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Cartographic image of Samogitia in the old maps of Lithuania, Poland and other neighboring countries (1231-1700).

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Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Lukosevicius, V. 2014. Cartographic image of Samogitia in the old maps of Lithuania, Poland and other neighboring countries (1231-1700), Geodesy and Cartography 40(1): 27-50.

Introduction

Samogitia (Zemaitija), western part of Lithuania bounded by the Nevezis river in east, the Baltic Sea on the west, the Nemunas river on the south, and the Latvian border on the north (Fig. 1). The major portion of the region constitutes the Western Upland, but its name refers to the lowlands stretching along both sides of the Nevezis, which divides western and eastern Lithuania. The Samogitian Upland is one of the insular accumulative uplands in East Baltic area, but the only found in Lithuania (Fig. 2).

Historians claim that the Samogitians began from a Baltic tribe that lived in the center of present day Samogitia from the 5th to the 8th centuries. When the Lithuanian state was created all Lithuanians living to the west of the River Nevezis were called Samogitians. The very term "Samogitians" (Zemaiciai in Lithuanian) is a Latinized form of the ancient Lithuanian name for the region's lowlanders, who dwelt in Central Lithuania's lowlands. The name of Samogitia was mentioned in historical sources from the 13th century (the Voluine Chronicle, the Ipatyev manuscript 1219). Lithuanian historian J. Jurginis refer to previous years, 1113 (Jurginis, Luksaite 1981).

In the late 12th century and the 13th century the Samogitians settled on the lands earlier inhabited by Kursiai (Kurshes), another Baltic stribe (Fig. 3).

Before the emergence of the unified Lithuanian state, Samogitia was ruled by regional princes. The Volynian Chronicle relates that two Samogitian princes, Erdvilas and Vykintas, were among the twenty signatories to a treaty with Volynia (1219).

For more than two hundred years, Samogitia played a central role in Lithuania's wars against the crusading order of the Teutonic Knights (Knights of the Cross and Knights of the Sword). Due to the fact, that in 13-16th centuries the Teutonic order and the Livonian order bordered Samogitia, it was always threatened by their expansionist aims. Invasions started in Lithuania in 1229. Combined military forces undertook numerous campaigns against Samogitians and Lithuanians. Saule (1236), Skuodas (1239), Durbe (1260), Lievarde (1261) are just a few of the battles that took place (Suziedielis 2006).

In 1260, July 13 the Samogitians won the victory against the German order at the lake Durbe (Fig. 4). The victory is treated as one of the most significant events in the history of Lithuania. By its significance as well as volume it yields, if it is the case, only to the Tannenberg (Grunwald) battle. In some aspects the victory is even more awesome because the Samogitians managed to beat both united and more numerous armies of Livonian and Prussian crusaders. The Samogitians received some help during the battle only from the Curonians, who joined their side. The Samogitians' courage and spirit served as an example for all Baltic tribes: from Prussians to Sarema Estonians. The fact that Curonian lands from Palanga to Rietavas and Skuodas belong today to Lithuania is the direct outcome of the above mentioned battle. In general, Durbe's battle can be treated as the event which in a sense diverted the history of the Baltic lands (Baranauskiene 2010).

Samogitia from the 13th century was under the jurisdiction of the Order. Since Samogitia was the last pagan region in Europe left to be invaded and christened, Teutonic order set their sights on this last mission. Between 1345 and 1382, the Knights of the Cross attacked from Prussia some 70 times, while the Livonian Knights of the Sword made 30 military forays. The Lithuanians retaliated with 31 attacks of Prussia and 11 on Livonia. Since the Germans viewed Samogitia and Lithuania as serious obstacles to further expansion to the East (Drang nach Osten), the bitter warfare held in the balance not only the future of Samogitia but also that of the entire Lithuanian state.

Kestutis, the prince of Trakai who ruled Lithuania jointly with his brother Algirdas, was particularly energetic in defending Samogitia. During their rule no territory was lost to the Germans. But after the death of Algirdas in 1377, and the murder of Kestutis in 1382, the country's political situation afforded an opportunity for the Order to gain Samogitia by means of negotiations with the new rulers of Lithuania, the cousins Jogaila and Vytautas. As such, Samogitian territory was offered to these Orders, or exchanged in peace treaties, a number of times. Lithuania would regain Samogitia back again in subsequent conflicts. Despite all their effort, Samogitians managed to defend their lands until 1410 decisive Tannenberg (the Battle of Zalgiris, the Battle of Grunwald), where united Polish-Lithuanian forces defeated Teutonic order and ended their crusading era (Fig. 5).

The battle of Tannenberg was the culmination of the Great War 1409-1411. The war reason was Samogitia lands and after the War they were passed on to Lithuania. In 1410, the forces of 10 000 of Samogitian horsemen helped to win the Tannenberg battle. The battle finally stopped Cross wars in Lithuania. In 1411, February 1, the Peace treaty of Torun was signed by the warring parties. It said that Samogitian lands belonged to Lithuania only until the death of Jogaila and Vytautas. Two more wars with the Order were required for Samogitia forever to become a part of Lithuania. The Pope's orders, which followed the events, cancelled all the Order's privileges in Lithuania.

In the 1322 treaty between Lithuania and Livonian Order the region is listed under the name Samaythen. Latin and German sources of the 13th-15th century refer to the area as Samaiten, Samaitae, Zamaytae, Samogitia, Samattae, Samethia. They, together with other variants Schmudien, Schamaiten (German) and Zmudz (Polish), are all derived from the Lithuanian Zemaiciai and from the 16th c. onwards, as Samogitia. The latter name has been retained to the present day in the English language (Suziedielis 2006).

The Samogitian nobility was ethnically close to the Lithuanian, but preserved some particularities and self-awareness. The Samogitian nobility was ethnically close to the Lithuanian, but preserved some peculiarities and self-awareness. Since the 13th century, Samogitia had a distinctive autonomy in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The autonomy was expressed by statehood and ethnicity terms and concepts until 1926. One of the important factors, impacting a certain Samogitian separation as well as cultural development in the second half of the 13th c. till the beginning of the 15th c. was their active fights with the Teutonic and Livonian orders and also the attitude of the Lithuanian rulers towards Samogitians during the fights: Mindaugas in 1253, Jogaila in 1382, Vytautas in 1384, 1392, 1400, 1409 presented Samogitia to the Orders. Since the second half of the 13th c. Samogitians retreated more and more from Lithuanians because of the it lost this status once Lithuania was annexed by the Russian Empire.

1. Samogitia in the maps of XV-XVI century

Early maps, as original historical sources, have often the same value as any other documentary evidence and provide significant clues about culture and history of a nation or country. The maps reveal a lot of information about the geographical environment of one or another territory which reflect some of the features of agricultural and political life.

The first maps in which the territories of Samogitia is pictured were created by antique geographers from the second part of 15th century. During the 16th and 18th century cartographers from Western Europe, Poland and Lithuania have created a large number of of compiled maps, which were compiliant to the requirements of that time. Territory of Samogitia was gradually shrinking. It was reflected in the maps.

The map of Andreas Walsperger (Fig. 6) is a Christian Mappa Mundi typical of the medieval style of cartography. Samogitia on the world map is marked Sama gota.

Andreas Walsperger (born ca. 1415 in Radkersburg; time of death unknown) was a German cartographer of the 15th century. The son of a carpenter, he became a Benedictine monk at St. Peter's in Salzburg in 1434. He left the monastery in 1442. Little more is known about him except that in 1448/9 he created his map in Konstanz.

In Fig. 7 Samogitia on the map of Central-Eastern Europe (Tabula moderna Poloniae, Ungariae, Boemiae, Germaniae, Russiae, Lithuaniae) appended to the 1507 edition of Ptolemys Geographia by Marcus Beneventanus. Marcus Beneventanus (1465-1525) Italian monk, philosopher, mathematician, astronomer and geographer. Copernicus and B. Wapowski allegedly assisted the Italian cartographer in his work on the this contemporary map. The map, an adaptation of the mid-15th c. work of Nicolaus Cusanus might owe its accuracy in terms of the spelling of Polish names and the placing of topographical detail on Polish lands to Wapowski and Copernicus who might have proofread the map before its publication. For the first time in Lithuania's name is mentioned in the title of the map. Lithuania and Samogitia are separated. In Lithuania mark Vilnius, Kaunas, Klaipeda, Trakai in Samogitia-Medininkai (Myednyky).

In Fig. 8 we see Samogitia on the Central European map scale 1 3 750, 000 by Nicolaus Cusanus, was prepared by G. Ubelin and published in the: "Atlas of Ptolemaeus AUCTUS Restituta, emaculatus cum tabula veteribus ..." by J. Schott Strasbourg in 1520. This the first and more detailed cartographical picture of Lithuania, since the times of Ptolemy, appears in the second half of the 15th century, in the epoch of the Renaissance and geographical discoveries. It was marked on the map of a learned and widely travelled man Nicolaus Cusanus where, on the basis of the antique geography, new physical--geographical and social--economical objects are shown. Early Samogitia is shown on this old map (cleary differentiated from Lithuania proper and testing on the shores of Mare Sarmaticum the (Baltic Sea). On this map we can already find the Firth of the Kursiai Marios, the Bartuva, Venta (POLLER FLV.), Sventoji (HILLIGE FLV.), Nemunas (Niemo fl.), Neris rivers as well as such settlements as Klaipeda, Varniai (Myednyky), Tytuvenai, Kaunas (Kofno), Vilnius (Vilno), Grodno, Lyda and Kreve (Chomskis 1958).

The map of the Order marks Klaipeda's castle (Memele castrum), Ragaine (Ragnet), Labguva (Labgau) and other places. The land between Sventoji and Venta marked by N. Cusanus as Lithuania (LITHVANIA), below the river Nemunas he marked the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (LITVANIA MAGNUS DUCA TUS). The map was first time printed in 1491 in Eichstat (Eichstatt) after the author's death. In the 16th century N. Cusanus map versions were printed in different cartographical editions.

Nicolaus Cusanus (1401-1464), also referred to as Nicholas of Kues and Nicholas of Cusa, was a German philosopher, theologian, jurist, and astronomer. One of the first German proponents of Renaissance humanism, he made spiritual and political contributions in European history. A notable example of this is his mystical or spiritual writings on 'learned ignorance', as well as his participation in power struggles between Rome and the German states of the Holy Roman Empire. In the early twentieth century, he was hailed as the, first modern thinker, and much debate since has questioned whether he should be seen as essentially a medieval or Renaissance figure. Societies and centers dedicated to Cusanus can be found in Argentina, Japan, Germany, Italy and the United States.

In Fig. 9 Samogitia is presented on the map of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Mappa in qua illustrantur ditiones Regni Poloniae ac Magni Ducatus Lithuaniae pars, 1526) by Bernard Wapowski.

Wapovski's maps present a more realistic view of the Nemunas delta with its branches the Rusne and Gilija, if compared to the maps of earlier authors. The maps also show the major rivers of Samogitia: the Minija, the Jura, the Akmena, the Sventoji, the Varduva, and the Dubysa. There are quite many settlements, such as Klaipeda, Vente, Taurage, Telsiai, Sveksna, Vieksniai, Luoke, Alsedziai, Varniai, Kraziai, Kaltinenai, Batakiai, Vidukle, Raseiniai, Lioliai, Rusne, Pajuris, Plateliai. The castle stood still XV c. is marked in the middle of the lake Plateliai.

It is likely that the motives, related with culture and education also might have been an important factor when selecting and marking the Samogitian settlements. The map shows 19 Samogitian settlements, including nine, the marking of which on the map of 1526 is considered act of their first naming as towns (Sirko 1999; Buceviciute 2007).

In the context of the history of Lithuanian and Polish cartography, B. Wapowski's map of Poland of 1526 should be evaluated as one of the most significant cartographical works, the quality and abundance of data of which allowed for developing a quite comprehensive and integral view of the territory of Lithuania and Poland in the 16th century. The information, provided by B. Wapowski's works was referred to by almost all the cartographers of the 16th century, who created maps, covering the territories of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The fragment of the map of Poland of 1526, covering almost the entire area of historical Samogitia, can be viewed as a source for studies of the network of Catholic churches and parishes of Samogitia of the beginning of the 16th century. The emphasis of the fragment of the map under study (image of the coat of arms of Samogitian bishop M. Radziwill) is directly related with the content of the entire study. It should be stated that the main principle for selection of most Samogitian settlements, foreseen to be localized on the map was related with the fact of founding of the earliest churches and parishes. It is likely that the motives, related with culture and education also might have been an important factor when selecting and marking the Samogitian settlements. The map shows 19 Samogitian settlements, including nine, the marking of which on the map of 1526 is considered the fact of their first naming as towns.

This and other maps, authored by Bernhard Wapowski, were not distributed in Europe on a mass scale, however they had significant, though indirect influence on how the territory of Poland and Lithuania were presented (Buceviciute 2007).

In synoptic and specialized historic analyses of cartography science its Polish pioneer Bernard Wapowsky's cartographical heritage takes a considerable place. This cartographer is considered to be a predecessor of the second period of cartography development. Unfortunately, only fragments of Wapowski's maps are known to have survived. Seven Wapowski fragments are known from the reproductions: three from the map of Sarmatia and four from a map of Poland. The fragments are of different size and content, enabling only the partial reconstruction of the original works (Buczek 1966).

In Fig. 10 Samogitia is shown in the map of Sarmatia by Johan Honter. It was printed in 1530, 1542, and 1552. The map covers Central Europe: in the eastern part Prussia and Poland, in the centre--Sarmatia with Samogitia and Lithuania. Samogitia and Lithuania are not separated by bordering lines.

The map is reserved in the National Library of Hungary.

Johan Honter is also known as Johames Honterus or Johann Hytner (1498-1549) was famous for cultural and religious activities, is best known due to his works in geography and cartograpgy as well as for implementing the Lutheran reform in Transylvania. He is also called Luther from Transylvania or the apostle from Transylvania.

In 1530 Johan Honter wrote his "Rudimenta Cosmographiae", which was reprinted in 1542 under a new title "Rudimentoruni Cosmographicorum". The book contains 13 maps, engraved by Honter himself. The maps show all known parts of the world. The Rudimenta was so successful that no less than 39 editions of it wereprinted. Of particular importance for cartography is a revised edition of this work of 1542 with very accurate maps. The book was last reprinted in 1602, but sections of it have been included in other books up to 1692.

In Fig. 11 we presented map the Carta marina (Latin "map of the sea") created by Olaus Magnus (1490-1557). Map is the earliest map of the Nordic countries that gives details and placenames. Only two earlier maps of Scandinavia are known, those of Jacob Ziegler and Claudius Clavus. This unique concept of the Renaissance period map Samogitia and Lithuania is shown in detail for the first time. Before that, the edge map has been executed entirely by Claudius Ptolemy (IIc.) and Abraham Cresques (1375). In "Carta Marina" a people "Samogethia" is placed near "Litvanie Pars".

The notes on the map in Latin were translated by Olaus into Italian and German. It is generally considered that the "A description of the Northern peoples" (Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus, Rome, 1555) is a much larger commentary on the map.

In Olaus Magnus map of the area of Samogitia only few rivers are depicted: the littoral Sventoji, the Bartuva, the Nemunas and the Sesupe. The lower reaches of the Nemunas as well as the Deimena branch are depicted in a more original way. The experts tend to think that O. Magnus, like B. Vapovski deliberalety highlighted this section of the Nemunas because he wanted to emphasize its importance in transporting produce and lumber from eastern parts of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania to the west of Europe.

In Samogitia the author depicted only Varniai. On the Plateliai Lake Island there is a castle (it was mentioned in written sources in 1529). Lake Plateliai is the deepest, largest and clearest lake in Samogitia. There are 7 islands in the lake which are rich in legends old cartographic materials, because some medieval maps (e.g. Carta Marina by Olaf Magnus) have Lake Plateliai with the Castle Island and its castle on them.

Accordingto the legend of Olaus Magnus's map the Samogitians (samogeti) and Livonians (livoni) originated from the old Gothic tribes. In Fig. 12 Samogitia on the very rare map of Russia engraved by Gastaldi to illustrate the Venetian edition the book of Baron Sigismund von Herbenstein Rerum Muscoviticarum Commentaries, published for the first time in Vienna in 1549. Von Herbenstein was an Austrian diplomat native of Slovenia and was twice ambassador in Moscow in 1517 and 1526. During the period of his stay in Russia had way to gather enough information geographical, historical and custom, which published in his book and in the printed map of the region in 1546. The work very important because it provides detailed information on the region, up then unknown or poorly described. Giacomo Gastaldi map showing Samogitia as forested land, exploitation of timber.

Unusual the fact that this map is carved wood rather than engraved in copper in 1566 Ferrando Bertelli publishes a copper version, almost identical.

In Fig. 13 we see fragment of the map prodused by Giacomo Gastaldi. It is map of Poland and Eastern Europe (Il Desegno de Geographia Moderna Del Regno di Polonia, e parte Del Ducado di Moscovia) originally published in Venice in 1562. Giacomo Gastaldi rarely appreciated as engraved two sheet map, showing the Baltic Sea and numerous northern lakes in the upper section, and the lower section prominently featuring Poland. The borders of Samogitia is not marked. In the area of Samogitia noted Varniai (Varna), several other settlements and could be identified rivers Nemunas and Minija (Mung f.). Geography of this map was largely derived from Gerhard Mercator's 1554 map of Europe. Paolo Forlani issued a subsequent edition in 1568. Giacomo Gastaldi and Paolo Forlani work together in Verona. Their publications comprised well-nigh all parts of the earth.

Gastaldi (Gastaldo, Castaldi), Giacomo (Jacopo): (1500-1566). Born Villafranca, Piedmont, Italian astronomer, cartographer and engineer. Gastaldi is considered the foremost Italian cartographer of the 16th century along with Paolo Forlani. By the 1540's, as cosmographer to the Republic of Venice, he had developed a distinctive style of copper engraving that led to his maps being used as a source by many mapmakers, including Camocio, Bertelli, Forlani, Ramusio, Cock, Luchini and Ortelius. He engraved 60 copperplate maps for Pietro Andrea Mattioli's Italian edition of Ptolemy's "Geographica", entitled "La Geographica di Claudio Ptolomeo Alessandrino..."

Among the most important of his maps, however, were of areas outside Italy. Principal among these was his map of the World, published in 1546, a four sheet map of the countries of south-eastern Europe, published in 1559, and his series of three maps of the Middle East, Southern Asia, and South-East Asia with the Far East, issued between 1559 and 1561.

The map from 1562, which based on the works of Bernard Wapowski (1526), and its almost identical version from the atlas of Abraham Ortelius (1570), were the most commonly used general 16th century maps of Poland. They were also used by Gerard de Jode in his atlas of 1578.

This map in A. Ortelius atlas was printed in different languages 21 times until the year 1595. Despite some inaccuracy compared to the maps by former authors, this one is of much better quality. The cartographical picture of Lithuania is also better here.

In Fig. 14 we see Samogitia shown in the one of the earliest modern maps of Poland and Lithuania "A depiction of Poland and Lithuania" by Waciaw Grodecki, and corrected by Andreas Pograbius of Pilsen. His 1557 map of Poland the only known example of which was lost. It was re-published in Basle by Giovanni Oporini in 1562. A map is known also from a sole remaining copy of the distripctive text published as a brochure to accompany it.

The map separates the area of Samogitia from the rest of the Duchy by using colorful background: Samogitia as well as the area of Livonia are depicted in one color, the rest of the Duchy in a different color. The color-based separation is enhanced by a broken line.

In the area of Samogitia we can find rivers Akmena, Dubysa, Nemunas, Nevezis, Sesupe, Sventoji and settlements Betygala, Saukenai, Varniai, Vilkija.

Grodecki Waciaw (1535-1591) Polish prist, cartographer, engraver. Born in Silesia, the son of Matthias Grodziecki from Brody. In the years 1550-1555 he studied at the Academy of Cracow mathematics and philosophy. In 1556, he went for further studies at the university in Leipzig. Probably in 1558, he went to Rome. In 1561, he returned to the Prague city. Here, in 1564, he graduated with a degree of Master of Arts.

Map with his index and an essay on the origin of the Slavs Melanchthon Grodziecki dedicated to King Sigismund Augustus. In fact, the map Grodziecki was reduced and changed little earlier large portion maps Bernard Wapowski, printed in 1526 in Cracow Ungler printing (Fig. 9). Since almost the whole edition map Wapowski burned in the fire of Cracow in 1528, the work Grodziecki was considered for a long time for the best map of the Polish lands. Map with title "Poloniae Finitimarumque locorum descriptio Auctore Wencelslao Godreccio" was published in the atlas, 'Theatrum Orbis Terrarum" of Abraham Ortelius in 1572 that included 53 maps on the separate sheets, regarded as the first atlas in the modern sense of the word. G. Grodziecki were also used by Gerard de Jode in his atlas of 1578.

There is an interesting map text for this map in Ortelius atlas about Samogitia: "Samogitia (which means low lands in their language) has no walled or established castles, for they live in huts. The inhabitants are tall, which is hard to understand (as Sigismundus Herberstein says) for the parents have very tall sons or very small ones, but nothing in between. They are a poor people. Their huts are made of wood and straw, and are bell-shaped, with a hole at the top where the smoke escapes of the fire they make. Around this fire sit the husband, wife, children, lads and maidens and also their cattle and all their furniture is all around".

In the Fig. 15 Samogitia on the historical map of Livonian Confederation, by a Flemish cartographer Johannes Portantius (also Jean Portant) (?-1577) in 1573 and was first published in Abraham Ortelius' atlas Theatrum orbis terrarum. This is the earliest preserved map of Livonia. The map of was drawn by Johannes Portantius and is believed to have been based on the lost maps of the region by Marcus Ambrosius and Caspar Henneberger. The map depicts the borders of old Livonia as they historically were, but indicates outdated source data, considering the date of publication (its political division reflects the situation before the Livonian War). Unlike the other maps of that time, it outlines Estonian territory more or less correctly, although the islands are unnaturally large. Compared with previously published maps, it presents a larger number of place names (approximately 50).

In Fig. 16 Samogitia is presented on the map of Prussia by Casparo Henneberg von Erlichensi (Karte von Preufien a Gasparo Henneberg Erlichensi). The original map has been drawn in 1576 in the Prussian city of Elblaj (at that time Elbing). Other map versions were released in 1584 and 1595. This map of Prussia, later the author called the Great of Prussia map--the first large-scale map of the land Prussia. Listed Prussian neighbors, including Samogitia, Suduva, Lithuania (Great Lithuania). A special attention is drawn to hydrography, particularly to the Nemunas delta. The author not only mentioned the main branches and the catchment of the Nemunas, but also depicted their inter-positioning in the area. Later it has been reprinted by other cartographer such as Joan Bleau in his atlases.

Main followers of C. Henneberger mapping manners in 16 the century was Gerard de Jode (map Fig. 19) and Gerard Mercator (map Fig. 20).

Casparo Hennenberger (1529-1600) was a German Lutheran pastor, historian and cartographer. Hennenberger was where he worked as a Lutheran Pastor for the next 29 years. With the patronage of Duke Albert of Prussia, and support by Prussian mathematicians like Nicolaus Neodomus, Hennenberger published the first detailed map of Prussia in 1576, the book "Kurze und wahrhaftige Beschreibung des Landes zu Preussen" in 1584 and "Erklarung der preufiischen grofieren Landtafeln oder Mappen" in 1594.

Compared with Casparo Hennenberger most 16th-17th century map makers did not offer new insights, but intercept almost identical methods design of the maps.

In Fig. 17 Samogitia in the map of Lithuania, Livonia and Moscovia (Magni Dvcatvs Lithvaniae, Livoniae et Moscoviae Descriptio) by Maciej Strubycz. He prepared his only surviving map, drawn c1581, published 1589 (by M. Kromer, in "Polonia sive in situ ..."). He drew up several maps of the Eastern boarders of Lithuania and Poland, but exept for this one, they have been destroyed. Gerardus Mercator engraved this map. A later, improved, version was used by Mercator in 1595.

Maciej Strubycz map is a large format (40x32 cm) and large-scale 1:1170000 map, which shows in the area of ethnic Lithuanian much more rivers and settlements than previous cartographers (N. Cusanus, B. Wapowski, O. Magnus) works. The map shows the 18 rivers and 24 settlements. In the Samogitia region we can already find the the Sventoji, Nemunas, Nevezis, Jura, Sesupe rivers as well as such settlements as Varniai (Warna), Sventoji (Heligow), Seredzius (Srednik) Virbalis (Wirfblowo).

Original of the map is in the Poland National Library Cartography Collection.

Maciej Strubycz (1520-1589) was a Silesian (Polish) cartographer and Geographer to King Stefan Batory. He studied in the University of Konigsberg and was later in the services of Albrecht, Duke of Prussia, the Polish King Sigismund II August and Stefan Batory.

In 1583, Strubicz fails was ennobled in Warsaw when he was given his own coat of arms, which was immortalized in a completely unfamiliar copperplate just Tomasz Makowski. Arranged in the composition MSSSRM initials can be solved as: Matthias Strobicz Secretarius Sacrae Regis Majestatis.

In Fig. 18 Samogitia in the map of Poland published in IV volume of Munster's Cosmographia Universalis" Map is a new modification of the map of J. Honter made based on the maps of Ptolemy and Wapowski. Map published in reduced form by S. Henricpetri in 1592. Under the map text: "Von der polnischen an Cronick werden: |gezeigt und ..." ["From the Polish to be Chronicle: |shown and ..."]. In the area of Lithuania we see just records: Samogitia, Sarmatia, Littaw.

In Fig. 19 Samogitia is presented in the map of Scandinavia by Gerard de Jode. The map is a work of art.

It is richly engraved by Joannes and Lucas van Deutecum, perhaps the most famous of all Dutch engravers of the period. First published in 1578 and a second in expanded edition of the Jode's atlas "SpeculumOrbis Terrarum" was issued in Speculum Orbis Terrae (1593).

Jode (Judaeis, Judaeus, Iuddeis), Gerard de: (1509-1591). Born Nijmegan; active in Antwerp c1550. Engraver, printer, print seller, publisher and cartographer, and father of Cornelius de Jode. Re-engraved Giacomo Gastaldi's "Universalis exactissima atquae non recens modo ..." in 1555. Publications include "Speculum Orbis Terrarum", 1578, with several maps engraved by Johan and Lucas van Doetichum, with some maps dating from 1569. His son Cornelis (1568-1600) was an engraver, publisher and scholar of Antwerp. Following his death, plates passed into the possession of Jan Baptist Vrients.

In Fig. 20 we see Samogitia in the map of Lithuania by Gerardus Mercator. He has used the word 'atlas' as the definition for the maps collection for the first time. We can say that although many cartographers borrowed information from one another throughout history, there were occasions when the maps where created simultaneously using different sources.

G. Merkator's atlases are significant to Lithuanian cartography due to the fact that since 1595 they included a special map, dedicated to Lithuania--Litvania, designed circa 1570 and published 25 years later. It shows the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and bordering countries. Separate cartographic depiction of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and a descriptive text allows getting a better impression regarding the geographic investigation of Lithuanian lands, the countryside changes and in a way specific farming characteristics. G. Merkator had more space in the map which made it possible to include significant objects: more settlements, more rivers and the great wood arrays. He managed to depict the catchments of the Nemunas, the Dauguva and the Dniepras in more detail. Samogitia alone includes 10 more rivers and more or less 20 settlements.

Samogitia "is a land in the North,--wrote G. Mercator in 1595--rather wide, closest to Lithuania, with a vast number of forest and rivers, about 50 miles in length. There are no towns no castles, the nobility live in farmhouses, peasants--in shacks. People of this country are tall, well-built, however savage and ignorant; they live in grinding poverty; quench their thirst with water, only few of them drink ale or mead. No gold, silver, copper, iron, vine they had known nor had until our days... The folks are prone to sorcery and divination. The greatest Samogitian deity--fire is considered holy and eternal; on the top of high hill the holy fire is constantly kindled and attended by a pagan priest".

Gerardus Mercator (1512-1594) was a cartographer, philosopher and mathematician. He was educated in Hertogenbosch (Netherlands), receiving training in Christian doctrine, dialectics, and Latin. In 1530 he entered the Catholic University of Leuven (Louvain [Belgium]) to study the humanities and philosophy and graduated with a master's degree in 1532.

This Mercator's family are one of the most outstanding families in the history of map-making. Gerard Mercator is best known for his world map (1569), constructed on what is now known as Mercator's projection.

While teaching cosmography, G. Mercator realized the need for a modern collection of maps to supersede the Ptolemaic atlases. He set out to publish a complete description of the Universe, both heaven and earth. Only his "Chronology" and the "Ptolemaic Geographica" were completed in Mercator's lifetime.

Gerardus Merkator more detailed biography has made by Mark Monmonier (2004).

In Fig. 21 Samogitia is presented in the map of Prussia derived from work Matthias Quada "Fasciculus geographicus complectens praecipuarum Totius orbis regionum ..." The reduced version of the first detailed map of Prussia Henrico Zellio first published in 1542. His work, notable for the beauty was very popular and editions were issued for many years.

The title of the map: "Prussiae Descriptio ante aliquot annos ab Henrico Zellio edita, ab eoq[ue] D. Joanni Clur, Ciui. Gedanensi dedit. Johann bussemecher excudit Coloniae". Henrico Zellio dedicated map to Mr. Ioannes Clur, a citizen of Danzig.

Orientation of the map is East. Detailed map of the region centered on the southern Baltic Coast, reaching inland to the Bug River. Includes a detailed early coverage of the areas around Dantzig, Konnigsberg and the Lithuanian coastline. Special attention is given to the Nemunas River delta. In the area of Samogitia is marked Ragaine (Raganet olim Landskat) and Tilze (Thus). Map gives nice dark impression.

Heinrico Zellio (also Zeel, Czeel, Zeelius, Zellius) was a German printer and cartographer. Abaut the time of his birth nothing is known (died 1560). He was a student of Sebastian Munster. Accompanying Rheticus to Prussia, Heinrich Zell in collaboration with Nicolaus Copernicus, produced the first geostatic map of the Prussian coastline and had the first printed map of Prussia with hundreds of towns printed at Nuremberg in 1542. Zell incorporated Ermland (Warmia) records of Prussian towns in this detailed and until then unaccomplished task.

Matthias Quad (1557-1613) was a Dutch-German geographer, cartographer and engraver. Quad at first learned at the goldsmith Hendrik Frisians. After that he was apprentice at the engravers Van Doetechem and Hendrik Goltzius. In 1587 Quad settled in Cologne where he worked as author and cartographer. In 1592 Quad published with Bussemacher Europae totius orbis terrarum, an atlas of Europe which he extended to a world atlas within the following years. This atlas with maps of the whole world was published with Bussemacher in 1600, titled Geographisch Handtbuch.

2. Prince Nicholas Christopher Radziwill and 400 year anniversary for his map of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania

We are pleased to remind that the 2013 is a jubilee year for the first original map of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania under the title "MAGNI DUCATUS LI THUANIAE CAETERARUMQUE REGIONUM ILLI ADIACENTIUM EXACTA DESCRIPTIO" published under the patronage of the Grand Marshall of Lithuania, Governor of Trakai and Vilnius, Mikolaj Krzysztof Radziwill. Map became 400 years old but still surprises cartography experts with oustanding graphic rendering and the amount of geographic and historical data included.

Nicholas Christopher Radziwill, Sierotka (the Orphan) (1549-1616) (engraving portrait Fig. 22) was one of the more significant sponsors of culture on the Grand Duchy of Lithuania on the break of the XVIIth century. He also oversaw the work of field cartography and had been involved in making Strubicz's 1579 map.

The Radziwill map is one of the most important works of European cartography from the end of the 16th and the beginning of the 17th century and is an important contribution to the progress in the mapping of the whole Continent (fragment in Fig. 23 reprisents region of Samogitia).

The map had its beginning in 1585 when Prince Nicholas Radziwill initiated this ambitious project and commissioned M. Strubicz to survey the entire Lithuanian state which then included Poland. Around 1586, Nicholas Radziwill began co-ordination of the work on a Grand Map of the Duchy of Lithuania. Among others, he hired the King Stefan Batory's cartographer Maciej Strubicz. Earlier, Strubicz began work on editing and re-working maps of the territories subject to the King of Poland, particularly the map of Lithuania (Fig. 19). A Mercator map, the best available presentation of Lithuania and Livonia at that time, did not meet Strubicz's expectations. Strubicz's own descriptions of Lithuania did not meet his requirements as materials for the new map. Therefore, the cartographer finally decided to work in co-operation with Nicholas Christopher Radziwill, hoping to creat a highly accurate map of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, as planned. As the starting point for research, Strubicz began collecting his own earlier works which he has been drawing since his appointment to the Royal Chancellery in 1559.

Stanislaw Aleleksandrowicz's research shows that the first map was published in the years 1599-1604. The measurements for the map were taken mostly by the Jesuits, whose patron was the prince. Radziwill maintained close relations with the Society of Jesus, and even built a college for Jesuits in his hometown Nies'wiez. It was thanks to these Jesuit monks, and their astrological measurements, that the geographic coordinates of the most important locations in the country were established. Many measurements were made with state-of-the-art instruments and based on mathematical and astronomical calculations. It is known that the outstanding Jesuit mathematician, Englishman Jacob Bosgrave, was visiting Lithuania at the time when the map was created; some sources say that he was the founder of the mathematical department of Vilnius Academy. It seems therefore probable that Bosgrave contributed to the work of the editorial team, which was perhaps headed by the Prince himself.

Tomasz Makowski (1575-1630) is often credited as a geographer involved in the creation of the map but in fact was the original engraver, book illustrator and printer, resident at the Radziwill court in Nieswiez. The problem of finding a printer for the map of Lithuania was a serious obstacle. Despite the involvement of both Strubicz and Makowski, the map had to be printed abroad. A letter from Prince Radziwill, dated 1597, demonstrates that he thought of having the map printed at an intermediate stage of the work. From the same letter we learn that the prince directed the work and was an active collaborator (Buczek 1966).

Although Strubicz contributed to the work, in that he had traveled in 1599 with Prince Radziwill's son to search for an engraver and printer for the large map, Strubicz's name is not mentioned on the map itself, whereas that of Thomas Makowski appears twice.

Although the question of the map's authorship has not been answered, it is apparent that the map was a collaborative work.

The map first saw wide distribution in a large format multi-sheet version originally published by Hessel Gerritsz and Willem Blaeu in 1613 under the title Magna Ducatus Lithuaniae.

The map covers the area of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in its 1569 borders, but also includes some neighboring areas. The map is rich in geographical and historical data, most significant of which is the hydrographic network and the settlement system with 1020 communities. Borders, especially in disputed areas are also characteristic. The map was drawn in trapeze projection at the scale of approximately 1:1 300 000.

The map represents a large region extending beyond the 1569 boundaries of the territory of Lithuania. The depiction of central and western Lithuania was detailed. The map includes the Lithuanian coat of arms, title cartouche, sailing ship and vignettes within the image. Buczek remarks that "the map ... occupies a very prominent position among ... European cartography ... and ... was also a great step Lithuania alone there are 511 towns, 31 villages, and 1 monastery are within the duchy" (Buczek 1966).

Duchy of Samogitia as the self--dependent territorial --administrative unit was first mapped Radziwill's map. South West Samogitia ward boundaries were marked on the basis of the Prussian state of mapping data, and they, as well as the northern border was marked accurately they capture highlighting the localization of the border settlements. Eastern boundary mapping is characterized by a slight deformation uncertainties related with cross-border settlements located localization errors.

That map marked the progress tendencies of the cartographical sciences. It was fixed about 70 settlements of Samogitia; approximately 25 was fixed for the first time. The geographical space of the Duchy of Samogitia wasn't perceived like the natural landscape, it was underlined only the hydrographical network or Samogitia. In that map the Duchy of Samogitia was fixed as the self--dependent territorial --administrative unit of the commonwealth (Buceviciute 2006).

The Radziwill's map included 1800 rivers. In the present land of Samogitia very clearly marked the Nemunas catchment area together with the Nevezis, Neris, Jura, Dubysa Rivers and its secondary and terciary tributaries. Especially emphasized are the Venta, Dubysa, Sventoji and Nevezis together with their catchments. Howerver, Nicholas Radziwill paid very little attention to the lakes. In Samogitia area the author only approximately marked Plateliai and Lukstas lakes.

The map consists of numerous textual explanations. The one under the headline, vaguely describes the map designing circumstances. As many as 26 places on the map include interesting, as well as historically valuable explanations, like the weather conditions of certain areas, most significant farming characteristics and historic events. Being the first Lithuanian cartographical creation it does not yied to any other maps of Europe either by its precision or esthetics, in some places it even surpasses them. This map is a real manifestation of the civilization progress of the first half of the 17th c. and can be scientifically and artistically treated as the most prominent creation of the epoch.

The 1613 Nicholas Radziwill map was described and mathematically analyzed by Henryk Merczyng (1913) and Jan Jakubowski (1918, 1928). Late map was analyzed by A. Gliozaitis (2007).

Lithuania Bank stroke a square 100 Litas coin to celebrate the 400-year anniversary of the first map of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In the silver coin, its authors Rolandas Rimkunas and Egle Rimkuniene artistically depicted both a few map fragments and its iniciator Nicholas Radzwill's portrait (Fig. 24).

On the basis of the Nicholas Radzwill's map of Grand Duchy of Lithuania, dating 1613, later the following maps were designed: J. Blaeu, F. De Witto, P. Mortier, V. Coronelli, D. R. de Vaugondy, and B. Borghi's. In most of them differences are insignificant or hardly noticeble at first glance.

3. Samogitia on the maps published in 1614-1700

Fig. 25 shows Samogitia in the administrative map of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, dating the middle of the 17th century.

The development of cartography in the 17th first half of 18th c. was prevented by political events. In 1601-1609 the army of GDL was fighting against Sweden for the lands of Livonia. The crushing victory was achieved in Kirchholm (Salaspilis) battle against the Swedish King Carl's IX army. The GDL army was commanded by a famous Lithuanian--Polish chieftain (since 1599 to 1616 the elder of Samogitia), Jonas Karolis Chodkevicius. In 1655 Sweden revenged for this loss and took over Samogitia, Upyte, and parts of Kaunas and Breslau areas. Swedish garrisons were in Kretinga, Palanga, Vainutas, Plunge, Taurage, etc. The wars against Swedes (1655-1661) as well as plague during them considerably emaciated Samogitia. By 1680 Samogitia had lost almost two thirds of its population.

For a century and a half Radziwill's map remained the source map of Lithuania. The maps published in Western Europe in the 17th century and the first half of the 18th century are products of remake of the map of Lithuania of 1613. It were issued by K. Allardas, F. de Wittas, J. Dankertsas, J. ir R. Ottensai, M. Seutteris, T. K. Lotteris and others. Indeed, Jan Nieprzecki's map, based on the Radziwill map, was published for the first time in 1749 and for the last time in 1812.

Fig. 26. Samogitia Nicholas Radziwill map, excluding the Dnieper cartographical view and T. Makovski text, was printed first time in W. Blaeu atlas "Appendix Theatri A. Ortelii et Atlantis G. Mercatoris ..." in the second publication in 1631.

In Fig. 27 Samogitia on the map of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. This example of the map was published by Johannes Jansson (1588-1664), also known as Janssonius), the chief competitor of the Blaeu family during the golden age of Dutch map-making. Jansson married the daughter of the great engraver and cartographer Jodocus Hondius in 1612 and published his maps independently, but he joined the Hondius firm in 1630 and began contributing maps to their popular Mercator/Hondius atlas, eventually taking over the firm after the death of his brother-in-law Henricus Hondius in 1638 who originally published several editions of the map printed from this plate under his name. A brilliant cartographic reduction of the Radziwill-Makowski map and one of the classic maps from the golden age of Dutch cartography.

In Fig. 28 nice example of Hondius's map of Lithuania at its grandest scale, based upon Blaeu's four sheet map. Highly detailed territory of Samogitia. A scare and highly sought after map. A nice example, with good margins and French text on the verso. Sailing ship, cartouche and coat of arms.

As died in 1638 famous Danish cartographer Willem Janszoon Blaeu most of his maps are actually published by his oldest son Ioannes Blaeu. He intending to apply Duke N. K. Radziwill's map dated 1613 format for atlases redesigned it in a smaller format (44x52 cm) in approximately 1648, its scale 1:200000 excluding the Dnieper lowlands scheme (Fig. 28). To look it more original, it is not North-oriented but West. The map cartouche reads: "The precise picture of the GD of Lithuania and neighboring areas, published thanks to N. K. Radziwill efforts, work, funding and care: in addition: in its new present form, printed by J. Blaeu". Map colouring in attractive strong original colours and to look more original is oriented to the west.

In Fig. 29 Samogitia in the map of Poland developed by N. Sanson d'Abbeville on the basis of the maps: Mercator Polish, Lithuanian Makowski, Prussia and Polish Hennenbergera Beauplan. It was repeatedly reproduced and processed by many famous cartographers and publishers until the mid-eighteenth century.

In Fig. 30 is presented southeren Samogitia in the oldest and sufficiently detailed map of Uznemune (Uznemune-Lithuanian part of the left bank of the river Nemunas). Map was created by Georg von Schwenglen in 1656.

Georg von Schwengeln (1590-1664) was a citizen of the city of Riga in Livonia cartographer, Major-General of the Kingdom of Sweden.

Fig. 31 Samogitia in the map of of Curland, Livonia and Samogitia by Nicolas Sanson d'Abbeville, 1650 (La Curlande Duche et Semigalle autrefois de la Livonie. La Samogitie Duche et Lituanie/par le Sanson d'Abbeville. Map title emphasizes that the Samogitia belonged to Lithuania and its an administrative territorial unit, and the Curland is in Livonia.

The map shows south-eastern Samogitia border running from the border with Prussia (south from Virbalis), reaching by a curving line the Nemunas (close to Zapiskis). Further the border runs along the Nemunas as far as its confluence with the Neris, then along the Neris up to its turn east, just before Jonava and then in north-east direction until the border with Semigalle, more to the east from Panemunis (that is more to east from Rokiskis and Obeliai). It is worth mentioning that in the south-east Samogitia border with Prussia coincided with the Sirvinta River almost up to its confluence with the Nemunas, more to the north the border is marked as if with the Nemunas in its lower reaches shown "Schlavonia" (maybe the so-called Skalvija). In fact, after the Meln Peace Treaty the Baltic coastline including the Nemunas influx and Klaipeda belonged to the Teutonic Order. Samogitia in this map is divided into three parts: north-western, central and eastern, none of them is named (Jankauskas 2013). Map shows historical borders of Samogitia, 1659 and is marked for the place of battles with the Crusaders.

One of the most important figures in French cartography, Nicolas Sanson d'Abbeville (1600-1667) initiated the great school of French geographers. He was also tutor to Louis XIII. Born in Abbeville, was educated by the Jesuits at Amiens.

Sanson established his first printing house in Paris in 1638. He soon became geographer to the king, establishing himself as one of the most influential cartographers on the Continent. Sanson's work, acclaimed for its geographical accuracy and high standard of engraving, was copied by Dutch, German, and English cartographers until well into the eighteenth century.

First atlas which included 100 maps was published in 1654; the second one, "Cartes Generales de Toutes les Parties du Monde", appeared in 1658. The business was expanded with the arrival of his three sons, Nicolas (1626-1648), Adrian, and Guillaume as well as a nephew, Gilles Robert de Vaugondy and grandson Pierre Moulard-Sanson. Of course the collaboration his son-in-law, cartographer Pierre du Val, was of great importance too. All came into the family business and the firm flourished for almost a hundred years.

In 1692 Hubert Jaillot collected Sanson's maps in an Atlas nouveau. In keeping with all of Sanson's and Jaillot's superb maps, forests, rivers, and towns are meticulously identified and named.

In Fig. 32 on the map of the Grand Duchy Lithuania we can see administrative boundaries of Samogitia, its administrative, geographical centers. Also we can find centers of Roman Catholic, Protestants and Jewish religious divisions (1654-1667). Varniai named as Catholic spiritual and cultural center. In the 16th c. Varniai became one of the most important centres of Catholisizm and Lithuanian culture not only in Samogitia, but in the whole Grand Duchy. The bishop of Samogitia Merkelis Giedraitis (1576-1609) was trying to complete the final christening of all the casts of the state. In 1416 after the order of Vytautas the Great the first church was built, in 1417 the diocese was founded and in 1417-1864 it was the centre of Samogitia Diocese, in 1623-1628 the theological seminary was functioning here. In 1635 Varniai was awarded the right of Madgerburg.

In Fig. 33 Samogitia in the map of Livonia (Carte de la Livonie ou Lifland). The map originates from a travel book, Relation du voyage d'Adam Olearius en Moscovie, Tartarie et Perse, by a German mathematician Adam Olearius. Olearius drew the maps, published in his travel books, on the basis of schemes he had drawn during his trip to Russia.

Adam Olearius (1599-1671) German mathematician, cartographer, and traveler. As cartographer Olearius was without a doubt an innovator. By relying on his own observations, incorporating local knowledge as well as Persian and Arabic sources during his journeys, he is the first European cartographer to display the proportions of the Caspian Sea correctly, breaking with a tradition of incorrect depictions that harked back to Ptolemy's Geographia. Brancaforte makes out the cartographer Olearius to be an intellectual hybrid: on the one hand, still beholden to the intellectual traditions of early modern scholarship, which legitimized itself by citing classical and biblical sources; on the other hand, venturing into empiricism and inductive reasoning, which become guideposts of scholarship with the Enlightenment (Brancaforte 2003).

In Fig. 34 Samogitia is presented in the map of Livonia vulgo Lyefland (Livonia commonly known as Livland (Latvia and Estonia) by Johannes Blaeu has been reproduced from Atlas Maior Sive Cosmographia Blaeuiana, 1662. The Blaeus is the most eminent Dutch family of cartographers who produced maps almost throughout the 17th century.

First time map Livonia vulgo Lyefland was published in 1638 or later. Here presented map of Livonia based on the work of Anders Bure (founder and developer Swedish land surveying and cartography). "SVECIA, DANIA, ET NORVEGIA, REGNA EUROPAE SEPTENTRIONALIA", was completed in 1642. It was later used by Matthew Merian, Frederik de Wit, Jan Jansson and others.

The map shows very clearly boundaries of Samogitia, a large number (more than 50) of settlements and the main rivers.

Johannes (Joan) Blaeu (1596-1693), a Dutchman believed tobe born in Alkmaar, was the eldest son of Willem Janzoon Blaeu. Willem had originally founded a business in Amsterdam in 1599 making globes, scientific instruments and printing. In 1620 Johannes, although becoming a Doctor of Law, elected to go into partnership with his father. The Blaeus published their atlas, Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, Sive Atlas Novus (shortly called Atlas Maior), for the first time in 1635 in two volumes. In 1646-1655 it was published in six volumes and in 1664-1665 in twelve volumes under the title Geographia Blaviana.

In Fig. 35 Samogitia in the colored copperplate print, detailed map of Lithuania (Partie de Lithuanie ou sont les palatinats de Wilna et Troki, subdivises en leurs chastellenies. Et partie du palatinat de Minsk. Par Sanson d'Abbeville Nicolas) by N. Sanson d'Abbeville.

Map of Lithuania with palatinates Vilnius and Trakai, and parts of Russia, Latvia and Belarus. Engraved by Peyrounin and adorned with a title cartouche decorated with characters and military attributes. Recognized as the founder of the French cartography, Nicolas Sanson left his hometown of Abbeville to Paris, where he met Richelieu in 1627.

In Fig. 36 we see Samogitia in the map of Poland by Pierre Du Val. He was the nephew and pupil of Nicolas Sanson. He published a wide range of atlases and individual maps including a fine miniature world geography with many of the maps based on Sanson. Nevertheless Smogitia and others terittories in this map shows the much more modest than in the works of his uncle (align Figs 31-35).

Pierre Du Val (1619-1683) was one of the most influential and prolific mapmakers and publishers working in Paris in the third quarter of the seventeenth century. He was the nephew of Nicolas Sanson, the leading French mapmaker of the period, and Geographer to the King of France from 1650. He was also responsible for providing maps for other Parisian editors of the period; Jollain, de Fer and Berey amongst others.

His first atlas was the Cartes Geographiques Methodiquement Divisees published in 1654. This contained only a few of Du Val's own maps with the others comprising those of Sanson, Briet, Boisseau and even those of the earlier Dutch mapmakers, Mercator, Blaeu, Hondius and Jansson. The atlas was re-issued in 1655 and 1667, and the title was altered to Cartes De Geographie Les Plus Nouvelles Et Les Plus Fideles. These later issues contained more of Du Val's own maps but were still very much supplemented by the maps of other makers.

In Fig. 37 Samogitia in finely colored map of Grand Duchy Lithuania (MAGNIDVCATVS|LITHUANIA |DIVISA TAM IN PALATINATUS|QUAM IN SUBIACINTES CASTELLANIAS|Authore per I. Danckert |Amst: cum Privilegio.) first published around 1680 by the Amsterdam publishing firm of Justus Danckerts. The map shows how randomly divided the region was in the seventeenth and eighteenth century. The map marked the Duchy of Samogitia, which the westen margin comes to the Baltic Sea. Map has color wash delineating the regions and the cities are highlighted in red. Published Danckert de Rij.

Danckert (Dankerss, Danquerts) Justinus (16351701). The Danckerts family were prominent print and map sellers active in Amsterdam for nearly a century. Between the years 1680 and 1700 a number of atlases were produced with maps bearing the names Justus or Theodorus Danckerts.

In Fig. 38 Samogitia on the map of Grand Duchy of Lithuania by Merian Matthaeus, 1672.

Merian Matthaeus (1593-1650) was a draftsman, engraver and publisher active, in Basle, Zurich, Strasbourg and Frankfurt, renowned for his town views and plans. Merian learned the art of copperplate engraving in Zurich. He produced a series of topographia in a 21-volume set collectively known as the "Topographia Germaniae". It includes numerous town plans and views, as well as maps of most countries and a World Map. He also took over and completed the later parts and editions of the "Grand Voyages and Petits Voyages", originally started by de Bry in 1590.

In Fig. 39 we see Smogitia in the "Regni Poloniae et Ducatus Lithuaniae Voliniae, Podoliae Ucraniae Prussiae, Livoniae, et Curlandiae" map, published for the first time in 1675 by Frederick De Witt--a doubtless master of his time.

This map is an outstanding example of the top-level engraving. We can easily trace the cartographer's attitude towards Samogitia role among other countries. In de Witt's perception, Samogitia has obviously not been the last. Map was published in, "Atlas Minor Frederick de Wit. Amstelodami 1662-1688 apud Fredericum de Wit".

In Fig. 40 Samogitia in the copper engraving, hand colored in outline when published map by Nicolaus Visscher around 1679/80. Visscher's map of the kingdom of Poland is based on the map of the kingdom of Poland after the French cartographer Nicolaus Sanson de Abbeville published in 1655, with some an additional data from Radziwill's Lithuania map, Beauplan's maps and some other sourses. Nicolaus Visscher's map still reflects very accurate the political borders of Nicolaus Sanson 1655 map of the kingdom of Poland. The shown engraved borders, place names, river names, etc. are pretty much the same. Title of the map: "Tabula nova totius Regni Poloniae in quo suut Ducatus et Provinciae Prussia, Cujavia, Mazovia, Russia Nigra, &c. Ducatus Lithuania, Ukrania, &c. in qua Volhynia, et Podolia. cum suis Palatinatibus ac Confinijs. Authore N. Sansonio Abbevillensi Geographus Regis Galliae Amstelodami apud Nicolaum Visscher".

The Visscher family was the dominant force in map-making at the height of the Golden Age of Dutch cartography. They were known throughout Europe for their advanced geographic knowledge and for the artistic ornamentation of their works. They were one of the leading publishers in Amsterdam for nearly a century.

Founded by C. J. Visscher (1587-1652), the business was continued by his son N. Visscher (16181679), cartographer and publisher of Amsterdam and grandson Nicolas Visscher the Younger (1649-1702). Both of them issued a considerable number of atlases. Nicholas Visscher died in 1702, leaving the firm to his wife, Elizabeth, who continued the family business until 1726. She issued an Atlas Minor, Atlas Major and 'De Stoel des oorlogs'. In 1717 most of the plates passed into the hands of Petrus Schenk the Younger, who continued to re-issue them for many decades.

In Fig. 41 Samogitia in the of Coronelli's scarce and very attractive detailed map of Lithuania (Lituania Dedicata All'Illustrissimo Signore Gio: Pietro Cavalli Segretario della Serenissima Republica di Ventia ...). The map covers Lithuania and parts of Poland and the Baltic and includes numerous coats of arms in the body of the map. The map appeared in some copies of Coronelli's Isolare Descrttione.

The remarkable Vincenzo Coronelli (16501718), encyclopaedist, geographer, inventor and Doctor of Theology, was citizen of the Republic of Venice. He was also one of the most prominent mapmakers and publishers in Europe. In his home city Venice he founded the very first geographical society, the Accademia Cosmografica degli Argonauti. He also held the position of Cosmographer of the Republic of Venice.

In his lifetime he compiled and engraved over 500 maps including a large 2-volume work, the Atlante Veneto, somewhat reminiscent of Robert Dudley's Dell' Arcano del Mare; he is equally well known for his construction of very large terrestrial and celestial globes even finer than those of Blaeu, including one, 15 feet in diameter, made for Louis XIV of France. Later six volumes of the Biblioteca Universale Sacro-Profana were published by Coronelli.

In Fig. 42 scarce original engraved map of Poland, Lithuania and much of Latvia by Alexis Jaillot published in Amsterdam about 1692 by Pierre Mortier. Full title of the map: Estats de Pologne subdivises suivant lestendue des Palatinats par Le Sr. Sanson, G. du R. Presente a Monseigneur Le Dauphin par son tres-humble, tres Obeissant, et tres sidele serviteur Hubert Jaillot.

In Fig. 43 Samogitia in large scale map of Poland and Lithuania "Estates de Pologne Subdivisses suinant l'Estendue des Palatinats" by Alexis Jaillot. Rivers, lakes, forest, mountains and major cities and towns are depicted. A decorative title cartouche is at the top left corner. Very brilliant original coloring. The map is detailed and shows all of the principal settlements. It bears a very attractive decorative title cartouche and inset scale of distance. The outline hand colouring is original. The map is very presentable and attractive. It was printed in Amsterdam by Pierre Mortier.

Alexis Hubert Jaillot (1632-1712) was one of the most important French cartographers of the 17th century. He worked in Paris in partnership with one of the sons of Nicholas San ut re-engraving and republishing many of the Sanson's maps. Within a few years, Jaillot became the successor to Nicolas Sanson, the greatest French mapmaker of the seventeenth century. In 1669, A. Jaillot undertook the re-engraving, enlarging and re-publishing of the Sanson maps in sheet form and in atlases, sparing no effort to fill the gap in the map trade left by the destruction of Blaeu's printing establishment in Amsterdam in 1672-one of the most productive cartographic establishment in the Netherlands. His Atlas Nouveau (1674) had a great reputation at the time, arriving to be considered like the best one of the world after the fire that destroyed the publishing house of the Blaeu family in Amsterdam. His publishing house was continued by his son and grandson until their plates were acquired by Philippe Buache in 1781.

In Fig. 44 Samogitia on the map of Poland and Lithuania: "Royaume de Pologne Comprenant les Etats e Polo gnes et de Lithuanie, Divisez en Provinces; et Subdivisez en Palatinats, Selon les Memoires de Starovolfe, de Hartknoch, et de plusiers Autres first published by Jean Baptiste Nolin in Paris durin the period his collaboration with Coronelli, although not specifically mentioning Coronelli by name. The map was apparently published in 1697. The map was based upon the work several early authors, including Christoph Hartknoch and Szymon Starowolsky.

Nolin Jean Baptiste (1657-1708) set up the family publishing business in Paris where he engraved and sold a wide variety of maps, on some of which he wrongfully used the titles 'Engraver to the King' and 'Geographer to the Duke of Orleans'. On a complaint by Guillaume Delisle he was accused and convicted of plagiarism but his business continued to flourish. Willem Janszoon Blaeu (Blauw, Blaeuw; 1571-1638) was a pupil of a famous Danish astronomer, Tycho Brache (1546-1601). The Blaeus is the most eminent Dutch family of cartographers who produced maps almost throughout the 17 th century. His initial works were published under the name Guilielmus Janssonius (Willem Janszoon). In 1619 he added Blaeu to his name in order to avoid associating himself with another cartographer, Jan Janssoniga, and his following works were published under the name of Willem Jansz. Blaeu. The Blaeus published their atlas, Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, Sive Atlas Novus (shortly called Atlas Maior), for the first time in 1635 in two volumes. In 1646-1655 it was published in six volumes and in 1664-1665 in twelve volumes under the title Geographia Blaviana. As Willem Blaeu died in 1638 most of his maps are actually published by his son Joannes.

Many of his maps were based on the work of Vincenzo Coronelli, the Italian cartographer and of another French geographer, Sieur de Tillemon (Nicholas de Tralage). His most notable work was the publication in 1696 of a World Map on one sheet based on J. D. Cassini's 24-ft planisphere housed in the Paris Observatory.

In Fig. 45 Samogitia ond the map of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania ("Magni Ducatus Lithuaniae Caetrarumq Regionum illi Adiacentium exacta decrip ...) by Johannes Jansson. Highly detailed the territory of Samogitia.Nice example of the rare Valk & Schenk edition of this important map of Lithuania at its grandest scale based upon Hessel Gerritsz's four sheet map of the same title. Hessel Gerritsz prepared his original map from manuscript drafts prepared under the instructions of Prince Nicolas Christophe Radziwill. His four sheet map was first issued in 1613 by Willem Blaeu, under Blaeu's original imprint Guilhelmus Janssonis. This is one of the earliest maps published by Blaeu, who did not incorporate this map into an atlas until approximately 1630. Following Blaeu's original 4-sheet version of the Gerritsz map, Blaeu and Jansson issued single sheet versions, the latter of which was re-issued by Valk & Schenk at the end of the 17th Century. The Valk & Schenk editon is the rarest on the market.

In Fig. 46 Samogitia in the map of Poland by Nicholas De Fer, 1700. The map shows a highlighted borderSamogitia. In the area of Samogitia map depicts towns of various sizes, rivers and forests. Panevezys (Ponnieviess) and Birzai (Birze) assigned to Samogitia.

Nicholas De Fer (1646-1720) took over the business of his father Antoine. De Fer, a French cartographer, geographer, engraver and publisher, produced over 600 sheet maps, wall maps. His maps were prized for their decorative qualities rather than the accuracy of their geography. He was appointed to be a Geographer to the King. Among his works are also several atlases. Some atlases are France Triomphante in 1693, Forces de L'Europe in 1696, Atlas Curieuk in 1705 and Atlas Royal.

Conclusions

Cultural identity of Samogitians had a great impact on the development of the nation of Lithuania. An encouraging factor to prepare this publication was the respect towards the history of Samogitia and its cultural heritage, bearing a special historical value. This article is devoted to the two events significant for the history of the whole Europe: a 400 year anniversary of old Mikolaj Krzysztof Radziwill map and the baptizm of Samogitia baptizm 600 years ago.

The researchers of old cartoraphy in many foreign countries stick to the belief that the history of their countries can hardly be viewed without the assessment of the information found in the old maps. This very true attitude can be fully applied in history of Samogitia; its place in history of Lithuania has been subject to widely differing interpretations. So far historians and linguists of Lithuania have been approaching Samogitia from different aspects. There will never be the same attitude but the research of old maps opens additional and valuable sources of information, helping depolarize divergent views and opposing assessment. The maps and their analysis can give more light on the historical development of Samogitia regional community, determine the historical-geographical spatial awareness of this region, and describe the subsequence of historical destiny of Samogitia and its addition to Lithuanian nation.

Old maps, picturing Samogitia or parts of it, with an exception of very few (Buceviciute 2006), have not been thoroughly assessed and studied yet. The history of Lithuania will never be complete without thorough assessment of information found in old maps.

Information on the history of Samogitia provided in this article is not new for the scientific community and we won't in any way pretend to be experts on this. We are willing to show that old maps can help revise and complete the historical image of Samogitia. They were universal, reflected both the natural and social phenomena and the evolution of patterns. Some of them included various historical comments in written form.

The maps thoroughly, vividly and informatively express the very essence of the fixed phenomenon or event which no other written document can do. One of the aims of the article is to encourage to more widely use maps as historical documents and to compare them with written information; which allows to assess an event or a historical period more clearly. The presented maps, in our opinion, fully reflect the peculiarities and variety of Samogitia.

It is quite difficult to differentiate ethnic lands in Lithuanian maps, especially in early historical periods. This publication presents approximately 50 maps of Lithuania and neighboring countries, where Samogitia was marked. They had different names, like: Samaiten, Samaitae, Zamaytae, Sama gota, Samoogesthia, Samogitia, Samattae, Samethia, Samogitie, Samagotia, Samogetia, Samogithia and others. The administrative terms: Samogitia Pars, Neighbourhood of Samogitia, Duchy of Samogitia. These maps popularized a cartographic presentation of Samogitia lands that remained practically unchanged until the 18th c. Many of them separated the area of Samogitia as a neighboring land from the rest of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by using border lines or colorful background. Chronological study of changes in the boundaries and territories on the map of Samogitia provides a basis for a number of hypothesis that could be either approved or rejected and which are based on collecting data from other historical sources or works by other researchers. In most cases, it is impossible to clearly identify to which administrative unit belongs one or another settlement or village. We found it interesting to see Samogitia in existing linguistic maps, and also in settlements, inhabited by Samogitians.

We hope that the publication will encourage researchers to study the history of Samogitia using maps in more depth. This is what the authors of the publication as well as other mentioned authors have done. Our article provides helpful links for the readers interested in more detailed studies of specific maps.

Summarizing we can state that the above mentioned Samogitia and Lithuania maps by Lithuanian and foreign authors lack thorough historical analysis and attention to become scientific discussions, so the society of Lithuania is hardly aware of them. The historical problem of the Samogitia can be solved only by joined efforts of cartographers, linguists and historians. We hope that this work will become an additional step towards the problem solution.

Caption: Fig. 1. Samogitia (Zemaitija) and the other historical ethnographic regions of Lithuania (in Lithuanian)

Caption: Fig. 2. Morfology of the Samogitian Upland: S2, V2 and R2 denotes Northen, Western and Eastern Samogitian respectively

Caption: Fig. 3. Samogitia (Zemaiten) on the map of Prussia and Livonia (1231-1411)

Caption: Fig. 4. Samogitia (Zemaitija) and castles. Durbe battle space (1260) on the map of Lithuania and its neighbors

Caption: Fig. 5. Samogitia (XeMawTHfl) 1384-1411 on the map of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania

Caption: Fig. 6. Samogitia (Sama gota) on the world map by Andreas Walsperger (oriented with South at the top) Konstanz. 1448/9

Caption: Fig. 7. Samogitia on the map of Central-Eastern Europe by Marcus Beneventanus, Rome 1507

Caption: Fig. 8. Samogitia on the map of Sarmatia, Hungaria, Poland, Russia, Prussia and Valache by Nicolaus Cusanus, Strasbourg 1520

Caption: Fig. 9. Samogitia on the map of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania by Bernard Wapowski, Cracow 1526

Caption: Fig. 10. Samogitia on the map of Sarmatia by Johan Honter, (1530, 1542, 1552)

Caption: Fig. 11. Samogitia (SAMOGETHIA) on the Carta marina map by Olaus Magnus, Venice 1539

Caption: Fig. 12. Samogitia (SAMOGESTHIA) on the map of Russia by Giacomo Gastaldi, Vienna1549

Caption: Fig. 13. Samogitia (SAMOGESTHIA) on the map of Poland and Eastern Europe by Giacomo Gastaldi, Venice 1562

Caption: Fig. 14. Samogitia on the map of Poland and Lithuania by Grodecki W., created in 1557, re-published in atlas by Abraham Ortelius, Antwerp 1572

Caption: Fig. 15. Samogitia (Samaiten) on the historical map of Livonian Confederation, by Johannes Portantius, Antwerpen 1576

Caption: Fig. 16. Samogitia on the map of Prussia by Casparo Henneberg, 1576

Caption: Fig. 17. Samogitia (Samogithi) on the map of Lithuania, Livonia and Moscovia by Maciej Strubycz, Cologne 1589

Caption: Fig. 18. Samogitia on the map of Poland by J. Honter, 1592

Caption: Fig. 19. Samogitia on the map of Scandinavia by Gerard de Jode, 1593

Caption: Fig. 20. Samogitia on the map of Lithuania by Gerardus Mercator, 1595

Caption: Fig. 21. Samogitia on the map of Prususia created by Henrico Zellio, 1542. Published Matthias Quada in 1596

Caption: Fig. 22. Mikolaj Krzysztof Radziwill Copper engraving portrait, painter Domenico Custos, 1603

Caption: Fig. 23. Samogitia on the fragment of the map of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by Prince Nicholas Christopher Radziwill, Amsterdam 1613

Caption: Fig. 24. Commemorative Litas coin dedicated to 400th of Nicholas Radziwill map

Caption: Fig. 25. Duchy (Eldership) of Samogitia (marked in red) in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (1654)

Caption: Fig. 26. Samogitia on the map of Magni Ducatus Lithuania by W. Blaeu, Amsterdam 1631

Caption: Fig. 27. Samogitia on the map of the provinces of the Grand Duchy Lithuania by Johannes Jansson, Amsterdam 1636

Caption: Fig. 28. Samogitia on the map of Magni Ducatus Lithuania by J. Blaeu, Amsterdam 1648

Caption: Fig. 29. Samogitia on the map of "Estats de la Couronne de Pologne" by Nicolas Sanson d'Abbeville, 1655

Caption: Fig. 30. The fragment of the map of the Kaunas district and southeren Samogitia, 1656, Georg von Schwenglen R. A.

Caption: Fig. 31. Samogitia on the map of Curland, Livonia and Samogitia by N. Sanson d'Abbeville, 1659

Caption: Fig. 32. Samogitia on the map of the Grand Duchy Lithuania and its administrative, geographical and religious divisions (1654-1667)

Caption: Fig. 33. Samogitia on the map of Livonia by Adam Olearius, Paris 1659

Caption: Fig. 34. Samogitia on the map of LIVONIA vulgo Lyefland by Joan Blaeu, 1662

Caption: Fig. 35. Samogitia on the map of the provinces of Vilnius and Trakai (in Lithuania) by N. Sanson d'Abbeville, Paris 1665-1675

Caption: Fig. 36. Samogitia on the map of Poland by Du Val (Du Vall), Paris 1667

Caption: Fig. 37. Samogitia on the map of the provinces of the Grand Duchy Lithuania by I. Danckert, Amsterdam 1670

Caption: Fig. 38. Samogitia on the map of Grand Duchy of Lithuania by Merian Matthaeus, 1672

Caption: Fig. 39. Samogitia on the map of Poland and Lithuania by Federic de Witt and Abraham Wolfg, Amsterdam 1675

Caption: Fig. 40. Samogitia on the map of Poland by Nicolaus Visscher, Amsterdam, around 1679/80.

Caption: Fig. 41. Samogitia on the map of Lithuania by Vincento Cornelli, Venine 1696

Caption: Fig. 42. Samogitia on the map of Poland and Lithuania by N. Sanson and A. H. Jaillot, Paris, 1690

Caption: Fig. 43. Samogitia (DUCHE SAMOGITIE) on the map of Poland, Lithuania and much of Latvia by Alexis Jaillot, Amsterdam 1692

Caption: Fig. 44. Samogitia on the map of Poland and Lithuania by Jean Baptiste Nolin, Paris 1697

Caption: Fig. 45. Samogitia on the map of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by Johannes Jansson, Amsterdam 1700

Caption: Fig. 46. Samogitia on the map of Poland by Nicholas De Fer, Paris 1700

doi: 10.3846/20296991.2014.890317

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Viktoras Lukosevicius

Faculty of Technology, Siauliai University, Vilniaus g. 141, LT-76353 Siauliai, Lithuania

E-mail: viktoras.lukosevicius@ktu.lt

Received 15 January 2014; accepted 24 February 2014

Viktoras LUKOSEVICIUS. Doctor, Prof. Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Siauliai University Vilniaus g. 141, LT-76353 Siauliai, Lithuania (Ph +370 41 595843, fax +370 41 595832).

A graduate of Kaunas Polytechnic Institute (now Kaunas University of Technology), geodetic engineer, 1962. Doctor's degree at Institute of Surveying, Aerial Photography and Cartography, Moscow, 1966. Publications: 2 books, over 70 research articles; participant of conferences in USA, Brasil, Sweden, Norway, Russia. Fellowship Winner, NATO and Italy National Science Competition, 1996. Member of Association for the Advancement of Baltic Studies.

Research interests: history geodesy and cartography.

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