works by usually brackets different composer composers without Collection with collective collective title, then unit title: title or = work compiler AACR Item in hand As for AACR Same as 1967 chap. 14 1967, but revision compiler is 1976 dropped. Unit of Imprint, Tracings / cataloging collation, Added entries/ extent Cross-references Ellsworth 5A. When single 2. Form of card 7. Tracings are 1933 side has more same as to be made in than one piece: described in ALA the same manner catalog whole Catalog Rules as for books. side as a unit, (1908). Size of and make author- record in place title entries. of pagination. 5B. When each 8. Make an entry side of record for person or has distinct group pieces, catalog performing, but each side not for the separately, and conductor of a include group. "Instead, statement of make a cross contents on reference from other side. the name of the person to the organization with which he is connected." 6. Single piece 9. "Cross on more than one references record (such as should be fully symphonies and and generously operas): catalog made in the whole set as a catalog .... unit. Indicate Subject headings number of parts will, in (records) at end general, be of title determined by statement. the use of the catalog." (pp.530-31) Lyman Not explicit, "Collation": Subject; series; 1937 but appears to number of title be item in hand. records. "Imprint": trade name-- serial no. Amesbury Disc is implied. "Collation": As warranted; be 1937 size of record, generous. number of sides. Imprint: make, manufacturer number, type. Miller Each work Essential: Essential: 1937 Number of sides Artist Issuing company and number Size Desirable: Date of recording Date of issue Matrix number Spivacke Song (work) Imprint: place Standard title 1937 where recorded, Singer name of Collector collector, date. Subjects Collation: (including duration of song subdivisions) Morsch Work Imprint: Issuing Form 1940 company and Medium record number Artist Collation: Title Number of sides Cross- (or fraction of references: same a side); as scores diameter of disc MLA Work 5. Place of As for scores; 1942 publication performer, 6. Producer series, title, (5 & 6 may be editor, author replaced by of text, etc., trade name.) according to 7. Date of issue local needs 10. Matrix numbers Subject 12. Number of sides and size 13. Series (right after size) Kemp Not clear Fields locally Author-title; 1948 defined on card; title variants; does not follow form; medium previous arranger; names standards qualified by role LC Item in hand Imprint: Follows rules "preliminary "Processed": for print and edition" Trade name of visual 1952 publisher, materials: serial number, Performers date of release Performing Transcribed groups (may note title, line soloists) below "Nonprocessed": conventional Place of title recording, person/agency responsible, date when recording available Collation: depends on medium, but generally includes: Number of pieces Size Playing speed MLA-ALA If item has 1 Same as LC 1952 Same as LC 1952 joint code or 2 works: Unit 1958 = work If it is collection by same composer, unit = item (main entry = composer) If it is collection of works by different composer, unit = item (main entry = collective title) Does not address items w/ o collective title. LC Item in hand Same as LC 1952 As for visual "second materials: preliminary Performers edition" (soloists) 1964 Performing groups Titles Series Subject AACR Item in hand Imprint: Performers 1967 Exception: 2 or Trade name, (soloists) more works by serial number, Performing different date of release groups Series composers OR Place of Subject Name of without publication, program collective name of (broadcast/ title, then unit publisher, date telecast) = work of release Network or Collation: Same station Others as LC 1952 and as appropriate, 1964 constructed according to AACR 33 (added entries) Analytical entries: add physical medium at end (constructed according to 252A) AACR Item in hand Imprint: Same as AACR chap. 14 Same as AACR 1967 revision 1967, with added 1976 provision for "p" date. Collation: Same as AACR 1967, with explicit provision for describing fractional parts of disc or album sets Unit of Notes cataloging Ellsworth 5A. When single 1933 side has more than one piece: catalog whole side as a unit, and make author- title entries. 5B. When each side of record has distinct pieces, catalog each side separately, and include statement of contents on other side. 6. Single piece on more than one record (such as symphonies and operas): catalog whole set as a unit. Indicate number of parts (records) at end of title statement. Lyman Not explicit, "With" notes for 1937 but appears to reverse and last be item in hand. sides; contents; performers; performing groups Amesbury Disc is implied. Reverse side 1937 treated as analytic Miller Each work Essential: 1937 Reverse side; same side if two pieces occupy one side. Desirable: Reference to score; author of text; original language; language sung in recording; number of movements; opening theme. Spivacke Song (work) 1. First line 1937 and refrain. 2. "Variant of [title]..." 3. Conditions under which recording was made Notes re: singer; relationship to any published version of sung text Morsch Work Artist; author 1940 of text; language of text; other works on disc; blank reverse sides MLA Work 9. Disc numbers 1942 11. Album, set numbers 4. Form, if not supplied in conventional or label title 8. Date of recording 14. Method of recording (if acoustic, or if groove is vertical) 15. Medium of performance (if not given elsewhere) 16. Performer(s) 17. Language of text 18. Author of text 19. Analytical booklets, descriptive notes 20. Cuts 21. Complete identification (of excerpts) 22. Contents 23. Other works on same disc 24. Another work on "odd" side Kemp Not clear Contents 1948 LC Item in hand See table 3 of "preliminary this article edition" Distinctive 1952 titles; Subject Composer-title for another issue on different medium MLA-ALA If item has 1 No "species" joint code or 2 works: Unit note All others 1958 = work same as LC 1952 (see table 3) If it is collection by same composer, unit = item (main entry = composer) If it is collection of works by different composer, unit = item (main entry = collective title) Does not address items w/ o collective title. LC Item in hand Series "second Source of title preliminary Species edition" Participant, 1964 performer, medium Text: languages, author, etc. Edition recorded Details concerning event Duration Abridgements Notes supplementing collation Contents "With" note (Nonprocessed may also include: Title variants and translations Location of work on recording) AACR Item in hand Series statement 1967 Exception: 2 or treated more works by separately Notes different otherwise same composers as LC 1964 without collective title, then unit = work AACR Item in hand Order changed: chap. 14 "With" note revision first Order 1976 otherwise same as LC 1964 Table 2. Elements for full description of phonograph records, MLA Code for Cataloging Phonograph Records (1942) e 1. Main entry e 2. Conventional, or standard, title e 3. Title on label (or album or in booklet) 4. Form 5. Place of publication or issue e 6. Producer d 7. Date of issue d 8. Date of recording e 9. Disc numbers d 10. Matrix numbers 11. Album or set numbers e 12. Number of sides and size 13. Series note 14. Method of recording 15. Medium of performance e 16. Performer d 17. Language of text d 18. Author of text 19. Analytical booklets and descriptive notes 20. Cuts 21. Complete identification (for excerpts) d 22. Contents e 23. Other works recorded on same disc 24. Another work on odd side of album set e = "essential" element in Miller's "Cataloging and Filing of Phonograph Records" (1937) d = "desired" element in Miller Table 3. Elements for describing sound recordings, LC's Rules for Descriptive Cataloging in the Library of Congress: Phonorecords (1952) * Main entry (9a:2) * Transcription of title (9a:4) * Physical medium (9a:3) * Imprint (9a:5) "Processed" recordings: --Trade name of publisher --Serial identification (album and record numbers) --Date of release (Date of recording is placed in a note) "Nonprocessed" recordings: --Place of recording --Person/agency responsible --Date when readily available * Collation (9a:6) --Number of sides or pieces --Size --Playing speed * Notes: (9a:7) A. Series B. Source of title C. Species D. Performer and medium E. Text: languages, authors, etc. F. Edition recorded G. Details concerning performance H. Duration I. Abridgments J. Notes supplementing collation K. Contents L. "With" note * Issues and copies (9a:8) * Secondary entries (9a:9) Table 4. Comparison of elements from standards since 1964 (inclusive), sorted by ISBD(NBM) element LC Rules (1964) AACR, chap. 14 ISBD(NBM) area revised -- -- 0. Preliminary notes -- -- 1. Tide and statement of responsibility area 9a: 4 252B 1.1 Title proper Transcription of Transcription of title title 9a:3 Physical 252A Physical 1.2 General medium medium material designation -- -- 1.3 Parallel tide 1.4 Other tide information In main entry, but In main entry, but 1.5 Statements of not in descriptive not in descriptive responsibility portion of card portion of card (except some (except some notes) notes) -- -- -- -- -- 2. Edition area -- -- 3. Material (or type of publication) specific area (used for NBMs if content can be treated by another ISBD, e.g., maps or serials) 9a:5 Imprint 252C Imprint 4. Publication, distribution, etc. area 9a:5 Place of 252C2 Place of 4.1 Place of publication publication publication, dist., etc. 9a:5 Name of 252C1,2 Name 4.2 Name of publisher of publisher publisher, dist., etc. 9a:5 Date of 252C1, 4 Date 4.3 Date of release of release publication, dist., etc. 9a:6 Collation 252D Collation 5. Physical description area 9a:6 Number 252D Number 5.1 Specific of sides of items material 9a:7H Notes-- 252F8 Note-- designation and duration duration extent of item 9a:6 Playing 252D Playing 5.2 Other physical speed speed details 9a:6 Size 252D Size 5.3 Dimensions of item 9a:6G 252F10e 5.4 Accompanying Accompanying Supplementary materials material visual materials 9a:7A Notes-- 252E Series 6. Series area Series statement 9a:8 Serials 252G Serials 9a:7 Notes 252F Notes 7. Note area -- -- -- 9a:7B Source 252F2 Source 7.1 Title proper of title of title 9a:7D Performer 252F4 7.1.3 Statements and medium Participant, of responsibility performer, and medium -- -- 7.2 Edition area, bibliographic history of the item 9a:7J 252F10 7.5 Physical Supplementing Supplementing description collation collation 9a:7A Series -- 7.6 Series area 7.7 Other notes 9a:7G Details 252F7 Details 7.7.3 Summary concerning event concerning event 9a:7F Edition 252F6 Edition recorded recorded 9a:7K Contents 252F12 Contents 7.7.5 Contents 9a:7E Text: 252F5 Text: languages, languages, authors, etc. authors, etc. 9a:7L 252F1 "With" "With" note note 9a:5 Imprint-- 252C3 Imprint-- 8. Standard number trade name serial (or alternative) and serial identification and terms of identification availability area LC Rules (1964) AACR2, chap. 6 RDA (core unless otherwise indicated) W/E=work/ expression M/I= manifestation/ item -- 6.0. General rules 0. Introduction 0.6 Core elements -- 6.1. Title and statement of responsibility area 9a: 4 6.1B Title proper 2.3 Title proper Transcription of (M/I) title 9a:3 Physical 6.1C General -- medium material designation -- 6.1D Parallel 6.2 Preferred title title (W/E) 6.IE Other title 6.3 Form of info work (W/E) In main entry, but 6.1F Statements of 2.4 Statement of not in descriptive responsibility responsibility portion of card (M/I) (except some notes) -- 6.1 G Items 22.214.171.124 without a Compilations of collective title Works by Different Persons, Families, or Corporate Bodies (cross-ref to 126.96.36.199 Recording Devised Titles; not core) -- 6.2. Edition area 2.5 Edition statement (M/I) -- 6.3. Material (or -- type of publication) specific details area --Not used for sound recordings 9a:5 Imprint 6.4. Publication, 2.9 Distribution distribution, (if no publication etc., area info) 2.10 Manufacture (if no publication or distribution info): 9a:5 Place of 6.4C Place of 2.8.2 Publication publication publication, place (M/I) dist., etc. 6.5 Place of origin (W/E; core for differentiation) 9a:5 Name of 6.4D Name of 2.8.4 Name of publisher publisher, dist., publisher (M/I) etc. 9a:5 Date of 6.4F Date of 2.7.6 Production release publication, date (M/I; core dist., etc. for unpublished resource) 2.8.6 Date of publication (M/I) 2.11 Copyright date (M/I; core if no other date available) 6.4 Date of work (W/E; core for differentiation) 9a:6 Collation 6.5. Physical description area 9a:6 Number 6.5B Extent of 6.9 Content of sides item (including type (W/E) 9a:7H Notes-- SMD) 3.2 Media type duration (M/I) 3.3 Carrier type (M/I) 3.4 Extent (M/I) 7.22 Duration (W/E; not core) 9a:6 Playing 6.5C Other speed physical details 9a:6 Size 6.5D Dimensions 3.5 Dimensions (M/I; not core) 9a:6G 6.5E 24.4.3 Description Accompanying Accompanying of the material material Related Work, Expression, Manifestation, or Item (not core) 9a:7A Notes-- 6.6. Series area 2.12 Series Series statement (M/I) 9a:8 Serials 2.6 Numbering of serials (M/I) 9a:7 Notes 6.7. Note area -- -- 9a:7B Source 6.7B3 Source of 2.20.2 Note on of title title proper Title (not core) 9a:7D Performer 6.7B6 Statements 2.20.3 Note on and medium of responsibility Statement of Responsibility (not core) -- -- -- 9a:7J 6.7B10 Physical 3.15 Sound Supplementing description characteristic collation (M/I; not core) 9a:7A Series 6.7B12 Series 2.20.11 Note on Series Statement (not core) 9a:7G Details 6.7B7 Edition and 2.20.4 Note on concerning event history Edition Statement 9a:7F Edition 6.7B17 Summary (not core) recorded 7.10 Summarization of the Content (not core) 9a:7K Contents 6.7B18 Contents 25.1 Related Work (not core) 9a:7E Text: 6.7B1 Nature or 6.11 Language of languages, artistic form, expression (W/E) authors, etc. medium 6.15 Medium of of performance performance (W/E) 6.7B2 Language 9a:7L 6.7B21 "With" note "With"note 9a:5 Imprint-- 6.8. Standard Identifier trade name number and terms 2.15=M and serial of availability 2.19=1 (not core) identification area 6.8=W 6.8B2 Give any 6.13=E other number [i.e. not ISBN/ISSN] in a note (6.7B19) LC Rules (1964) Consolidated ISBD (2011) area -- 0. Content and media type area 0.1 Content form 0.2 Media type -- 1. Title and statement of responsibility area 9a: 4 1.1 Title proper Transcription of title 9a:3 Physical -- medium -- 1.2 Parallel title 1.3 Other title information In main entry, but 1.4 Statement of not in descriptive responsibility portion of card (except some notes) -- -- -- 2. Edition area -- 3. Material or type of resource specific area --Not used for sound recordings 9a:5 Imprint 4. Publication, production, distribution, etc., area 9a:5 Place of 4.1 Place of publication publication, production, distribution, etc. 9a:5 Name of 4.2 Name of publisher publisher, producer, distributor, etc. 9a:5 Date of 4.3 Date of release publication, production, distribution, etc. 9a:6 Collation 5. Material description area 9a:6 Number 5.1 Extent of sides 9a:7H Notes-- duration 9a:6 Playing 5.2 Other physical speed details 9a:6 Size 5.3 Dimensions 9a:6G 5.4 Accompanying Accompanying material statement material 9a:7A Notes-- 6. Series and Series multipart 9a:8 Serials monographic resource area 9a:7 Notes 7. Note area -- 7.0 Content form and media type 9a:7B Source 7.1 Title and of title statement of responsibility 7.1.1 Title proper 9a:7D Performer 7.1.4 Statement of and medium responsibility -- 7.2 Edition area, bibliographic history of the resource 9a:7J 7.5 Material Supplementing description collation 9a:7A Series 7.6 Series and multipart monographic resources 9a:7G Details 7.9 Issue, part, concerning event iteration, etc., 9a:7F Edition that forms the recorded basis of the description 7.10 Other notes 7.10.2 Summary 9a:7K Contents 7.7 Contents 9a:7E Text: 188.8.131.52 Notes languages, on language authors, etc. 9a:7L 7.11 Relating to "With"note the copy in hand 9a:5 Imprint-- 8. Resource trade name identifier and serial and terms of identification availability area 7.8 Notes on resource identifier and terms of availability 7.10.4 Numbers Table 5. Name entries for sound recordings, AACR2, 21.23, Rules for entry (1978) Rule Brief description Entry Headings 21.23A One work Main: Appropriate to work (usually composer) Added: 1-3 principal performers: All More than 3 principals: First only 21.23B Two or more works Main: Appropriate to works by same entity (usually composer) Added: Same as 21.23A 21.23C Works by different Main: Principal performer, or persons first P named, if 2-3 (1-3 principal performers) Added: Other performers, if 2-3 21.23D Works by different Main: Item has collective tide: persons (more than use title 3 principal Main: Item has no collective performers, or no title: See 21.7C: principal performers) Appropriate to first work (usually composer or prominent performer) Added: See 21.7B: As appropriate to other works (usually name-title); no provision for additional nonauthor contributors Table 6. Name entries for sound recordings with no collective title, AACR2r: 21.23D1 (1988) Rule Nature Entry Heading 21.23D1a Participation beyond performance (common to "popular, "rock," jazz) * One principal Main: Principal performer performer * 2-3 principal Main: First principal performers performer Added: Other performer(s) * No principal Main: Appropriate to first performers or work on item 4+ principal performers Added: None 21.23D1b Participation is only Main: See 21.7C1: Appropriate performance or to first work on item interpretation (usually composer or (mainly "classical" prominent performer) or "serious" music) Added: See 21.7B1: Other works as appropriate (usually name-title) Added: Principal performers as appropriate Fig. 4. Kemp's example of a form card utilized by Worcester Free Public Library (1948) COMP. TITLE ARRANGER PERFORMING ORGANIZATION SOLOIST CONDUCTOR ISSUING CO. NO. SIDES SIZE ALBUM NO. DISC NO CONTENTS
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|Title Annotation:||p. 302-327|
|Author:||Strader, C. Rockelle|
|Date:||Dec 1, 2015|
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