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Case report of new rictularia species from stray dog in Iran.


Rectularia (spirorid, Rectularidae) is a common parasite of rodents and carnivores in many parts of the world [1,2,3,4]. Many species of genus Rectularia have already been described but the genus is not common parasite from Iran. In Study on rodent, jackal and dog gastrointestinal parasites, only three species of Rictularia were observed in Iran [5,6,7].


On April 2013, during the survey of intestinal parasite of stray dogs (Iran, Lorestan province) one mature, male nematode of the genus Rictularia was obtained.

The nematode was fixed in 10% formalin. Then transfered to lactophenol plus azocarmin for clearing and staining. Drawing was made by camera Lucida.

The worm has been armed on cuticular lateral sides with two sub ventral series of large, flattened, comb-like spines. The mouth sub terminally situated, strongly was chitinous and armed. The posterior end is conical and overly curved. Four pairs of papilla (three pairs in pre-anal and one pair in post-anal) and one pair of spicule are seemed.

Descriptions: (all measurement are in mm).

Length 6.7; maximum diameter 0.282 in near posterior end. Mouth sub terminal, without lips and with project out two teeth in floor and denticules in border (6-8) (fig.1d). Oesophagus length 1.878 (0.313 in length and 0.55 in wide in anterior narrower part and 1.565 in length and 0.101 in wide posterior thick part) (fig. 2a and 2b). Nerve ring at 0.159 from anterior end. 218 combs were observe in two rows (109 on each side); beginning 0.035 from anterior end and extending to near anus (0.44 to posterior end) (fig. 1c and 2c). The largest comb was observed at middle of the body with length 0.103. Two or three of posterior end combs are different in shape. Two pair of equal spiculs, 0.275 in length, was observed (fig.3b). In the posterior part of the body, anterior of the cloaca, a row of 8 fans was observed as the following, 1th 0.122, 2th 0.121, 3th 0.127, 4th 0.122, 5th 0.108, 6th 0.108, 7th 0.108 and 8th 0.139 length interior to posterior. These fans are fluted (fig.3a). Three pairs of papilla in pre-anal and one pair post- anal was observed (fig. 4).


Rictularia is uncommon parasite of dogs in Iran. Three species of Rictularia have already been determined in Iran, Rictularia ratti, obtained from rat in south [5], Rictularia affinis, from stray dog in central [6] and R. cahirensis from jackls in north of Iran [7].

In this study one mature male Rictularia was obtained from stray dog in the west of Iran. According to main characters such as the total number of combs(spin), length of spiculs and the number of pre-anal fans, it is approximately resemble to three species of cahorensis, affinis (jagerskiold 1909) and splindida (hall 1911) [8]. Table 1 compares three species of cahorensis, affinis and splindida with author's specimen.

Some scientists like Hall (1913) believed that the number of combs is an important character to differentiation of these species [9] but others like Kobulj (1951) were not [10]. According to the table 1 the number of combs of author specimen is similar to splindida, close to affinis and noticeable higher than cahirensis. On the other hand, the last comb in affinis is located about 0.5-1.1 mm. anterior to the anus [11] but in other is near to it (0.05 to 0.1mm.). Because of the low number of specimen, total length of author's specimen is not proper criteria to compare, however it is between to affinis and splindida. Length of author's specimen spicule is larger than others. In the new case the number of fans is just similar to splindida but the length of last fan is larger than it [12] (110p against to 149p). Auther's specimen as well as splindida possessed three pairs of large conoidal pre-anal and one post-anal papillae but in splindida post-anal pair is near the tip of the tail but in this case near the anus.

Finally there is no significant data to determine the exact location of this specimen. It is identically not comparable to other species. Thus we named its Rictularia canicula.

Rictularia sp Figures. All figures drawn with aid of camera lucida.

1, 2--Anterior End

a--Narrow Portion of Oesophagus

b--Thick Portion of Oesophagus



3,4--Posterior End




Article history:

Received 25 June 2014

Received in revised form 8 July 2014

Accepted 10 August May 2014

Available online 30 August 2014


The current study was supported by Broujerd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Broujerd, Iran. We are grateful of all staff of Broujerd Branch, Islamic Azad University who helped us in this study.


[1] Kumar, R., K. Nagappa, P.S. Banerjee, C.L. Yadav, 2005. Rictularia sp. infection in a civet cat (Viverricula malaccensis) Journal of Veterinary Parasitology, 19: 167-8.

[2] Chukwuemenam, F., I. Benjamin, H. Maduka Godfery, 2004. Helminth fauna of Tadarida (Chaeraphon) nigeriae (Thomas, 1913) (Microchiroptera: Molossidae) Animal Research International, 1(1): 64-69.

[3] Waugh, C.A., J.F. Lindo, P. Foronda, M.A. Santana, J.L. Morales, D. Ralph, 2006. population distribution and zoonotic potential of gastrointestinal helminths of wild rats Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus from Jamaica. Robinson Journal of Parasitology, 92(5).

[4] Yue, M.Y., J.M. Jensen, H.E. Jordan, 1980. Spirurid Infections (Rictularia sp.) in Golden Marmosets (A), Leontopithecus Rosalia (syn. Leontideus Rosalia) from the Oklahoma City Zoo. The Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine, 11(3): 77-80.

[5] Kia, E.B., M.M. Homayouni, A. Farahnak, M. Mohebali, S. Shojai, 2001. Study of Endoparasites of Rodents and their Zoonotic Importance In Ahvaz, South West Iran. Iranian J. Publ. Health, 30(1-2): 49-52.

[6] Dalimi, A., A. Sattari, G. Motamedi, 2006. A study on intestinal helminthes of dogs, foxes and jackals in the western part of Iran. Vet Parasitol, 142(1-2): 129-33. Epub 2006 Aug 8.

[7] Sadighian, A., 1969. Helminth parasite of stray dogs and jackls in shahsavar area, Caspian region, Iran. The journal of parasitology, 55(2): 372-374.

[8] Gibbs, C.H., 1957. The taxonic ststus of R.affinis, R. cahirensis, Jagersk 1909, and R. splindida, hall 1913, canad. J.zool, 35: 405-410.

[9] HALL, M.C., 2012. A new nematode, Rictularia splendida, from the Coyote, with notes on other Coyote parasites. Proc. U. S. :Nat. Mus. 1913(46): 73-84.

[10] Kobulej, T., 1951. On the incidence of Rictularia affinis Jagerskiold, 1904, in the Hungarian Red Fox with a redescription of this species. Acta Veterinaria, 4: 395-404.

[11] Sandground, J.H., 1935. Spirura michiganensis n. sp. and Rictularia halli n. sp., Two New Parasitic Nematodes from Eutamias striatus lysteri (Richardson). Transactions of the American Microscopical Society, 54(2): 155-166.

[12] Simon Vicente, F., 1968. Los Rictularia (nematode: Spiroridae), Y. Oxinema (Nematoda: Oxyuridea) De Vulpes sp. En dos provincial de Spana. Rev. IBER. Parasitol, 28(1).

(1) Farzad Parsa, (2) Hossein Vosoghi, (3) Irej Mobedi, (4) Reza Godarzi, (5) Nilufar Yaritaleb

(1,5) Deparment of Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Para-Medicine, Broujerd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Broujerd, Iran.

(2,4) Department of Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of veterinary medicine, Broujerd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Broujerd, Iran.

(3) Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Corresponding Author: Farzad Parsa, Department of Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Para-Medicine, Broujerd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Broujerd, Iran


Table 1: The comparison of the male characteristics of R.affinis,
R.cahirensis and R.splindida with author's specimen.

              Total no. of
species      pairs of combs   Total length(mm.)

affinis           111               7-8.5
cahirensis         96                4.8
splindida       108-109             4.83
author's          109                6.8

                                 N0. Precloca or
species      Spicule length(p)   midventral fans

affinis           220-230               6
cahirensis          170                 7
splindida           207                 8
author's            275                 8
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Article Details
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Author:Parsa, Farzad; Vosoghi, Hossein; Mobedi, Irej; Godarzi, Reza; Yaritaleb, Nilufar
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Clinical report
Geographic Code:7IRAN
Date:Jun 1, 2014
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