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Cardiotonic effects of juice of bulbs of allium cepa on isolated frog's heart.

INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) are the common cause of deaths in many parts of the world. Although modern drugs are effective in preventing the disorders, their use is often limited because of their side effects and adverse reactions. A wide array of plants and its active principles, with minimal side effects, provide an alternate therapy for ischemic heart disease. (1) The cardiac glycosides (e.g. digoxin) used in CHF have narrow therapeutic index and cause many serious cardiac side effects. Despite of advanced knowledge regarding basic pharmacology of digitalis, still it produce serious cardiac effects. (2) Hence there is a need for a new drug research with wide therapeutic index and good cardiac activity.

The plant Allium cepa Linn(Liliaceae) has shown the antidiabetic, (3) antioxidant, (4) antihypertensive, (5) antithrombotic, (6) hypoglycemic, (7) antihyperlipidemic effects. (8) Bulb extract has shown to have ecobolic effect in rats. (9)

Onion bulbs contain a good number of phytochemicals, most of which are hydrocarbons and their derivatives. These include: Dipropyl disulphide (which is used as a flavor compound), Allicin (which has antidiabetic, antihypertensive, antibiotic and antithrombotic activities), diethyl sulphide (which is of insecticidal property), Dimethyl disulphide (which is used as a gas odorant and in chemical synthesis), Mercaptopropane or propylmercaptan (which is used as flavor compound). (10)

Due to above various activities shown by Allium cepa, the study was undertaken to access the cardiac activity of the juice of bulbs of Allium cepa.

MATERIALS AND METHOD:

Standard drug: Digoxin.

Test drug: Juice of bulbs of Allium cepa.

Physiological solutions: Ringer solution and Hypodynamic ringer solution.

Animal: Frog (Rana tigrina).

Instruments: Sherrington rotating drum, Sterling's heart lever.

Preparation of extract: Allium cepa bulbs were purchased from local market Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. It was authenticated by botanist. The Allium cepa bulbs were peeled and outer layer of bulbs removed.

Then the bulbs were crushed by grinding to produce juice. The material was filtered through whatman filter paper no.40 and filtrate was collected. This undiluted filtrate was used throughout the experiment.

Preparation of Digoxin solution: The marketed digoxin ampoules (Sunpharma Ltd.) were obtained from local market. Dilutions was made with distilled water as 50 [micro]g/ml. Above prepared samples were evaluated for their cardiotonic activity and treated as standard.

Preparation of Ringer solution and Hypodynamic Ringer solution: Ringer solution and Hypodynamic ringer solution was prepared by using standard method (Kulkarni S K, 1993).

Evaluation of Allium cepa juice after obtaining ethical clearance from the Institute Animal Ethics Committee, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar--24, the frog of species Rana tigrina was pithed and pinned to the frog board. A midline incision was given on the abdomen, the pectoral girdle was removed and the heart was exposed. The pericardium was carefully removed and few drops of frog ringer were poured over the heart.

The inferior vena cava was traced and a thread was put around it and a small cut was made to insert the venous cannula. The cannula was inserted in the vein and the thread was tied to assure that the cannula is in place which is in turn connected to a Marriott's bottle containing frog ringer solution. A small cut in one of the aorta was given for the ringer to come out. Heart was isolated and attached to the stand with moderate flow of ringer.

A thin pin hook was passed through the tip of the ventricle and with the help of a fine thread attached to the hook; it was tied to the free limb of the Sterling's heart lever which was fixed to a stand. A proper tension was adjusted by altering the height of the lever (Kulkarni SK, 1993, Kale SR, 2003). The experimental animals served as a self-control i.e. same heart used for both control as well as test. First the normal heart contraction was noted without exposing Allium cepa juice.

Thereafter the Allium cepa juice was administered through traube's tube attached to Marriott's bottle in a dose dependant manner i.e. 1drop to 16 drops. The rate and force of heart contraction were noted as given in the following figures and tables. The effect of Allium cepa juice was compared with that of digoxin solution containing 50 [micro]g/ml.

RESULT AND DISCUSSION: A pilot study was conducted on normal ringer solution perfused toads heart with graded doses of freshly prepared juice of bulbs of Allium cepa showed a cardio stimulant effect preceded by a brief period of cardiac arrest, which mimicked the action of digitalis. So the effect of juice of bulbs of Allium cepa was compared with digoxin solution in hypodynamic heart for comparison.

The juice of bulbs of Allium cepa may have a mechanism of action like digoxin and a brief cardiac arrest at a high dose which may be due to vagomimetic effect like digoxin. The force of cardiac contraction by the juice of bulbs of Allium cepa was more prominent than digoxin in our study.

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CONCLUSION: The pilot study revealed cardiac stimulant effect of juice of bulbs of Allium cepa in normal frog ringer solution. The juice of bulbs of Allium cepa also seems to possess cardiac stimulant effect on hypodynamic frog heart. In high doses it produced transient cardiac arrest followed by cardiac stimulation which may be due to vagomimetic action like digitalis, when the action was compared with digoxin. Further study in this regard will establish the role of juice of bulbs of Allium cepa.

DOI: 10.14260/jemds/2014/2743

REFERENCES:

(1.) Mohire NC, Salunkhe VR, Bhise SB, Yadav AV. Cardiotonic activity of aqueous extract of heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 2007; 450: 532-537.

(2.) Satoskar RS, Bhandarkar SD, Rege NN. Handbook of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics, 16th Medical Publishers 2004, p. 375

(3.) Galal EE, Gawad MA; Antidiabetic activity of Egyptian onion "Allium cepa" extract; J. Egypt. Med. Assoc.; 1965; 48; 14-45.

(4.) Dhanprakash, Brahma N. Singh, Garima Upadhyay; Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of phenols from onion (Allium cepa); Food Chemistry; 2007; 102(4); 1389-1393

(5.) Sakai Y., Murakami T., Yamamoto Y. Antihypertensive effect of onion on NO synthase inhibitor induced hypertensive rats; Biosc; Biotecnol Biochem.; 2003; 67(6) 1305-11.

(6.) Yamada K., Namaura A., Sawashita N., Naguchi Y. Yamamoto J; An onion variety has Natural antithrombotic effect as assessed by thrombosis /thromolysis models in rodents; Thromb Res.; 2004; 114(6); 213-20.

(7.) Compos KE, Diniz YS, Cataneo AC, Faine LA, Alves MJ, Nobeli EL; Hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect of onion, Allium cepa: diatary onion addition, antioxidant activity and hypoglycic effect on diabetic rats; Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2003; 54(3); 241-6.

(8.) Lata S, Saxena KK, Bhasin V, Saxena RS, Kumar A, Shrivastva VK; Beneficial effect of Allium sativum. Allium cepa and Comiphora mukul on experimental hyperlipidemia and arthrosclerosis--A comparive evaluation; Indian J. Pharmacol; 1991; 37; 132-5.

(9.) Chatterjee TK, Medicinal plant with antifertility property; Herbal Option; 1997; 77.

(10.) Jeffrey B H and Herbert B, Photochemical Dictionary. A hand book of bioactive compounds, 2003. 1st edition, Tavlor and Francis London Washington D. C. pp 234-245.

AUTHORS:

[1.] Basudev Lenka

[2.] Manas Ranjan Pradhan

[3.] Manjushree Mohanty

[4.] Subhradipta Bhattacharyya

PARTICULARS OF CONTRIBUTORS:

[1.] Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacology, KIMS, Odisha.

[2.] Lecturer, Department of Pharmacology, KIMS, Odisha.

[3.] Professor, Department of Pharmacology, KIMS. Odisha.

[4.] Tutor, Department of Pharmacology, KIMS, Odisha.

NAME ADDRESS EMAIL ID OF THE CORRESPONDING AUTHOR:

Dr. Basudev Lenka, Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacology, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, BBSR-24, Odisha.

Email: blenka2012@yahoo.com

Date of Submission: 23/05/2014. Date of Peer Review: 24/05/2014. Date of Acceptance: 26/05/2014. Date of Publishing: 04/06/2014.
Table 1: Effect of juice of bulbs of Allium cepa on ringer solution
perfused heart

Sl. No.         Drug          Dose (drops)

1              Control             0
2         Allium cepa juice        2
3         Allium cepa juice        4
4         Allium cepa juice        6
5         Allium cepa juice        8
6         Allium cepa juice        10
7         Allium cepa juice        12
8         Allium cepa juice        14
9         Allium cepa juice        16

Sl. No.       Change in rate           Change in force

1                 Normal                   Normal
2          T ransient decrease         Mild increased
3          T ransient decrease         Mild increased
4          T ransient decrease         Mild increased
5         Significantly decrease       Mild increased
6         Significantly decrease     Moderate increased
7              Brief arrest        Significantly increased
8              Brief arrest        Significantly increased
9             Cardiac arrest       Significantly increased

Table 2: Effect of juice of bulbs of Allium cepa on hypodynamic
perfused heart

Sl. No.         Drug          Dose (drops)

1              Control             0
2         Allium cepa juice        2
3         Allium cepa juice        4
4         Allium cepa juice        6
5         Allium cepa juice        8
6         Allium cepa juice        10
7         Allium cepa juice        12
8         Allium cepa juice        14

Sl. No.        Change in rate            Change in force

1                  Normal                    Normal
2                No effect               Mild increased
3                No effect               Mild increased
4                No effect               Mild increased
5                No effect             Moderate increased
6                No effect             Moderate increased
7         Transient Cardiac arrest   Significantly increased
8         Transient Cardiac arrest   Significantly increased

Table 3: Effect of Digoxin on hypodynamic perfused heart

Sl.    Drug      Dose     Change in rate       Change in force
No.             (drops)

1     Control      0          Normal               Normal
2     Digoxin      1        No effect             No effect
3     Digoxin      2        No effect             No effect
4     Digoxin      4      Mild decrease           No effect
5     Digoxin      8      Mild decrease           No effect
6     Digoxin     .12     Mild decrease      Moderate increased
7     Digoxin     16      Mild decrease    Significantly increased
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Title Annotation:ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Author:Lenka, Basudev; Pradhan, Manas Ranjan; Mohanty, Manjushree; Bhattacharyya, Subhradipta
Publication:Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences
Date:Jun 9, 2014
Words:1573
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