Can a 1-day clear liquid diet with a split -dose polyethylene glycol overcome conventional practice patterns during the preparation for screening colonoscopy?
Among the public, there is a growing awareness that colorectal cancer is preventable and can be diagnosed early via screening or surveillance programs (1). Colorectal cancer directly elicits the necessity of a colonoscopic examination (1). Bowel preparation is a critical quality indicator in colonoscopy (2). An adequate bowel preparation is essential in providing satisfactory visualization of the colonic mucosa, to optimize lesion detection, and to make a safe therapeutic intervention (2-4). Despite this, unfortunately, many patients cannot comply with the bowel cleaning regimens because of strict dietary modifications that affect their preprocedural quality of life and the large volume of flavorless laxative solutions (5,6). Moreover, patients having an inadequate bowel cleaning need to repeat similar preparation steps before the next examination (6,7). This also means that the risks associated with endoscopic investigation and anesthesia increase, and the procedure cost doubles (5,7).
In studies, the dietary factor is often omitted or usually considered a component of adherence to the bowel preparation instructions, or there is only a laxative evaluation without considering diets (8). Currently, the selection of diets and their durations, as well as the strategy of preparation, have been changing according to the preference of the physician and the need of the patient (9). The clear liquid diet (CLD) and low-residue diet (LRD) are frequently prescribed diets in most bowel preparation schedules (8,9). In 2013, the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy recommended an LRD on the day preceding the colonoscopy with moderate quality evidence. However due to a lack of randomized controlled trials, the committee presented an open-ended approach to choosing either a CLD or an LRD with a 1-day or a 3-day regimen (10). In 2014, the guideline reviewed by the members of the Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer in the United States offered either LRD or full liquids until the evening on the day before the colonoscopy, considering the patient's medical history, medications used, and the adequacy of bowel preparation reported from prior colonoscopies (11).
Although dietary flexibility is allowed in several bowel preparation regimens, the ideal dietary modification, to the best of our knowledge, has not yet been described. In this prospective study, considering the bowel cleaning efficacy, a detection rate of neoplastic lesions, and patient tolerance, we aimed to compare a 3-day combined diet (CMD) (2.5-day LRD followed by CLD at two meals) with a 1-day CLD in a patient population that ingested a split-dose regimen of 4 L polyethylene glycol and electrolyte lavage solution (PEG-ELS) with sulfate or without sulfate.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This study was designed to be prospective, randomized, and investigator blinded. It was conducted between January 2018 and April 2018 at the gastrointestinal endoscopy unit of a tertiary referral single center. This study was approved by Baskent University School of Medicine, the Human Ethics Review Board (Study number: KA18/14).
Individuals aged >50 years, who applied for a screening colonoscopy under the average colon cancer risk and were healthy or without a severe or complicated systemic disease, were recruited. Patients were excluded if they had a personal history of colorectal carcinoma, inflammatory bowel disease, prior surgery of the colon, inability to move because of a neurologic or orthopedic disease, familial polyposis syndrome, or who needed colonoscopy urgently, for example, due to an acute lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage. All participants provided informed consent before the study enrollment.
The patients were randomly divided into two groups: the first group received 1-day CLD in which participants consumed a pure liquid diet throughout 24 h, and the second group received a 3-day CMD in which participants started an LRD 72 h prior to the colonoscopy and continued for 2.5 days; then they were applied CLD at last two meals before the colonoscopy. CLD is a diet consisting of exclusively clear liquids, and it does not include any solids, fibers, vegetables, or fruit pulps. LRD limits high-fiber foods such as cereals, beans, peas, nuts, seeds, and raw or dried fruits and vegetables. All diet recipes were given to every patient in a detailed written form, including an acceptable and alternative food list for breakfast, lunch, and evening. Patients were asked to keep a food diary to verify their adherence to the prescribed diet.
The cleaning solution used in our research consisted of a total of 4 L of PEG-ELS (Golytely, Braintree Laboratories, Massachusetts, United States) or 4 L of sulfate-free-PEG-ELS (SF-PEG-ELS) (Endofalk, Dr. Falk Pharma GmbH, Freiburg, Germany), so that two subgroups were added to two different diet groups (a 1-day CLD+PEG-ELS vs. a 1-day CLD+SF-PEG-ELS and a 3-day CMD+PEG-ELS vs. a 3-day CMD+SF-PEG-ELS). Both PEG solutions were administered in a split-dose fashion. The first dose of 2 L was administered between 12 and 16 h before the scheduled time of the colonoscopy. The remaining 2 L was offered between 3 and 6 h before the scheduled time of the colonoscopy. In this way, approximately 250 mL were ingested every 10 min, and all patients completed each part of the preparation in 2 h. Due to conscious sedation, any liquid intake was prohibited 3 h before the procedure. All endoscopic procedures were performed between 8 am and 4 pm in a day following an appointment program.
Assessment of patient's tolerability and symptoms related to preparation
Before the procedure, each patient completed a questionnaire called The Mayo Clinic Bowel Prep Tolerability Questionnaire, which examined the tolerability of the preparation and willingness to take it again, taste, fullness, lack of sleep, and side effects (nausea, vomiting, bloating, and abdominal pain) (12). These were rated on a scale from 1 (easy) to 4 (extremely difficult) for tolerability, and from 1 (mild) to 4 (extremely severe) for symptoms related to the preparation. A nurse asked whether the patient had completed the prescribed diet regimen before the endoscopic procedure. If the patient consumed <50% of the laxative solution, it was described as poor compliance, and the endoscopic procedure was cancelled.
Assessment of colon cleaning
All endoscopists were blinded to the preparing regimen and instructed not to discuss the bowel preparation with the patient. After the procedure, an endoscopist recorded colonoscopic features, a total procedure time, if any therapeutic intervention was applied, and whether they would recommend an early repeat colonoscopy based on the colonoscopic findings. The quality of cleaning for each segment of the colon was rated according to the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale (BBPS) as follows: Score 0 (mucosa not visible due to solid stool, or thick liquid stool cannot be cleared); Score 1 (areas of the colon segment not seen well due to staining, residual stool, and/or opaque liquid); Score 2 (minor amount of residual staining, small fragments of stool and/or opaque liquid, but mucosa seen well); and Score 3 (entire mucosa of the colon segment seen well) (13,14). The left colon, transverse colon, and right colon segments were scored separately, and then these segment scores were summed for a total BBPS score ranging from 0 to 9. Categorical assessment for each possible total BBPS score: "excellent," 8-9; "good," 6-7; "fair," 5; "poor," 3-4; or "unsatisfactory," 0-2. All study endoscopists were trained through the video programs available at www.cori.org/bbps website to provide a reliable assessment and decrease interrater differences.
This study was designed to have an 80% power to detect a difference between the groups with good BBPS scores. We assumed that [alpha]=0.05 and [beta]=0.20. Considering an expected dropout rate of 10%, at least 110 patients were needed for each group.
The IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 25.0 (IBM Corp.; Armonk, NY, USA) program was used in the analysis of the variables. The normal distribution of the data was evaluated with the Lilliefors corrected Kolmogorov-Smirnov and the Shapiro-Wilk tests. The Kruskal-Wallis H test was used according to the Monte Carlo simulation results for the comparison of four independent groups, according to the quantitative data (age, weight, height, and BBPS). Dunn's multiple comparison test was used for the post-hoc analyses of the BBPS variable, which was found to be significant. The Pearson chi-squared test was used with the exact and Monte Carlo simulation results, the Fisher exact test with the exact results, the Fisher-Freeman-Holton test with the Monte Carlo simulation method in the comparison of the groups according to the categorical variables, and the column ratios were compared with each other and expressed according to the Benjamini-Hochberg corrected p-value results. The quantitative data were expressed as median (percentile, 25%-75%), and the categorical variables were expressed as n (%) in Tables 1-4. The variables were analyzed at the 95% confidence level, and a p-value of less than 0.05 was accepted as significant.
A total of 506 patients were enrolled in this study. Of those, 124 were in the CLD+PEG-ELS group, 127 were in the CLD+SF-PEG-ELS group, 127 were in the CMD+PEG-ELS group, and 129 were in the CMD+SF-PEG-ELS group. A total of 10 patients were excluded due to nonadherence or poor compliance with the bowel preparation protocol as advised.
The demographic characteristics of the patients in the four groups are presented in Table 1. There were no significant differences among the groups in terms of their age, weight, height, gender, or comorbidity.
Overall, the BBPS and BBPS scores for each segment of the colon of the four groups are shown in Table 2. The median BBPS score was 9 for the CLD+PEG-ELS group and 8, 6, and 9 for the CLD+SF-PEG-ELS, CM-D+PEG-ELS, and CMD+SF-PEG-ELS groups, respectively. The quality of the bowel preparation was significantly inferior in the CMD+PEG-ELS group than the CLD+PEG-ELS (p=0.004) and CMD+SF-PEG-ELS groups (p=0.007).
The polyp detection rate was the lowest in the CM-D+PEG-ELS group (31.5%) and the highest in the CLD+SF-PEG-ELS group (41.7%), although there were no statistical differences among the groups (Table 3). However, the detection rates for an adenomatous polyp or multiple polyps were significantly lower in the CM-D+PEG-ELS group than in other groups (p=0.018 and p=0.039, respectively). None of the CLD+SF-PEG-ELS, CLD+PEG-ELS, or CMD+SF-PEG-ELS groups showed superiority when compared to each other in terms of the detection rate of adenomatous polyps and detection of more than one polyp. The maximum diameter of polyps did not differ statistically among the groups (p=0.114).
The tolerance and compliance with diet and laxative ingestion are summarized in Table 4. The adherence to diet instructions and intake of the laxative solution was reported for at least 75% of patients before the endoscopic procedure. With respect to the easiness rating of following the diet and laxative consumption, there were no significant differences among the four groups (p=0.056, p=0.611, respectively). Participants reported a willingness to perform the same preparation protocol in case of repeat colonoscopy, with the percentages of 83.6% in the CLD+PEG-ELS group, 83.5% in the CLD+SF-PEG-ELS group, 83% in the CMD+PEG-ELS group, and 89.7% in the CMD+SF-PEG-ELS group (p=0.352). Nobody discontinued the study because of bothersome symptoms during the preparation period. The most common bothersome symptoms related to bowel preparation were a bad taste in the mouth and lack of sleep due to excessive bathroom trips. However, there was no statistically significant difference among the groups (p=0.068 and p=0.760, respectively). Gastric fullness and nausea/vomiting were more frequently reported in the CMD+PEG-ELS group than the SF-PEG-ELS users (p=0.008 and p=0.004, respectively). Abdominal pain/cramps were more frequent in the CLD+PEG-ELS group than others (p=0.005).
An adequate bowel preparation is the backbone of colonoscopy. Diet control is one of the most critical factors of adequate bowel preparation. In this prospective study, a 1-day CLD was not inferior to a 3-day CMD for colonoscopy preparation in terms of bowel cleaning, the polyp detection rate, and patient tolerance. The median BBPS scores were 9 for both the CLD groups. The polyp detection rate was the highest in the CLD+SF-PEG-ELS group. None of the participants in the CLD groups abandoned the diet and consumption of laxative incomplete due to intolerance or adverse effects. However, the split-dose SF-PEG-ELS was more tolerable than the split-dose PEG-ELS.
It is apparent that the restrictive characteristics of diet preparation might be a deterrent for application to colonoscopy screening (15,16). Moreover, the type of diet has not been described in the present guidelines, and the conditions for when to choose the LRD or the CLD have not been elucidated (10,11). The current strategy given in the guidelines is to leave this choice to the physician. Clinicians should ultimately make adjustment so that the diet is optimal for their population or region (17-20). Multiple factors, such as age, gender, the presence of constipation, eating habits, and kinds and quantities of food consumed, also affect the result of the choice of diet in the clinical setting (17-20). Turkish cuisine has a wide variety of dishes, with pastries and bread taking the first place, followed by meat dishes and butter (21). Despite the regional differences, there are still common heavy meals in Turkish cuisine (21). People who were asymptomatic and older than 50 years, underwent screening colonoscopy in our study. It would make sense that the CMD would be more appropriate for our patients. However, we observed that shortening the diet duration and simplifying diet list contents might improve the compliance of the patient. Our findings confirmed this observation; good or excellent bowel cleanness (BBPS>5) was achieved in the 1-day CLD groups. Patients from both 1-day CLD groups, regardless of their laxative choices, succeeded in achieving a high BBPS score. The consumption of a large variety and quantity of liquids on the day before the colonoscopy rendered the procedure complicated and a 3-day diet unnecessary in our patients. In the literature, it was noticed that studies specifically looking at diet showed almost no differences between the two diet types (22). Stolpman et al. (23) investigated the effect of diet on the bowel cleaning quality. These authors randomized 201 patients to either CLD the day before colonoscopy or a low-residue breakfast and lunch followed by clear liquids for the rest of the day. Sodium sulfate in a split dose was used for all patients. There were no clinically or statistically significant differences in the quality of colon cleaning. Nevertheless, minimal differences were observed in patient tolerance of the regimens, with more bloating in the LRD group and the clear liquid group experiencing slightly more hunger (23). Nguyen et al. (24) reported a meta-analysis of eight randomized controlled studies. There were no statistically significant differences between the LRD and the CLD groups for adequate bowel preparations, and 87% of patients in the LRD group had an adequate bowel preparation compared with 83.2% (586/704) of patients in the CLD group (24). In a Polish study, Mytyk et al. (25) found that 6-18-year-old children showed no differences between the CLD group and LRD group with regard to a total BBPS score. Moreover, Megna et al. (26) recently reported that CLD was an independent predictive factor of good bowel preparation for chromoendoscopy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. We believe that the short-term and simplified CLD will be suitable for the Turkish patient population. Although a new meta-analysis has reported that LRD is superior to CLD in terms of patient satisfaction scores, these authors were unable to detect a significant difference in the BBPS scores between the LRD and CLD groups (27). We propose that a 3-day CMD could be offered, especially in patients with previous poor bowel preparation or severe constipation.
It is known that suboptimal examination naturally decreases diagnostic accuracy, results in supererogatory repeat procedures, and yields misadjustment of the intervals of surveillance for neoplastic lesions (28-30). In our study, the polyp detection rates varied between 31.5 and 41.7%. The polyp detection rates in the 1-day CLD groups were not inferior to those in the 3-day CMD groups. Stolpman et al. (23) found that a total of 65.4% of patients in the CLD group had polyps, compared with 68% of patients in the LRD group. This result was not significantly different between the groups (23). Walter et al. (31) reported that the adenoma detection rate was similar between the LRD group vs. clear liquid diet, that is, 35.3% vs. 44.4%, respectively. While these rates were closer to our findings, they found a significantly greater number of adenomas in the clear liquid diet arm (31). Even though there was no statistical significance, the overall polyp detection rate and the capacity of finding of the polyps smaller than 1 cm were the highest in the 1-day CLD groups in our study. Detection rates of an adenomatous polyp or multiple polyps were significantly lower in the CMD+PEG-ELS group than other groups, which was undoubtedly associated with low-quality bowel preparation in this group. On the contrary, patients in the 1-day CLD groups achieved higher rates in the detection of an adenomatous polyp and multiple polyps, which was consistent with a higher BBPS score. In other words, we can underline that CLD is quite convenient when it comes to detecting and following up the colon polyps.
Tolerability of the bowel preparation protocol crucially affects the results (32). When comparing the CLD and CMD groups, we detected no differences in the tolerability of diets and laxatives, as well as the willingness to take the same preparation in case of repeated colonoscopy. The CLD was too restrictive and contained insufficient calories, which might have interfered with daily activities. However, its short period and unlimited volume facilitated the patient's adherence. There was no significant difference in diet tolerance between the two diet groups. Those patients who were unwilling to repeat this procedure typically complained of a significantly greater number of adverse gastrointestinal symptoms due to the PEG solutions. Based on randomized studies, it has shown that a split-dose PEG-ELS enhances patients' compliance and tolerability of the preparation by increasing the time required to consume the entire volume of lavage solution (33-35). The consensus of the major gastrointestinal societies is that the choice of agent should be tailored to the individual patient but that a split-dose regimen can be recommended in all cases (10,11). In our study, every group had split-dose PEG-ELS. However, PEG-ELS resulted in more bothersome symptoms than SF-PEG-ELS, such as gastric fullness and nausea/vomiting. Sodium sulfate can increase the micellar properties of the ELS solution, indirectly the lavage effect of laxative. However, the taste of the solution might change to an unfavorable sense so that the tolerance and compliance of the patient might decrease (36).
There are some limitations to our study. First, we should have included the education and socioeconomic status of the patients in the initial assessment of demographic characteristics, which are important factors for optimizing the results of preparation. We could have investigated the correlation between compliance and education and socioeconomic status of the patients. Second, we could have selected just one laxative solution, which would have resulted in more homogenous groups. Yet, we had to divide the groups according to the laxative solutions beside the diet, and SF-PEG-ELS showed a difference as well. It complicated the results unavoidably. Finally, the patients consuming less than 50% of the laxative solution or who did not adhere to the diet should not have been omitted. Then, the poor compliance might have been interpreted objectively.
In conclusion, our search found that a short-lived diet instead of a prolonged diet, split dose of laxative instead of a large volume solution at once, and more palatable formulations obtained by removing sulfate components were improved to maximize the quality of bowel preparation and patient's tolerability and adherence, and to minimize patient's discomfort. A well-defined CLD without volume restriction would be more appropriate for outpatient colonoscopy. Today, despite the pending additional studies on diet selection, colonoscopists should carefully evaluate any compromise when it comes to the efficacy and tolerability of diet based on patients' individual needs.
Ethics Committee Approval: Ethics committee approval was received for this study from the ethics committee of Baskent University School of Medicine, the Human Ethics Review Board (Study number: KA18/14).
Informed Consent: Written informed consent was obtained from all patients who participated in this study.
Peer-review: Externally peer-reviewed.
Author Contributions: Concept - D.O.E, A.S.B.; Design - D.O.E, N.S.; Supervision - A.S.B.; Resources - D.O.E., N.S., C.G.; Materials - A.B., A.O., B.Y.G., E.Y.; Data Collection and/or Processing - D.O.E., N.S., C.G.; Analysis and/or Interpretation - D.O.E., N.S.; Literature Search - D.O.E., N.S.; Writing Manuscript - D.O.E.; Critical Review - A.S.B.
Conflict of Interest: The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.
Financial Disclosure: The authors declared that this study has received no financial support.
(1.) Murphy CC, Sandler RS, Sanoff HK, Yang YC, Lund JL, Baron JA. Decrease in incidence of colorectal cancer among individuals 50 years or older after recommendations for population-based screening. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2017; 15: 903-9.
(2.) Rex DK, Schoenfeld PS, Cohen J, et al. Quality indicators for colonoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc 2015; 81: 31-53.
(3.) Harrison NM, Hjelkrem MC. Bowel cleansing before colonoscopy: Balancing efficacy, safety, cost and patient tolerance. World J Gastrointest Endosc 2016; 8: 4-13.
(4.) Kaminski MF, Thomas--Gibson S, Bugajski M et al. Performance measures for lower gastrointestinal endoscopy: a European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Quality Improvement Initiative. Endoscopy 2017; 49: 378-97.
(5.) Mahmood S, Farooqui SM, Madhoun MF. Predictors of inadequate bowel preparation for colonoscopy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018; 30: 819-26.
(6.) Martens P, Bisschops R. Bowel preparation for colonoscopy: efficacy, tolerability and safety. Acta Gastroenterol Belg 2014; 77: 249-55.
(7.) Lebwohl B, Kastrinos F, Glick M, Rosenbaum AJ, Wang T, Neugut AI. The impact of suboptimal bowel preparation on adenoma miss rates and the factors associated with early repeat colonoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc 2011; 73: 1207-14.
(8.) Leszczynski AM, MacArthur KL, Nelson KP, Schueler SA, Quatromoni PA, Jacobson BC. The association among diet, dietary fiber, and bowel preparation at colonoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc 2018; 88: 685-94.
(9.) Parekh PJ, Oldfield EC, Johnson DA. Bowel preparation for colonoscopy: what is best and necessary for quality? Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2019; 35: 51-7.
(10.) Hassan C, Bretthauer M, Kaminski MF, et al. Bowel preparation for colonoscopy: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Guideline. Endoscopy 2013; 45: 142-50.
(11.) Johnson DA, Barkun AN, Cohen LB, et al. Optimizing Adequacy of Bowel Cleansing for Colonoscopy: Recommendations From the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer. Gastroenterology 2014; 147: 903-24.
(12.) Patel M, Staggs E, Thomas CS, Lukens F, Wallace M, Almansa C. Development and validation of the Mayo Clinic Bowel Prep Tolerability Questionnaire. Dig Liver Dis 2014; 46: 808-12.
(13.) Lai EJ, Calderwood AH, Doros G, Fix OK, Jacobson BC. The Boston bowel preparation scale: a valid and reliable instrument for colonoscopy-oriented research. Gastrointest Endosc 2009; 69: 620-5.
(14.) Calderwood AH, Jacobson BC. Comprehensive validation of the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale. Gastrointest Endosc 2010; 72: 686-92.
(15.) Saltzman JR, Cash BD, Pasha SF, et al. Bowel preparation before colonoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc 2015; 81: 781-94.
(16.) Sahin MK, Aker S, Arslan HN. Barriers to Colorectal Cancer Screening in a Primary Care Setting in Turkey. J Community Health 2017; 42: 101-8.
(17.) Guo X, Yang Z, Zhao L, et al. Enhanced instructions improve the quality of bowel preparation for colonoscopy: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Gastrointest Endosc 2017; 85: 90-7.
(18.) Groton M, Fisher MJ, Speroni KG, Daniel MG. A prospective, randomized, single-blind study evaluating the effectiveness, tolerability, and cost of colonoscopy bowel preparations. Gastroenterol Nurs 2015; 38: 31-41.
(19.) Bechtold ML, Mir F, Puli SR, Nguyen DL. Optimizing bowel preparation for colonoscopy: a guide to enhance quality of visualization. Ann Gastroenterol 2016; 29: 137-46.
(20.) Rice SC, Higginbotham T, Dean MJ, Slaughter JC, Yachimski PS, Obstein KL. Video on Diet Before Outpatient Colonoscopy Does Not Improve Quality of Bowel Preparation: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Trial. Am J Gastroenterol 2016; 111: 1564-71.
(21.) Batu A, Batu HS. Historical background of Turkish gastronomy from ancient times until today. Journal of Ethnic Foods 2018; 5: 76-82.
(22.) Song GM, Tian X, Ma L, et al. Regime for Bowel Preparation in Patients Scheduled to Colonoscopy: Low-Residue Diet or Clear Liquid Diet? Evidence From Systematic Review With Power Analysis. Medicine (Baltimore) 2016; 95: e2432.
(23.) Stolpman DR, Solem CA, Eastlick D, Adlis S, Shaw MJ. A randomized controlled trial comparing a low- residue diet versus clear liquids for colonoscopy preparation: impact on tolerance, procedure time, and adenoma detection rate. J Clin Gastroenterol 2014; 48: 851-5.
(24.) Nguyen DL, Jamal MM, Nguyen ET, Puli SR, Bechtold ML. Low-residue versus clear liquid diet before colonoscopy: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials Gastrointest Endosc 2016; 83: 499-507.
(25.) Mytyk A, Lazowska-Przeorek I, Karolewska-Bochenek K, et al. Clear Liquid Versus Low-fibre Diet in Bowel Cleansing for Colonos-copy in Children: A Randomized Trial. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2018; 66: 720-4.
(26.) Megna B, Weiss J, Ley D, et al. Clear liquid diet before bowel preparation predicts successful chromoendoscopy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Gastrointest Endosc 2019; 89: 373-9.
(27.) Thukral C, Tewani SK, Lake AJ, et al. Results of a Community-based, Randomized Study Comparing a Clear Liquid Diet With a Low-residue Diet Using a Magnesium Citrate Preparation for Screening and Surveillance Colonoscopies. J Clin Gastroenterol 2019; 53: 34-9.
(28.) Pontone S, Hassan C, Maselli R, et al. Multiple, zonal and multi-zone adenoma detection rates according to quality of cleansing during colonoscopy. United European Gastroenterol J 2016; 4: 778-83.
(29.) Sulz MC, KrOger A, Prakash M, Manser CN, Heinrich H, Misselwitz B. Meta-analysis of the effect of bowel preparation on adenoma detection: early adenomas affected stronger than advanced adenomas. PLoS One. 2017; 11: e0154149.
(30.) Holt EW, Yimam KK, Ma H, Shaw RE, Sundberg RA, Verhille MS. Patient tolerability of bowel preparation is associated with polyp detection rate during colonoscopy. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis 2014; 23: 135-40.
(31.) Walter J, Francis G, Matro R, et al. The impact of diet iberalization on bowel preparation for colonoscopy. Endosc Int Open 2017; 5: E253-60.
(32.) Spada C, Cannizzaro R, Bianco MA, et al. Preparation for colonoscopy: Recommendations by an expert panel in Italy. Dig Liver Dis 2018; 50: 1124-32.
(33.) Tajika M, Tanaka T, Ishihara M, et al. A Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating a Low-Volume PEG Solution Plus Ascorbic Acid versus Standard PEG Solution in Bowel Preparation for Colonoscopy. Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2015; 2015: 326581.
(34.) Perreault G, Goodman A, Larion S, et al. Split-versus single- dose preparation tolerability in a multiethnic population: decreased side effects but greater social barriers. Ann Gastroenterol 2018; 31: 356-64.
(35.) Martel M, Barkun AN, Menard C, Restellini S, Kherad O, Vanasse A. Split-Dose Preparations Are Superior to Day-Before Bowel Cleansing Regimens: A Meta-analysis. Gastroenterology 2015; 149: 79-88.
(36.) Rex DK, Di Palma JA, Rodriguez R, McGovan J, Cleavland M. A randomized clinical study comparing reduced-volume oral sulfate solution with standard 4-liter sulfate-free electrolyte lavage solution as preparation for colonoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc 2010; 72: 328-36.
Digdem Ozer Etik (1), Nuretdin Suna (1), Cemre Gunduz (2), Ahmet Bostan (3), Alperen Ozdemir (3), Bade Yagmur Gurel (3), Ezgi Yenisekerci (3), Ahmet Sedat Boyacioglu (1)
(1) Department of Gastroenterology, Baskent University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey
(2) Department of Internal Disease, Baskent University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey
(3) Baskent University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey
Corresponding Author: Digdem Ozer Etik; firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: January 31, 2019 Accepted: April 11, 2019 Available online date: June 26, 2019
Table 1. Demographic characteristics of the patients in four groups (CLD+PEG-ELS): A (CLD+SF-PEG-ELS):B (n=124) (n=127) Median (Q1/Q3) Median (Q1/Q3) Age 61 (54/66) 61 (55/68) Weight (kg) 75 (62/88) 74 (63/82) Height (cm) 165 (158/171) 165 (160/172) n (%) n (%) Gender Female 80 (64.5) 82 (64.6) Male 44 (34.5) 45 (35.4) Diabetes mellitus 19(14.9) 27 (21.3) Hypertension 48 (38.8) 45 (35.4) Cardiovascular disorder 17 (13.4) 19 (15.0) Thyroid dysfunction 22 (17.9) 20 (15.7) Malignancy 6 (4.5) 6 (4.7) Renal dysfunction 2 (1.5) 5 (3.9) History of abdominal surgery 57 (46.3) 47 (37.0) (CMD+PEG-ELS):C (CMD+SF-PEG-ELS): D (n=127) (n=129) Median (Q1/Q3) Median (Q1/Q3) Age 60 (54/68) 58 (54/66) Weight (kg) 79 (66/85) 74 (65/84) Height (cm) 165 (161/174) 166 (160/173) n (%) n (%) Gender Female 74 (58.3) 79 (63.7) Male 53 (41.7) 50 (36.3) Diabetes mellitus 30 (23.6) 20 (15.1) Hypertension 62 (48.8) 48 (37.3) Cardiovascular disorder 22 (17.3) 18 (14.1) Thyroid dysfunction 20 (15.7) 16 (12.4) Malignancy 8 (6.3) 7 (6.3) Renal dysfunction 6 (4.7) 2 (1.6) History of abdominal surgery 63 (49.6) 52 (40.0) p Age 0.294 (1) Weight (kg) 0.137 (1) Height (cm) 0.447 (1) Gender Female 0. 156 (2) Male Diabetes mellitus 0.192 (2) Hypertension 0.120 (2) Cardiovascular disorder 0.855 (2) Thyroid dysfunction 0.683 (2) Malignancy 0.636 (3) Renal dysfunction 0.348 (3) History of abdominal surgery 0.166 (2) 1-day clear liquid diet + polyethylene glycol and electrolyte lavage solution: CLD+PEG-ELS: A 1-day clear liquid diet + sulfate free polyethylene glycol and electrolyte lavage solution: CLD+ SF-PEG-ELS: B 3-day combined diet + polyethylene glycol and electrolyte lavage solution: CMD+PEG-ELS: C 3-day combined diet + sulfate free polyethylene glycol and electrolyte lavage solution: CMD+ SF-PEG-ELS: D (1) Kruskal--Wallis test (Monte Carlo), (2) Pearson chi-squared test (Monte Carlo), (3) Fisher--Freeman--Halton Table 2. Overall Boston Bowel Preparation Scale scores (BBPS) and BBPS scores for each segment of the colon of the four groups (CLD+PEG-ELS):A (CLD+SF-PEG-ELS):B (n=124) (n=127) Median (Q1/Q3) Median (Q1/Q3) BBPS total score 9 (6/9) 8 (6/9) n (%) n (%) Left colon, BBPS score 0 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 4 (3.0) 4 (3.1) 2 29 (23.9) 48 (37.8) 3 91 (73.1) (C) 75 (59.1) Transvers colon, BBPS score 0 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 2 (1.5) 7 (5.5) 2 41 (32.8) 53 (41.7) 3 81 (65.7) (C) 67 (52.8) Right colon, BBPS score 0 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 7 (6.0) 12 (9.4) 2 39 (31.3) 55 (43.3) 3 78 (62.7) (C) 60 (47.2) (CMD+PEG-ELS):C (CMD+SF-PEG-ELS):D (n=127) (n=29) Median (Q1/Q3) Median (Q1/Q3) BBPS total score 6 (6/9) (A,D) 9 (6/9) n (%) n (%) Left colon, BBPS score 0 2 (1.6) 1 (0.5) 1 6 (4.7) 3 (2.2) 2 59 (46.5) (A) 43 (34.1) 3 60 (47.2) 82 (63.2) (C) Transvers colon, BBPS score 0 2 (1.6) 1 (0.5) 1 9 (7.1) 5 (3.8) 2 64 (50.4) (D) 44 (34.6) 3 52 (40.9) 79 (61.1) (C) Right colon, BBPS score 0 2 (1.6) 1 (1.1) 1 14 (11.0) 7 (5.4) 2 61 (48.0) 49 (37.8) 3 50 (39.4) 72 (55.7) (C) p BBPS total score 0.001 (#1) Left colon, BBPS score 0 0.026 (3) 1 2 3 Transvers colon, BBPS score 0 0.012 (2) 1 2 3 Right colon, BBPS score 0 0.045 (3) 1 2 3 1-day clear liquid diet + polyethylene glycol and electrolyte lavage solution: CLD+PEG-ELS: A 1-day clear liquid diet + sulfate free polyethylene glycol and electrolyte lavage solution: CLD+ SF-PEG-ELS: B 3-day combined diet + polyethylene glycol and electrolyte lavage solution: CMD+PEG-ELS: C 3-day combined diet + sulfate free polyethylene glycol and electrolyte lavage solution: CMD+ SF-PEG-ELS: D (1) Kruskal--Wallis test (Monte Carlo), post-hoc test: Dunn's test, (2) Fisher--Freeman--Halton (Monte Carlo), (3) Pearson chi-squared test (Monte Carlo), Q1: Percentile 25%, Q3: Percentile 75% (#) p (A-C)=0.004, p (A-D)=0.999, p (B-C)=0.405, p (B-D)=0.999, p (C- D)=0.007 Table 3. Polyp detection rates and characteristics of polyps in four groups with different bowel preparation (CLD+PEG-ELS):A (CLD+SF-PEG -ELS):B (n=124) (n=127) n (%) n (%) Detection of colon polyp 50 (40.3) 53 (41.7) Detection of adenomatous 37 (29.6) 36 (28.3) polyp [+ or -] High-grade dysplasia Number of colon polyps>1 28 (22.5) 25 (19.7) Diameter of polyp (maximum) Diminutive polyp 15 (30.7) 20 (37.7) 5-10 mm 28 (55.3) 25 (47.1) 10-20 mm 6 (11.5) 8 (15.2) >20 mm 1 (2.5) 0 (0) (CMD+PEG-ELS):C (CMD+SF-PEG-ELS):D (n=127) (n=129) n (%) n (%) Detection of colon polyp 40 (31.5) 50 (39.0) Detection of adenomatous 16 (12.5) (A,B,D) 37 (28.5) polyp [+ or -] High-grade dysplasia Number of colon polyps>1 13 (10.3) (A,B,D) 27 (21.0) Diameter of polyp (maximum) Diminutive polyp 13 (32.5) 20 (39.1) 5-10 mm 19 (47.5) 21 (42.9) 10-20 mm 7 (17.5) 7 (14.0) >20 mm 1 (2.5) 2 (4) p Detection of colon polyp 0.198 (2) Detection of adenomatous 0.018 (1) polyp [+ or -] High-grade dysplasia Number of colon polyps>1 0.039 (2) Diameter of polyp (maximum) Diminutive polyp 0.114 (2) 5-10 mm 10-20 mm >20 mm 1-day clear liquid diet + polyethylene glycol and electrolyte lavage solution: CLD+PEG-ELS: A 1-day clear liquid diet + sulfate free polyethylene glycol and electrolyte lavage solution: CLD+ SF-PEG-ELS: B 3-day combined diet + polyethylene glycol and electrolyte lavage solution: CMD+PEG-ELS: C 3-day combined diet + sulfate free polyethylene glycol and electrolyte lavage solution: CMD+ SF-PEG-ELS: D (1) Pearson chi-squared test (Monte Carlo), (2) Fisher--Freeman--Halton (Monte Carlo), Q1: Percentile 25%, Q3: Percentile 75% Table 4. Assessment of tolerability to diets and laxatives, willingness to follow the same protocol in case of repeat colonoscopy, and comparison of symptoms related to bowel preparation (CLD+PEG-ELS):A (CLD+SF-PEG-ELS):B (n=124) (n=127) Ease of diet Extremely difficult 22 (17.5) 24 (18.9) Moderately difficult 39 (31.3) 42 (33.1) Slightly difficult 35 (28.8) 31 (24.4) Easy 28 (22.4) 30 (23.6) Ease of laxative Extremely difficult 22 (17.4) 15 (11.6) Moderately difficult 44 (35.4) 33 (26.0) Slightly difficult 33 (26.0) 51 (40.4) Easy 25 (20.2) 28 (22.0) Willingness to repeat colonoscopy No 20 (16.4) 21 (16.5) Yes 104 (83.6) 106 (83.5) Symptoms related to bowel prepa- ration Bad taste in the mouth 48 (38.6) 41 (32.6) Gastric fullness 27 (21.9) (D) 13 (10.2) Nausea/vomiting 28 (22.8) (D) 15 (11.5) Bloating/gas/distension 4 (3.4) 3 (2.6) Headache 5 (4.0) 10 (7.9) Abdominal pain/cramps 19 (15.4) (D) 11 (8.7) Lack of sleep 56 (45.5) 51 (40.2) (CMD+PEG-ELS):C (CMD+SF-PEG-ELS):D (n=127) (n=129) Ease of diet Extremely difficult 20 (15.7) 15 (11.4) Moderately difficult 35 (27.6) 36 (27.6) Slightly difficult 32 (25.2) 37 (29.1) Easy 40 (31.5) 41 (31.9) Ease of laxative Extremely difficult 20 (15.7) 16 (12.4) Moderately difficult 42 (33.1) 32 (25.0) Slightly difficult 44 (34.6) 48 (37.5) Easy 21 (16.6) 32 (25.1) Willingness to repeat colonoscopy No 18 (14.0) 13 (10.3) Yes 109 (86.0) 116 (89.7) Symptoms related to bowel prepa- ration Bad taste in the mouth 53 (41.7) 54 (42.2) Gastric fullness 30 (24.3) (B, D) 8 (6.2) Nausea/vomiting 30 (24) (D) 7 (5.2) Bloating/gas/distension 3 (2.8) 3 (2.0) Headache 9 (7.1) 5 (3.8) Abdominal pain/cramps 8 (6.3) 8 (5.9) Lack of sleep 64 (50.3) 64 (49.6) p Ease of diet Extremely difficult 0.056 (1) Moderately difficult Slightly difficult Easy Ease of laxative Extremely difficult 0.611 (1) Moderately difficult Slightly difficult Easy Willingness to repeat colonoscopy No 0.352 (1) Yes Symptoms related to bowel prepa- ration Bad taste in the mouth 0.068 (1) Gastric fullness 0.008 (2) Nausea/vomiting 0.004 (2) Bloating/gas/distension 0.186 (2) Headache 0.448 (2) Abdominal pain/cramps 0.005 (2) Lack of sleep 0.760 (2) 1-day clear liquid diet + polyethylene glycol and electrolyte lavage solution: CLD+PEG-ELS: A 1-day clear liquid diet + sulfate free polyethylene glycol and electrolyte lavage solution: CLD+ SF-PEG-ELS: B 3-day combined diet + polyethylene glycol and electrolyte lavage solution: CMD+PEG-ELS: C 3-day combined diet + sulfate free polyethylene glycol and electrolyte lavage solution: CMD+ SF-PEG-ELS: D (1) Pearson chi-squared test (Monte Carlo), (2) Fisher--Freeman--Halton (Monte Carlo) total of 65.4% of patients in the CLD group had polyps,
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Title Annotation:||ORIGINAL ARTICLE GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOSCOPY|
|Author:||Etik, Digdem Ozer; Suna, Nuretdin; Gunduz, Cemre; Bostan, Ahmet; Ozdemir, Alperen; Gurel, Bade Yagmu|
|Publication:||The Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology|
|Article Type:||Clinical report|
|Date:||Sep 1, 2019|
|Previous Article:||Efficacy and safety of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in pregnancy: A high-volume study with long-term follow-up.|
|Next Article:||May dexpanthenol, platelet-rich plasma, and thymoquinone provide new hope to maintain liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy?|