Camille in Color.
This month's BULLETIN cover contains a unique color analysis of Nimbus 3 High Resolution Infrared Radiation (HRIR) data recorded over Hurricane Camille at approximately midnight (0530 GMT) on 18 August 1969. The maximum surface winds and minimum surface pressure of the hurricane at this time were estimated at 160 kt and 909 mb, respectively. The storm had just passed Bay St. Louis at the Gulf Coast on a north-westerly track and was destined to become one of the most destructive storms ever to hit the United States. The total damage was estimated at 1.42 billion dollars with 258 storm-related deaths ...
The color system used to process this radiation map was adapted from the Application Technology Satellite (ATS) Spin Scan Experiment and has the capability of producing a large number of color images for brightness intervals by use of a color selector paper tape input ... Briefly, the method by which the cover picture was made is as follows: The Nimbus HRIR analog data is received at the Data Acquisition Stations (Rosman, N.C., or Fairbanks, Alaska) and transmitted to Goddard Space Flight Center where it is digitized and processed by computer to form the Nimbus Meteorological Radiation Tape (NMRT). This NMRT is processed with a mapping tape and a color-brightness interval tape at the ATS Operations Control Center to produce a hard copy color negative. Three primary colors (green, red, blue) from a single light source are used to form precisely-focused, mixed color spots along individual lines by inserting color filters alternately between the light and the film ...
The color selection tape used for this color print covered a I00K brightness range in 5K intervals. For example, purple (300-3051v) represents ground or sea surface temperatures or low clouds at the 0.5-km level, yellow (265-2269K)--middle clouds at the 5.7-6.5-km level, and blue (220-224K)--high clouds at the 12.3 to 12.9 km level. The highest clouds at approximately 13 to 17 km shown by grey colors (200-219K) overlay the New Orleans radar location of the eye of Camille at 31N, 89W at 0530 GMT.
The color analysis, which took 30 min to process at ATSOCC, contains approximately 3 to 5 HRIR scan spots averaged at each 1/8 degree latitude-longitude intersection. Each scan spot covers a 9-km square on the Earth's surface along the subsatellite track. This figure contains 4096 color spots along each of the 1200 lines in the print, approximately 1/4 of which are satellite radiation scan spots and the remaining are computer-inter-perlated values. The optimum capability of the ATS color system is to produce 2400 lines per frame, far exceeding the Nimbus radiation data content.
--from "Color analysis of Hurricane Camille, 1969, using Nimbus infrared radiation data," by Lewis J. Allison and G. Thomas Cherrix, in BAMS, September 1971.
To read this article in the BAMS archives, see https://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/pdf/10.1175/1520-0477%281971 %29052%3C0862%3ACAOHCU%3E2.C).CO%3B2
Caption: Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society
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|Publication:||Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society|
|Date:||Jul 1, 2019|
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