Caliphate Colonialism--The taproot of the trouble with Nigeria.
Part Three: Boko Haram as Caliphate agents--the evidence thus far
How did Boko Haram originate? And what are its links to the Caliphate?
A: Early history of Boko Haram: its origins and cooptation by powerful sponsors
Excerpt from Olusegun Adeniyi, Power, Politics and Death, Lagos: Prestige, 2011, pp. 106-112.
Olusegun Adeniyi was the media spokesperson for President Yar' Adua, and his account is based on what the Yar' Adua's Presidency (Aso Rock) knew of the origins of Boko Haram. It can therefore be regarded as the official story of the rise of Boko Haram:
The history of the sect can easily be traced to 2002 with Muhammad Yusuf, a native of Jakusko in Yobe State, as its spiritual leader and founder. His rise from relative obscurity to prominence in the Salafi Islamic religious circle (Wahabites) derived from the fact that he was a close disciple of the late Sheikh Jaafar Adam. So prominent was Yusuf within the sect that at a time he was regarded as heir to the pulpit at Muhammadu Ndimi Mosque in Maiduguri, where Jaafar Adam used to conduct annual tafsir in the month of Ramadan. With time, however, Yusuf began to introduce some unorthodox beliefs--including aversion to western education and a call for jihad to oust the secular status quo--within the Salafi circle. He also began what was considered a rigorous proselytizing campaign to capture impressionable minds, especially among the youth who frequented the mosque. Eventually, he had to part ways with his spiritual leader, Jaafar Adam and was sent packing from the Ndimi mosque by the mosque committee. He moved to Daggash mosque, where he continued the same teaching. His daring and scathing verbal attacks on the government portrayed Yusuf as a fiery and intrepid cleric and this obviously endeared him to the common people, who began to see him as a champion of the downtrodden. Members of the political elite in Maiduguri were, however, taking note, and Yusuf was considered no more than a nuisance. It was therefore no surprise that the Daggash mosque committee also expelled him within a short time. That was when his father-in-law, Baba Fugu, gave Yusuf a piece of land at the Railway quarters, where he built a mosque and an adjoining house he dubbed 'markas', from where he continued his preaching, drawing followers from the city and beyond. His initial followership was largely from among secondary school students and primary school pupils who abandoned their studies on the ground that western education ('boko') was a sin ('haram'), hence the name Boko Haram. As he got more followers, his power and influence also grew. Ultimately, Yusuf and the late Adam became archenemies, spewing verbal attacks on each other's views and interpretations of Islamic tenets. Adam was vociferous in exposing what he described as the folly of Yusuf's views on western education and the 'jihad' whose advocate he [Yusuf] had become. He also warned against the indoctrination of impressionable minds. These opposing views quite naturally degenerated into violence. Twice Yusuf's disciples reportedly made failed attempts on Adam's life in Maiduguri. Yusuf would later be paid in his own coin when some of his lieutenants also became more radical, claiming he had become too soft in his approach and thus splitting from his camp to form a splinter group they named Taliban. In September 2004, the group launched an armed uprising from a village called Kanamma in Yobe State on the border with Niger Republic; they had renamed the village Afghanistan. They attacked police stations, and troops had to be sent in to restore order after several people had been killed. The soldiers engaged the group in a two-day battle in which many sect members were killed, some were captured and others went underground. This attack caused the group to keep a low profile for a year, but by then the activities of Yusuf had attracted the attention of security agencies, which on several occasions arrested and charged him to court. But his lawyers always managed to secure freedom for him. A few months later, the splinter group re-emerged and launched attacks on some police stations in Bama and Gwoza in Borno State, where they killed policemen, including an assistant police commissioner, carted away guns and ammunition before running into the Mandara mountains on the border with Cameroon. The army was sent in, accompanied by helicopters. They engaged the sect members in a mountainous battle, and in the process, scores of the attackers were killed while the rest crossed the border into Cameroon. The Nigerian government alerted the Cameroonian authorities, whose gendarmes succeeded in arresting five of the militants and handed them over to Nigeria. Following that encounter, Yusuf felt he had lost committed members of his group, who were gradually becoming hostile towards him for what they perceived as his weakness and moderate views. In mid 2005, he made overtures for reconciliation to the splinter group, and there was some reintegration. After this, Yusuf rose from a poor preacher to a wealthy cleric living in opulence and driving suvs around the city, where he was hailed as a hero for his criticism of the government and his call for sharia law. His preachings--recorded on CDS--which he daily doled out, were hot cake in the city and beyond, selling in thousands. In April 2007, on the eve of the general elections in the country, some unidentified men stormed Jaafar Adam's mosque in Dorayi, a suburb of Kano city, at dawn and fatally shot him and three other worshipers while he was leading the morning prayers. The attack was later followed with an invasion of a mobile police detachment in Panshekara neighbourhood, during which 13 policemen were killed. Soldiers were drafted to the area, and the gunmen eventually crossed the Challawa River, behind the abandoned water works they camped in, and fled. A few days earlier, the gunmen had launched a pre-dawn attack at the Federal Road Safety Commission (FRSC) office and killed two officers on night duty. The incident was thought to be a robbery attack until the night of July 26, 2009, when Yusuf's men struck again, invading and attacking several police posts and public buildings in parts of Bauchi, Borno, Kano and Yobe states. At this point, the president decided that the Boko Haram menace had to be confronted frontally. Coming on the eve of his departure for a twice-postponed state visit to Brazil, there were suggestions that the president should shelve the trip on account of the lives of policemen that were lost. But he argued that it would be improper to do so given that the trip had been postponed twice, and besides, he noted, the security agencies were in control of the situation. Before we departed for the airport, he met with the NSA and security chiefs as well as the service chiefs to whom he gave this directive: deploy troops to the area and fish out all the leaders and members of the extremist sects involved in the attacks. The president further directed that security be beefed up in all neighbouring states and security personnel placed on full alert to ensure that the attacks did not spread elsewhere. He also used informal channels to reach out to emirs and prominent Islamic leaders in the north to rally support against Boko Haram. I had told State House correspondents to proceed to the airport ahead of our convoy as I had secured the commitment of the president to field questions before our departure. At the session, the president expressed his heartfelt sympathies with the families of the gallant police men who lost their lives while defending their posts from the senseless attacks, as well as other innocent victims who may have been caught in the unjustifiable mayhem. He also reaffirmed his determination to deal decisively with all those whose misguided beliefs and actions promoted violence, and contempt for the rights of others and undermined national peace, stability, and security. Indeed, the soldiers deployed to tackle the Boko Haram sect fulfilled the president's mandate when they captured its leader, Yusuf, alive with what was no more than a minor injury on his arm. In the euphoria of the moment, the army commander of the operation, Col. Ben Ahanoto, allowed his men to take snapshots of Yusuf with their mobile phone cameras, before they handed him over to the police. The story turned awry, however, when a few hours later journalists were shown the bullet-ridden body of Yusuf, who was said to have died in a shoot-out with the police. Meanwhile, Ahanoto had spoken to reporters on record that he had personally captured Yusuf and handed him over to the chief of police in Maiduguri. He said Yusuf had a wound on his arm, which had already been treated. The police, however, insisted that Yusuf had been fatally wounded. There were reports that the attack on the police station by Boko Haram members was a response to an earlier attack on the sect members in the course of a funeral procession. They were said to have been accosted by the joint police/ army task force called Operation Flush for not wearing helmets while riding motorcycles. In the altercations that followed, tempers had flared, with policemen allegedly killing about 17 of the sect members. This was said to have been the genesis of the crisis, but there were also allegations that the subsequent order for the killing of Yusuf and Alhaji Buji Foi (a former commissioner for religious affairs in Borno State) after they had been captured alive was given by certain political leaders in Borno State. There may not have been any credibility to the allegations, but Boko Haram members believed it and were out for revenge. The suspicion of extra-judicial killings, however, spurred a reaction from the police commissioner of Borno State, Christopher Dega, who said Yusuf "was in a hideout, and the forces went there, and there was an exchange of fire. In the course of that confrontation, he sustained his own injury. He was picked up, and he later couldn't make it." This was different from the first police version, in which Yusuf was said to have been fatally wounded while trying to escape from custody. This version had indeed been corroborated by Usman Ciroma, the spokesman to the Borno State governor, who told the Associated Press: "I saw his body at police headquarters. I believe he was shot while he was trying to escape." Yusuf's financier, Buji Foi, who had been arrested and driven to the police headquarters in Maiduguri also died under curious circumstances. Unfortunately, there are video recordings of Fois execution still circulating on cell phones. I was shown one by a police officer! The same fate befell his father-in-law, Alhaji Baba Fugu, who also reported at the police station but never came out alive. Human Rights Watch said that the reports of Yusuf's killing were extremely worrying. "The Nigerian authorities must act immediately to investigate and hold to account all those responsible for this unlawful killing and any others associated with the recent violence in northern Nigeria," said Corinne Dufka, the group's senior West Africa researcher. In a statement issued in Geneva, High Commissioner for Human Rights, Navi Pillay also expressed her concerns. She called on the Nigerian government to investigate Yusuf's killing and bring offenders to justice. When the BBC published the photograph that showed that Yusuf was alive when captured by the army, I knew we could no longer keep quiet and that the point had to be made that extra-judicial execution had no place under the rule of law. As, I however, waited to see the president, who was in a meeting with the VP, I made the mistake of openly voicing my concern about what I considered extra-judicial execution. This did not go down well with the governor of Gombe, Alhaji Danjuma Goje, who was also waiting to see the president. "Segun, I sometimes wonder on whose side you really are. This is someone who killed several policemen and innocent people, and all that concerns you is what some human rights noisemakers would say," he charged. We had a hot exchange on the matter and since he saw the president ahead of me, I was not surprised when my principal bluntly refused to discuss the matter. It was a difficult period, because while I worried about the image of the government, I could also understand the anger of the police, whose men were brutally killed.
[End of excerpt on Boko Haram's origins and cooptation by powerful sponsors ]
Butwho were these shadowy sponsors who adopted Boko Haram?
According to evidence [SEE Q29, DIRECTLY ABOVE] in the book Power, Politics and Death by Olusegun Adeniyi, President Yar' Adua's mediaspokesperson, Boko Haram was a tiny and obscure sect until mid-2005 whenit was apparently adopted by some powerful sponsors. Its leader began tolive affluently and the magnitude and sophistication of its terrorcapacity became greatly enhanced.
By 2011, when its currentterror campaign was unleashed, it had had some six years to acquirelinks, allegedly to Al Qaeda, and had become a multi-million dollarorganization with sophisticated weapons and bombing techniques. In 2012,Boko Haram gave a "quit the North" order to those theCaliphate leaders had called "invaders" back in 1948[SEE QI 5, ABOVE], and enforced the order by bombing churches and funerals and by otheracts of mass murder. These bombings were not "senseless",as some claim, but had the purpose of ethnic cleansing away those theirsponsors long ago described as "invaders" of the Caliphateterritory.
As the following news headlines show, some ofthose questioned or arrested by the security agencies and those,especially, who gave conditions for bringing in Boko Haram to dialoguewith the Government (thereby indicating that they were in touch with thegroup) have been Caliphate big shots (including emirs, senators and ACFchieftains), e.g.:
SSS arrest Ndume over Boko Haramlinks
http://dailytimes.com.ng/article/sssarrest-ndume-over-boko-haram-links November 22, 2011, (Accessed Oct,2012)
Boko Haram: The Emir Of Suleja Questioned ForAlleged Boko Haram Involvement--Politics--Nairaland http://www.nairaland.com/839655/ boko-haram-emir-suleja-questioned;(Accessed Oct, 2012)
Police arrest Emir of Abaji, twosons over escaped Boko Haram suspect http://www.pilotafrica.com/2012/01/20/police-arrest-emir-of-abaji-two-sonsover-escaped-boko-haramsuspect/ ByPilot Africa on January 20, 2012, (Accessed Oct 2012)
"Boko Haram Is A Multi-billion Naira Outfit",Security Source Posted: January 29, 2012-02:37 http://saharareporters.com/news-page/boko-haram-muld-billion-naira-outfitsecurity-source (Accessed Oct2012)
Nigeria: ACF Wants Security for Boko HaramLeaders Before Dialogue http://allafrica.com/stories/201202020595.html 2February 2012 (Accessed Oct 2012)
Terrorism Trial: SenatorNdume Says VP Namadi Sambo Was Aware Of His Activities With BokoHaram-VANGUARD Posted: March 25, 2012-12:20 http://saharareporters.com/news-page/terrorism-trial-senator-ndume-says-vpnamadi-sambo-was-awarehisactivities-boko-haram-van (Accessed Oct 2012)
President: BokoHaram has infiltrated govt, military http://www.thenationonlineng.net/20ii/index.php/news/326npresident-boko-haram-has-infiltratedgovt-military.html 09/01/2012; (Accessed Oct 2012)
When PresidentJonathan confessed that his government is infiltrated by Boko Haram, hewas, in his own way, admitting that strategic places in the Nigerianstate apparatus are occupied by persons loyal to the Caliphate/ACFsponsors of Boko Haram. And that even he, the President andCommander-in-Chief, is more or less a one-man hostage to them and thesystem they entrenched over the years. That was PresidentJonathan's way of signaling that he was aware that the Caliphatewas the sponsor of Boko Haram.
VP Sambo Had CloseTies To Alleged Boko Haram Sponsor http://saharareporters.com/news-page/vp-sambo-had-close-ties-alleged-bokoharam-sponsor January 17, 2012(Accessed Oct 2012)
Northern politicians created BokoHaram--Mustapha Jokolo, former Emir of Gwandu
Published on Friday, 30 March2012 11:46 ; (Accessed Oct. 2012)
This reported statement bythe deposed Emir of Gwandu declaring that Northern politicians createdBoko Haram, is like the testimony of the former deputy leader of acriminal gang turned prosecution witness.
We must recall thatwhen he was the Emir of Gwandu, he was the Number two man in theCaliphate hierarchy, second only to the Sultan of Sokoto.
Besides, he was the very man who, at a meeting of emirs in March2005, called for a fight with the Obasanjo government, [SEE Q5ABOVE] And it was a few months later, in mid-2005, that Boko Haram began toshow evidence of better financing and increasing capacity. Jokolo mustknow well whereof he spoke in 2012.
We have seen that for theCaliphate, gaining and retaining power by fraud and mass slaughter ismore congenial than doing so through free and fair elections. Given thatbackground, the sample news headlines, displayed above, that link BokoHaram operatives to Caliphate figures (ACF leaders, Caliphatepoliticians, as well as Emirs) are prima facie evidence that Boko Haramhas Caliphate sponsors. Jokolo's authoritative andinsider's statement in 2012 pretty much establishes thepoint.
Part Four Boko Haram terrorism: The feudal-theocracy vs.secular-democracy civil war
Since Boko Haram began, Nigeriahas effectively been in an unacknowledged and one-sided civil warbetween Shariya advocates and Democracy adherents; this mayalternatively, and more instructively, be described as a one-sided civilwar between the organized Caliphate /ACF/Sahriyaland/ Boko Haram on theone side vs. on the other side, the unorganizedNon-Caliphate/Secularist/Democratic Nigerians; i.e. between afeudal-theocracy faction and a secular-democracy faction within Nigeriansociety. The sooner this is recognized by the confused and unorganizedNon-Caliphate/ Democracy side, the better for them. For until theyunderstand that what is going on is a civil war they cannot put up aproper fight, and fight to win. Until they understand their Caliphateenemy, they cannot figure out how to fight them.
Non-Caliphate Nigerians need to figure out the dynamics of Nigerianhistory and decide whether they want to be enslaved forever by theCaliphate. And if they find that prospect unacceptable, they must gointo war mode and defeat, once and for all, the Caliphate colonialistswho have been fooling, dividing and subduing them since 1960 inaccordance with Sir Ahmadu Bello's injunction that Nigeria shouldbecome an estate of Dan Fodio's descendants, [SEE QI ATSTART OF THIS ESSAY]
And that has been the agenda, down to this day, of theCaliphate and its political leaders (Ahmadu Bello, Tafawa Balewa, ShehuShagari, Umaru Yar'Adua, Maitama Sule, Lawal Kaita, etc. since1960) and of its military agents (Yakubu Gowon, Theophilus Danjuma,Murtala Mohammed, Shehu Musa Yar'Adua, Muhammadu Buhari, IbrahimBabangida [IBB] , Sani Abacha, Abdulsalami Abubakar, Aliyu Gusau,Abdulrahman Bello Danbazzau, Col. Sambo Dasuki, etc. since 1966). Andthat is the agenda of Boko Haram, the terrorist outfit that theCaliphate and its Arewa Consultative Forum (ACF) sponsored when theylost control of the Nigerian government and armed forces in 1999). Andthat is the agenda for which Buhari insists on being crowned aspresident in 2015, whether or not Nigerians actually vote for him, orelse ... he and the Caliphate terrorists will unleash a bloodbath on thecountry.
The first skirmish in this unacknowledged civil wartook place way back on February 21, 2000, the day the Shariya Jihadistsbegan resorting to mob violence in Kaduna, in their follow-up to theadoption of Shariya by the Arewa (Far North) states which had therebyrepudiated the secular democracy constitution of Nigeria. By adoptingshariya as their constitution, they committed dejure secession from Nigeria. As nothing was done about it, they becameemboldened. Using Boko Haram, they have unleashed a war on Nigeria withtwo alternative objectives: to impose their shariya on all of Nigeria ifthey win; or to consummate their secession, if they lose.
Butthough the Caliphate and its jihadist agents have known all along thatthey were unleashing war on Nigeria, the leaders of Non-CaliphateNigerians, their intended victims, have had no clue about the nature ofwhat has been happening since 1960. Which suits the Caliphate jihadistsjust fine. For they have been free to pummel their blind and confusedopponent to the brink of defeat where he is tottering today.
Non-Caliphate Nigerians in general, and President Jonathan inparticular, have not recognized that what is going on now is a civilwar. Which is why President Jonathan has been approaching Boko Haram asan internal security matter rather than as a political problem requiringradical political surgery: excising Shariyaland from Nigeria, Orkarstyle; which is why President Jonathan has been replaying Ironsi, andtrying to appease the unappeasable enemy; and which is why non-CaliphateNigerians are not clamoring for general mobilization against theCaliphate and its Boko Haram agents; which is why the Churches, despitethe Government's clear inability to protect them, are passiveabout the bombing and massacres of their people, and are turning theother cheek and pleading for "peace", instead of revivingthe ancient tradition and spirit of the Church militant, like whenBishop Adhemar of Monteil, organized and led European volunteersto fight the jihadists of his day in the First Crusade.
Sinceit is clear that the Federal government cannot guarantee their security,Nigeria's Christians can't continue to look to PresidentJonathan to protect them; they need to take responsibility for their ownsecurity, on the understanding that David was a warrior against Goliath;but a Jonathan is not a David. Besides, only a fool defends himself in awar by relying only on good luck. The Christian clergy in Nigeria havean obligation to lead a Crusade against the Caliphate Jihadists, asEuropean history has shown that a military Crusade is the only correctanswer to a Jihad.
What does Boko Haramwant?
There are two versions of Boko Haram'sobjective: a maximal as well as a minimal agenda.
(a) Themaximal agenda is to Islamize and impose shari'a on all ofNigeria. In December 2011, Boko Haram issued a bulletin in which itrestated its mission as follows:
"We want to re-emphasize that our main objective is the restoration of the Sharia Legal System in line with the teachings of the Holy Qur'an. We want the Nigerian Constitution to be abrogated and Democracy suspended and a full-fledged Islamic State established. We want to emphasize that trouble started in this part of the world when the white men came, colonised our land, chased away the Emirs and righteous leaders and then replaced the system with Western Legislative, Judicial and Executive procedures. They also changed our pattern of learning and upbringing to the detriment of moral teachings; that was exactly what prompted the establishment of our organization."
--(DailySun, December 19, 2011)
(b) The minimal agenda is toconsummate Shariyaland's secession and enforce shari'atotally in the 12 states that make up Shariyaland, and overthrow thesarkuna (The Sultan and Emirs and feudal ruling class of the Caliphate) andreplace them with new rulers who will enforce Shari'a morestrictly than the Sultan and his emirs, who the Boko Haram considerinsufficiently Islamized and Arabized. That is why Boko Haram has begunattacking Emirs, as in Potiskum, and sent threats to and made attacks onSokoto, the capital of the Caliphate:
Emir'sbodyguard, mosque aide hurt in suicide attack in Potiskum http://www.vanguardngr.com/2012/08/emirs-bodyguard-mosque-aid-hurt-insuicide-attack-in-potiskum/ On August3, 2012. In News (Accessed October 2012)
Boko Haram'sDangerous Expansion into Northwest Nigeria http://www.ctc.usma.edu/posts/bokoharams-dangerous-expansion-intonorthwest-nigeria (Accessed October 2012)
This minimal agenda was,in part, articulated by Abu Zaid as follows:
'It is mandatory for Islam to have a sovereign land where Sharia is being practiced in the strict sense so that the dialogue will be between the Islamic country and the country of the unbelievers' --Abu Zaid, Boko Haram spokesman, while rejecting dialogue with government (Sunday Life, 26 June 2011, p. 25.)
This means thatShariyaland, the Caliphate territory, should become a sovereign countryand its dialogue, if any, will then be with a Secular Democratic Nigeriafrom which it has formally seceded. The rest of the minimal agenda, thepart against the Sultan and emirs, is contained within Abu Qaqa'sstatement of their maximal agenda that we shall now examine. To see themaximal agenda of Boko Haram--what they will do if they are not stoppedfrom carrying their war beyond Shariyaland territory, and if theywin--consider this report from October 2011:
Boko Haram to FG "Total Shari'a in Nigeria or no Peace" ...Says Qur'an is Above Nigerian Constitution Written by Alaba Johnson (Reporter for NaijaPundit) on 03 October 2011. http://www.naijapundit.com/ news/boko-haram-to-fg-total- shari-a-in-nigeria-orno-peace (Accessed October 2012) The militant Islamic group, Boko Haram, which has been responsible for much of the insecurity in Nigeria due to its spate of bombings and attacks on security forces has sent an email to major news outlets signed by its spokesman, Abu Qaqa, to say that there will be no peace in Nigeria until there is a total implementation of Shari'a law in Nigeria. Their email which was written in Hausa language had the following message to Nigerians and the authorities "the country would not have peace until there is 100 per cent implementation of Sharia law in the country as enshrined in the holy Quran as well as immediate release of all our members who were detained and in the custody of security agencies for no just cause". The group which has been celebrating the fact that the FG held a low level Independence Day celebration apparently because of them also declared that they had no iota of respect for the Sultan of Sokoto and other traditional rulers from the North. In his email, Qaqa disqualified the Sultan thus "our position is that the Sultan is just a traditional ruler who revolted against the teachings of his ancestors and put the Nigerian Constitution ahead of the teachings of the Holy Qur'an and the traditions of the Prophet." This is not surprising especially as NaijaPundit had earlier published a leaked wikileaks cable in which the Buhari team had told American Embassy officials that they had no confidence in the Northern Traditional rulers in general while naming the Sultan of Sokoto and the emir of Kano specifically as people who had tried to corrupt the judiciary. This agenda of Islamising Nigeria while alarming to some is nothing new to students of history who would recall that this has always been the agenda of the Northern establishment right from pre colonial times. For instance the First Premier of the North, the revered Sir Ahmadu Bello did say only eleven days after Nigeria's independence that "The new nation called Nigeria should be an estate of our great grandfather Othman Dan Fodio. We must ruthlessly prevent a change of power. We use the minorities in the north as willing tools and the south as a conquered territory and never allow them to rule over us and never allow them to have control over their future." --Parrot Newspaper October 12, 1960. Nigerians may also recall that the late Sheik Abubakar Gumi had advocated that Nigeria should be ruled exclusively by Muslims. Nigerians may also recall the statement credited to former Military Head of State Buhari to the effect that Muslims should only vote for a Muslim candidate. Of course Buhari later clarified his statement that what he meant was that Muslims should only vote for those who will promote their religion. How that differs from his original statement is still a mystery. But of course Nigerians do remember that religion was used by Buhari's party, the CPC to campaign and mobilize during the last elections. How the FG hopes to contain Boko Haram remains to be seen especially going by their latest email but most Nigerians are scratching their heads and asking themselves whether there is any correlation between the comments made by a prominent member of the Northern establishment, Lawal Kaita, to the effect that "we (who are this 'we'?) will make Nigeria ungovernable for Jonathan" if he wins. Now that Jonathan has won and attempts are being made to make Nigeria ungovernable, many Nigerians are telling Jonathan that yes he may not need to be a "lion" but Nigeria needs a leader that is also not a sheep!
All Nigerians should bethankful to Abu Qaqa for publicly articulating the maximal version ofthe political agenda of Boko Haram. It should now be clear that BokoHaram is the current, and terrorist, agent of those whose mission sincethe 1940s [as we have seen above in the statements quoted in Part Two]has been to Islamize Nigeria and "advance shari'a".Most Nigerians have not been aware of that mission, and have not beenable to organize an appropriate response to it. Henceforth, nobody inNigeria has the excuse of ignorance. We must each face the issue andanswer the question: Do you want Nigeria to become anIslamic country ruled by the Sharia, as in Iran, the Afghanistan of theTaliban, etc? And if you don't, what are you going to do aboutit?
Make no mistake about it: BokoHaram's terror campaign is a Caliphate political weapon. Thesolution to Boko Haram is political and straightforward: concede theirminimal agenda and excise Shariyaland, Orkar style. Spin them off andlet them carry on their Jihad in their separate country. If they bombtheir emirs and Sultan, that will be their affair, and Nigeriawon't be involved, and won't have to deploy its personneland resources to sort that out. It is none of our business to save theCaliphate colonialists from the terrorist army they raised to useagainst us.
Nigeria is an example of what S. P. Huntington, aleading American political scientist, called a 'torncountry'. Nigeria is torn ideologically between theCaliphate-Jihadist Shariyaland and the Non-Caliphate /Secular-DemocraticNigeria; between the Caliphate version of One Nigeria as the feudaltheocratic colony of the heirs of Dan Fodio, as articulated by SirAhmadu Bello in 1960; and the version of a secular democratic Nigeriathat was perhaps best articulated by Chief Obafemi Awolowo in 1978-79.[SEE THE QUOTES QI AND Q2 AT THE START OF THIS ESSAY]
Those are the contrasting ideologies and projects betweenwhich Nigeria has been torn. Boko Haram's minimal agenda, ascontained in Abu Zaid's statement [SEE Q3 IABOVE], is fundamentally a demand for partition of Nigeria betweenShariyaland and a Democratic Republic of Nigeria; between a territorycommitted to Ahmadu Bello's feudal-theocracy version of Nigeriaand a territory aspiring to Awolowo's Secular-Democracy versionof Nigeria. Fortunately, as the two territories are distinct[SEE MAP #1 AT THE BEGINNING OF THIS ESSAY], Nigeria can be easily partitioned between them, with minor boundaryadjustments in the borderline states. I wholeheartedly support that partition and invite Nigerians to stop postponingthe necessary and inevitable.
Corruption and the Caliphate
I should add that thesolution to the vexed issue of corruption in Nigeria is related to thesolution to Boko Haram. The average Nigerian who is opposed tocorruption is hardly aware of the historical roots in Caliphatecolonialism/hegemony of Nigerian-style "corruption".
Nigerian-style corruption is actuallylootocracy --the brazen looting of the public treasury by anofficial. What secularist Nigerians regard as looting of the publictreasury is no such thing in the feudal ideology of the Caliphate. Underfeudalism, the wholesale appropriation of state property by an officialis not considered theft, but simply his entitlement as the holder of afief!feudal office! That's what one is granted a fief for in exchange for loyaltyand services to be rendered to his monarch who appointed him to feudaloffice.
Under Caliphate feudal ideology, apublic office is a fief for the life-support of the official and hisretinue of relatives and retainers, provided he renders the prescribed allegiance and services to hisoverlord. If one were sent to administer the Customs or NEPA, one wouldbe entitled to embezzle its funds to the best of one's abilityand greed. Hence the Caliphate-derived Nigerianpractice where, once salaries are paid, and even before they are, adepartment's budget allocation is treated as being for theresponsible official to put in his pocket. Which is why theCaliphate-serving 1999 constitution institutionalizes and protects thisentitlement with an immunity clause that encourages a Governor to seizeand export his state's budgetary allocation, hence the flagrantand rampant money-laundering by Nigeria's stategovernors. After half a century of unpunished practice, lootocracy has becomeentrenched as the norm in Nigeria and is imitated by all and sundry;which is why officials, down to the policeman at the checkpoint and themessenger sent to get a file, brazenly extort money from the members ofthe public that they are officially paid to serve. Nigerian officialshave become addicted to lootocracy even though a significant and vocalsegment of the population is opposed to it and decries it as"corruption". But calling lootocracy by the name"corruption" is a gross misnomer and the error should berectified: it is like calling a bank robbery that empties the bank vaultby the name 'pilfering' or calling by the name pickpocketa bank robber who has made away with millions. So long as the Caliphateremains part of Nigeria, this Caliphate-introduced practice andCaliphate-condoned attitude will be preserved. Hence eradicatinglootcracy in Nigeria, like eradicating Boko Haram, is conditional onkicking their Caliphate sponsors/protectors out of Nigeria.
Part Five: What is to be done? The Caliphate must go! Kick the Caliphateout of Nigeria before Dec 31, 2014, so we can have peace and moveforward to true federalism and general prosperity.
The opposition to Caliphate colonialism today
After the Caliphate conquered all of Nigeria in 1970 bywinning the Civil War, each nationality in Nigeria saw its interest asclimbing, at the expense of the others, to a second class position underthe Caliphate masters. This was dubbed "the second fiddlementality" way back in the 1970s.
But since the early1990s, when Anthony Enahoro began the campaign for a sovereign NationalConference, many have awakened to the reality that the common interestof the non-Caliphate peoples of Nigeria is to jointly liberatethemselves from Caliphate Colonialism. Hence the emergence ofself-determination groups like the Oodua People's Assembly, theLower Niger Congress (LNC), and the Middle Belt Congress, and theircooperating under the banner of the Movement for a New Nigeria(MNN).
Caliphate Colonialism is what all the non-Caliphatenationalities in Nigeria have suffered since 1960; and it is what theyneed to liberate themselves from, by any means feasible. They have triedfor the last two decades to do so by demanding a Sovereign NationalConference of the ethnic nationalities (SNC-EN) to peacefullyrenegotiate the terms of the British-imposed Nigeria union. As thatoption has been adamantly resisted by the Caliphate colonialists andblocked by those who manage the Nigerian state apparatus for theCaliphate colonialist overlords, the only other option is to dismemberNigeria and dump its debris on the grave of Lord Lugard, and do so byany means necessary.
The Caliphate'suse-and-dump record We should recall the Caliphate's record of using and dumpingnon-Caliphate leaders and parties; they used Zik and the NCNC to climbinto power in 1959, and then kicked him upstairs into a ceremonial postof Governor-General and then of President. They used Gowon and Awo towin the Civil War and conquer all of Nigeria, and then dumped Gowon anddeposed him in 1975, and rigged and judicially maneuvered Awo out ofvictory in the 1979 election. Also in 1979 they used the NPP to climbback firmly into power and then dumped them in 1981. In 1979, they usedMKO Abiola from the Southwest and Alex Ekwueme from the Southeast tohelp get their NPN elected. Having consolidated their hold on power,they told Abiola in 1982 that the NPN presidential candidacy was notopen to him; then they preempted rotation of the Presidency by theBuhari coup, effectively blocking Ekwueme from seeking the presidency in1987.
In a recent Interview in theGuardian, light was shed on the hidden agenda of the Buhari coup:
Interviewer: You just spoke about [military] interruptions, as one of those factors inimical to development. Let us look at one of those interruptions, specifically, the one that disrupted your [Shagari/Ekwueme] government on December 31, 1983. The story was that the army actually intervened in government for the more sinister reason of preventing you, an Igbo man, from becoming president after President Shagari's tenure was over--which, indeed, you sounded poised to become. How true is this story? Ekwueme: I wouldn't know, because I wasn't in the inner caucus that was planning the coup-d'etat, to know what informed that decision to strike, in December 1983. But I can really tell you that one of our colleagues, the Minister of Transport, Alhaji Umaru Dikko, when he arrived London, said, during the press conference he gave, that all the talk the military was giving about corruption and all that, was a smokescreen, that the main reason for the coup-d'etat, was to prevent me from becoming president in 1987. That they reached the decision, during the first week of December when, at the Ibadan convention of the NPN, [National Party of Nigeria] the president, Shehu Shagari, emphasised that the decision of the party that.the presidency would move to the South in 1987, was irreversible, in the interest of Nigerian unity. They felt that they wouldn't want that to happen and that it was better to interrupt the process quite early rather than wait till nearer 1987, when it would be obvious what the reasons were. But I say, these were speculations. I don't know where my friend, Umaru Dikko, got his information. It may be he had contact with the inner circle of the coup planners. I don't know, but that was what he said. --"Ekwueme: For Justice, Fairness, Equity, Igbo Should Have Presidency After Jonathan", (The Guardian, Sunday, December 9, 2012.)
With these examples of hownon-Caliphate leaders and parties have been used and dumped all theseyears, those of today would be ill-advised to enter into any alliancewith the Caliphate or its political parties. In particular,Bola Tinubu and the ACN should not make the mistake ofassisting Buhari and his CPC to come to power. However well anynationality thinks it has done under Caliphate colonialism, it stands todo much better after we jointly free ourselves from these arrogantcaliphate parasites, that is to say, after the Caliphate'slion's share of the national cake is taken from them andredistributed. All of today's non-Caliphate leaders and parties should be ableto compose their differences and push jointly ahead to accomplish areconfiguration of Nigeria and put an end, once and for all time, toCaliphate colonialism.
Accordingly, this is no time for thenon-Caliphate ethnic groups to be quarreling about who did what to whomduring the Civil War, or at any time in the past. They have to becomefirm common cause allies in a political struggle for their jointliberation. Whatever distrust and suspicion they have learned to feelabout one another, they should heed Lenin's advice on alliances:In What is To Be Done? Lenin states: "Only people who are not sure of themselves canfear to enter into temporary alliances even with unreliable people;not a single political party could exist without suchalliances." (emphasis mine) The non-Caliphate groups would do well, therefore, tosuspend acrimonious discussion of their old quarrels andanimosities.
Far be it from me to deny them whatever orgasmsthey get from indulging in their orgy of ethnic animosities. But afterthey cooperate and jointly liberate themselves from Caliphatecolonialism, they can return to that orgy, if they must, and let theinflamed animosities influence their terms of association in apost-Caliphate Nigeria. We should recall that the USA and the USSRsuspended their hostilities and joined forces to defeat Hitler. Aftervictory in 1945, they resumed their pre-WWII hostilities in the form ofthe Cold War. We should learn from that example--now that the Caliphateis being attacked by its own Boko Haram terror agents: an Emir has beenbombed in his own mosque in Potiskum; Boko Haram has attacked Sokoto,the capital of the Caliphate; and it has made an assassination attempton the Emir of Kano.
"Nigeria: Gunmen AttackEmir of Kano," By Latan Donjumo Adamu, 20 January 2013, DAILY TRUST, http://allalrica.com/stories/ 201301200032.html (Accessed January2013)
Clearly Boko Haram is doing 10 the Caliphate and itsemirs exactly what Dan Fodio and his Jihadists did to overthrow theHausa kings two centuries ago to create the Caliphate. And the Caliphateknows it and dread it, hence it got a Caliphate prince. Col. SamboDasuki, (Rtd) appointed NSA, so as to use the Nigerian state to fightits Boko Haram agents who have become its mortal enemies, and tohopefully rein diem in and liquidate Boko Haram's anti-Caliphateminimal agenda, though, I suspect, not its maximal agenda. We need toremember that WWII so weakened the European colonizers that they lostthe will and ability to suppress the rising tide of anti-colonialistforces in their empires. Now that the Caliphate is reeling from theblows from its: own Boko Haram agents, this is the best time fornon-Caliphate Nigerians 10 go over to the counteroffensive and finishoff the Caliphate colonialists. This opportunity must not be lost. Seizethe time and liberate yourselves is what I say. Allnon-Caliphate Nigerians UNITE! You have nothing to lose hut yourfeudalist and shari'a chains!
InMay 1967, Awo told the people of Western Nigeria:
If the Eastern Region is allowed by acts of omission or commission to secede from or opt out of Nigeria, then the Western Region and Lagos must also stay out of the Federation ... If any region in Nigeria considers itself strong enough to compel us to enter into association with it on its own terms, I would only wish such a region luck. But such luck, I must warn, will, in the long run be no better than that which has attended the doings of all colonial powers down the ages.... This much I must say in addition, on this point. We have neither military might nor the overwhelming advantage of numbers here in Western Nigeria and Lagos. But we have justice of a noble and imperishable cause on our side, namely: the right of a people to unfettered self-determination. http://africanheraldexpress.com/ blogy/2012/io/rp/genocide- awolowos-speechto-western- leaders-of-thought-on-may-1-1967/
Unfortunately, the configuration of military forces inside Nigeriaand of political forces globally in the 1960s prevented Awolowo fromachieving self-determination for his people at that time. The militaryweakness of Western Nigeria and the strong pro-Caliphate disposition ofBritain prevented Western Nigerians from actualizing their right ofself-determination in 1967. But the configuration of military andpolitical forces has profoundly changed since that time. Today, in 2013,the Boko Haram terrorism in Nigeria, and the Global Jihad of which it isan arm, have taken their toll on the pro-Caliphate disposition ofBritain and the Western powers. Furthermore, the Caliphate ispolitically weakened and is already reeling from violent blows inflictedon it by its own Boko Haram agents.
So, a unique opportunitypresents itself today for the anti-Caliphate forces to collectivelyliberate ourselves from Caliphate colonialism. What was desired butimpossible in 1967 is possible now in 2013. This is a rare window ofopportunity; it would be criminal folly to squander it and suicidal tolet it close unused.
It is said that "Those in powernever give way, and admit defeat only to plot and scheme to regain theirlost power and privilege." [C.L.R. James, The BlackJacobins, New York: Vintage Books, 1989, pp. 127-128] The Caliphate colonialistsare no exception to this behavior. If you doubt that, and if you imaginethat the Caliphate has lost its appetite for conquest and permanentdomination over all of the other Nigerian peoples; and that it can beconverted to democracy, then consider this August 2012 boast by a scionof the Caliphate, Usman Faruk, who was the military governor ofNorth-West State during the Yakubu Gowon regime:"North replies Asari: We subdued Yorubas &conquered the Haws; We will do it again", http://africanheraldexpress.com/blog7/2012/08/14/north- replies-asari-we-subdued-vorubas-we-will-do-it-again/#comment-311818 (Accessed October 2012)
I therefore submit: The first steptowards terminating this Caliphate arrogance and will-todomination is toget rid of our self-enslaving addiction to Lugard's Nigeria.Please be reminded that there is nothing sacred about this "OneNigeria" that Lugard cobbled together. Lugard is not God! Andwhat was made by Lugard, a human being like us, we can unmake for ourown benefit. So, let's kick out the Caliphate, and exercise ourright of self-determination. And the time is NOW:
But howshould we proceed with this liberation?
A Three-pointliberation agenda
Here is a simple three-point agenda for theself-liberation of non-Caliphate Nigerians:
a) ExciseShariyaland from Nigeria, by any means necessary.
b) Finishthe job by 31 December, 2014, before the bloodbath Buhari has threatenedfor 2015 Forewarned is forearmed. Only a tree will see a woodcutterapproaching with an axe and do nothing to stop him or to escape fromhim.
c) Freely and democratically reconfigure what is left ofNigeria after that.
Who should implement thisagenda?
Are you an indigene of a non-Shariya state?Or a non-Muslim indigene of a Shariya state? Can you voluntarilycontinue to cohabit Nigeria with these Caliphate colonialists
1) Who do not believe in free and fair elections?
2) Whosee you as their slave?
3) Who insist you must convert totheir religion?
4) Who insist that nobody from your part ofthe country can ever become president except as their stooge? And whowill gladly kill you (like they did MKO Abiola), or bomb your people(like they are doing to President Jonathan's Christiansoutherners) if you, an autonomous southerner', do manage andbecome president?
5) Who are determined to exterminate youand your entire ethnic group if you refuse to submit to be enslaved andexploited by them? By the way, even Apartheid South Africa didn'tpropose to exterminate 1/7th or 14% of its population in order for thewhite settlers to continue exploiting the resources of SouthAfrica.
This makes the Caliphate worsecolonialists than even the whites of Apartheid South Africa!
If your humanity, your self-respect, permits youto submit to the humiliation of the Caliphate caste system, then youshould work for the retention of the Caliphate's Shariyalandwithin Nigeria, and make yourself and your descendants eternal slaves ofthe Caliphate. But if being enslaved is unacceptable to your humanityand self-respect, then your human duty is to work tirelessly for yourliberation from Caliphate colonialism by implementing the three-pointagenda.So, if you are an indigene of a non-Shariyastate, or a non-Muslim indigene of a Shariya state, and if yourself-respect does not allow you to submit to enslavement by theCaliphate, then you are the one to implement the three-point liberationagenda.
Of course, those habitualslaves of the Caliphate, the Uncle Toms who do not want to part fromtheir masters, are welcome to vote with their feet and move to Caliphateterritory when their masters are kicked out. Life-long "willingtools" of the Caliphate like Yakubu Gowon, Theophilus Danjuma,Jeremiah Useni, Paul Unongo, Iyorcha Ayu and their ilk should take noteand resettle themselves in Shariyaland so as to enjoy the Calphatemisrule to which they seem addicted. That is if the Caliphate willharbor them after the demise of the Caliphate's project of rulingall of Nigeria.
How might you implement it, and do itpeacefully?
The first thing is to recognize thatthe 12 states in Shariyaland have already seceded constitutionally, andtherefore de jure, from Nigeria. They did so in 2000 AD when they adopted Shari'aas their constitution. It is typical of the lack of clarity that hashampered the anti-Caliphate resistance since the 1950s, that they havenot noticed that the Caliphate has already constitutionally seceded fromNigeria since 2000. What Nzeogwu might have done in January 1966 had hesucceeded in taking power in Lagos; and what Orkar proclaimed in 1990before his coup was crushed, was inadvertently done for them by theCaliphate itself, namely the constitutional separation (Araba) of theCaliphate from Nigeria.All that is left is for therest of Nigeria to acknowledge, endorse and make official theirsecession. And then seal the new border. There's nothing to fightabout... Non-Caliphate Nigeria simply needs to acknowledge the 2000 ADde jure secession of Caliphate Shariyaland (Please eat your shariya anddon't come down here looking for oil money or access to the seacoast!) and formally accept the demise of Lugard's Nigeria.Things will get violent only if the Caliphate resists this peacefulseparation/divorce by extending its Boko Haram terror attacks intonon-Caliphate territory. But just in case, in desperation, it choosesthat bloody option, President Jonathan should mobilize for war so as todeter a Caliphate armed resistance to this official expulsion.
Secondly, please recall and follow Fela's suggestion fromthe civil war days when he said:
"secession is what could have brought Africa together at that time. From secession we could come together again. But by not seceding, we're put together by force ... That's what's happening in Nigeria today. The Ibos don't understand why they're Nigeria. The Yorubas don't know what's happening. And the Hausas, they want to dominate everybody." --Fela (Quoted in Iyorcha D. Ayu, Essays in Popular Struggle, Oguta: Zim Pan-African Publishers, 1986, p. 41.)
Thirdly, afterclearing the Caliphate and its Shariyaland from the constitutional andphysical space of Nigeria, those Non-Caliphate ethnic nationalitieswhich desire a secular-democratic life together should come together andwork out the terms of their new association and formally and officiallyconstitute it. The 1995 Federal Constitution of Ethiopia is available asa model of ethnic federalism, [SEE Q35 BELOW]
From these observations, the three-point agenda presentedabove translates into the following implementationprogram:
1] The rump of Nigeria (the 24non-Shari'a states plus Abuja) should meet and affirm theiracceptance of the 2000 AD de jure secession of the 12 Shari'a states;
2] They shouldthen formally declare the demise of the present entity calledNigeria;
3] This should be accomplished before December 31,2014.
4] Soon thereafter, those non-Caliphate EthnicNationalities which so desire should meet and freely work out their newterms of association, using the PRONACO draft constitution as a possiblestarting point.
Who will bell the cat?
Who will kick off this peaceful program of constitutionalliberation from this long and bloody nightmare of Caliphatecolonialism?
The opportunity (the right of first refusal)naturally should go to President Jonathan as the sitting President. Heoccupies the position from which the first step can be most easily andpeacefully taken. If he wishes to exercise his right to run for a secondterm in 2015, and to do so without igniting the promised Buharibloodbath, then he should see to it that the Caliphate is kicked out ofNigeria before December 31, 2014.
But if he declines theoffer, if he fails to begin the implementation, if by December 31, 2013he does not recognize and legalize Shariyaland's dejure secession of 2000 AD, then the privilege/opportunity to start theprocess should pass to any group of state governors, like those ofOodualand, who desire autonomy for their zone or ethnic nationality.They should revive Awo's selfdetermination option by conveningthe SNC-EN to formally dissolve this disastrous Nigerian union.
In my estimation, Ooduaiand is today the best-organized and mostadvanced of the three emerging federations of the MNN. Hence they shouldnaturally take the lead if President Jonathan does not. They deserve thehonor of leading the others.
But whoever bells the cat,whoever kicks off the process of liberation, it is in the self-interestof all the non-Caliphate politicians and citizens to give themmilitant support so that the dissolution of Lugard's Nigeria is accomplishedbefore December 31, 2014. [ie. in the 12 months between December 2013and Dec 2014].
But kicking the Caliphateout of Nigeria requires a conscious political struggle, a well organizedand well-led struggle. And the secular-democracy forces need first torealize that fact, and secondly to organize themselves appropriately andhave their political commanders come up with a strategy and campaignplan and execute it with diligence, as with any war or liberationstruggle. It is not enough toissue occasional press releases demanding the SNC. There must be astrategy for obliging Abuja to concede it--like it took a planned andwell executed campaign for the ANC to get the government of ApartheidSouth Africa to negotiate its own demise.
However, kicking out the Caliphate is different from the SouthAfrican case in some key aspects: it does not require that the Caliphateshould embrace secular democracy. It has to be kicked out entirely sothat space is created to organize secular democracy in what remains ofNigeria.The main point is that the Caliphate must go!The Caliphate must be kicked out of Nigeria before December 31,2014! In fact, if they declare that they have finally given up Shari'aand now accept secular democracy, don't you believe them.Don't be fooled. Can a leopard change his spots? Can a cat stopmousing? (That was a 19th century Caliphate slave raider's retortwhen he was asked to stop raiding the Middle Belt communities forslaves). The Caliphate must go! Don't compromise, don'treform, don't forgive or forget their record of pogroms, massmurder and genocide. Don't forget their entrenchment oflootocracy in Nigeria. The Caliphate mustgo! Don't delay, Nigeria can go forward only after it has excised theCaliphate. There is no other way.The Caliphate mustgo!
Thelong-suffering victims of Caliphate Colonialism must now go on thecounter-offensive and drive the Caliphate out of Nigeria. We must thenseal the border between the Caliphate Shariyaland and the newSecular-democratic Nigeria. If need be we should erect an Iron Curtainor build a Great Wall to keep these jihadist barbarians out of our newNigeria.
The demand for the SNC isneither a strategy nor a campaign plan. The task now is to get thesecular-democracy forces to see that point, and to get them to realizehow and why they have been unable, in half a century, to fight properlyand defeat the Caliphate.
And also to get them to take theinitiative in reshaping Nigeria. Since i960, the Caliphate forces haveheld the initiative in Nigerian politics. The non-Caliphate forcescannot hope to win until they gain and keep the initiative. In apolitical struggle, as in war, gaining and keeping the initiative iscrucial. So, they must change their game from one of reacting toCaliphate moves, to that of making the moves that will send theCaliphate reeling out of Nigeria. The Secular-democracy forces have tomove from their habitual disorganized defensive resistance, and embarkon a determined, well-organized counteroffensive. For that,they must give up their self-destructive addiction tothe idea of Lugard's one Nigeria.
Below is the preamble of the 1995 Constitution of Ethiopia thatcould be a model for the constitution of a Nigeria that has rid itselfof the Caliphate colonialists.
Q36) The 1995 Constitution of Ethiopia
"We, the Nations, Nationalities and Peoples of Ethiopia: Strongly committed, in full and free exercise of our right to selfdetermination, to building a political community founded on the rule of law and capable of ensuring a lasting peace, guaranteeing a democratic order, and advancing our economic and social development; Firmly convinced that the fulfillment of this objective requires full respect of individual and people's fundamental freedoms and rights, to live together on the basis of equality and without any sexual, religious or cultural discrimination; Further convinced that by continuing to live with our rich and proud cultural legacies in territories we have long inhabited, have, through continuous interaction on various levels and forms of life, built up common interest and have also contributed to the emergence of a common outlook; Fully cognizant that our common destiny can best be served by rectifying historically unjust relationships and by further promoting our shared interests; Convinced that to live as one economic community is necessary in order to create sustainable and mutually supportive conditions for ensuring respect for our rights and freedoms and for the collective promotion of our interests; Determined to consolidate, as a lasting legacy, the peace and the prospect of a democratic order which our struggles and sacrifices have brought about; Have therefore adopted, on 8 December 1994 this constitution through representatives we have duly elected for this purpose as an instrument that binds us in a mutual commitment to fulfill the objectives and the principles set forth above."
It further provides for afederal government of nine ethnic-based regions and guarantees that allEthiopian languages will enjoy equal state recognition, although Amharicis specified as the working language of the federal government.
MAP #2: The MNN broken map of Nigeria-the emerging federations.
... THE EMERGING FEDERATIONS
Thecurrent 1999 Constitution of Nigeria has collapsed undeT the weight ofits fradulent orgin having been rejected throughout the country. The 12contiguous States of the North which have enacted and implemented Shariasince year 2000 in repudiation of the 1999 Constitution, have by thatstep opted out of the Nigerian Union. The balance of the country aretherefore takingsteps in exercise of their right to Self-Determination,to rework the basis of their political future.
Theprospective Federations are currently working out their respectiveConstitutions and will take same through Referendum in their respectiveterritories in exercise of their right to Self-Determination asenunciated in the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of IndigenousPeoples, 2007.
Each Federation is to decide its ownname.