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Calicium chlorosporum nueva cita para Europa.

Calicium chlorosporum new to Europe


During a study of calicioid lichens of the Iberian Peninsula (Sarrion et al. 1999) some problematic specimens were encountered. One was identified as Calicium chlorosporum F. Wilson not hitherto recorded from Europe. Calicium chlorosporum was described from Australia, where it is widespread (Tibell 1987, McCarthy 2006), and has subsequently been reported from Mexico to Peru (Tibell 1987,1996, Tibell & Ryan 2004), Madagascar (Aptroot 1990) and India (Tibell 2006). The Spanish specimen was found growing on wood of Abies pinsapo in Sierra de Las Nieves (Malaga Province), at an altitude of 1.050 m. This pinsapo-fir woodland occurs in the meso-supra-Mediterranean bioclimatic belt, and it is part of the basophilic Paeonio broteroi-Abietetum pinsapo community (Rivas- Martinez et al. 2002). This community belongs to the relict circum-Mediterranean fir forests, which are formed by several endemic fir species that survive in isolated locations. It is fragmented and occupies deep soils formed from Jurassic calcareous and dolomite bedrocks. The localities have a very complicated and abrupt relief with an understorey rich in endemic and oceanic vascular plant species. The forest is surrounded by evergreen sclerophyllous forest of Quercus ilex subsp. ballota or deciduous Q. faginea woodlands.

The pinsapo-fir woodlands are located in the Sistema Betico range in southern Spain, in a varied topography close to the Mediterranean Sea. They receive the first humid clouds from the sea in the rainy season, and suffer many mists; during the summer drought the northern slopes have a high temperature, and a very high humidity. Sharp changes in microclimate and vegetation occur between the northern humid slopes and the cold, dry southern slopes. There is no climate data available for the locality of C. chlorosporum, but at the nearby Grazalema village the climate is Mediterranean with very little summer drought and a high annual mean rainfall (2223 mm -- in fact the highest precipitation in Spain). The annual mean temperature is 16,6[degrees]C.

The discovered of C. chlorosporum in the area extends its known distribution considerably (Fig. 1), and reflects the climate diversity of the Iberian Peninsula.



Calicium chlorosporum F. Wilson

In Bailey, Queensland Dept. Agric. Bull. 7: 29 (1891). Illustration: Tibell (1987, Fig. 8).

Thallus verrucose, pale yellowish, or immersed, photobiont trebouxioid. Ascomata c. 1 mm high, with brownish pruina on the outer side of the capitulum, and young mazeadia often with a superficial yellowish pruina. Asci cylindrical, 35-50 x 3,5-4,5 pm, with uniseriate or somewhat overlapping spores. Ascospores brownish, ellipsoidal, 8-12 x 4-5 pm, with spirally arranged ridges and some cracks which distort the ridges in mature ascospores. Thallus K+ yellow turning red, KC+ orange to reddish, Pd+ orange yellowish. It contains norstictic and placodiolic acids, an unidentified xanthones.

C. chlorosporum is similar to C. salicinum and C. viride in the presence of brown pruina covering the lower side of the capitulum, but faint yellowish pruina of the young mazaedium is diagnostic. Asci with biseriately arranged spores and spirally arranged ridges in semi-mature spores are also features shared with C. viride, but in contrast to C. viride the asci of C. chlorosporum are cylindrical. C. salicinum can be distinguished from C. chlorosporum by the slightly smaller spores and a yellow pruina is never found in C. salicinum. C. chlorosporum is closely related to C. adspersum. In a recent molecular analysis of a selection of Calicium species along with other species in the Caliciaceae, C. adspersum is the sister-group of C. chlorosporum (Tibell 2006). These two species are also similar in spore ornamentation, and C. adspersum sometimes has a yellow pruina on the mazaedium. They differs, however, in so far that C. adspersum has clavate asci, larger spores and usually much shorter and stouter apothecia, which do not have a brown but a yellow pruina on the lower side (Table 1).

It is an epiphytic or lignicolous species in Spain occurring in the south, in a humid and warm climate. It has a temperate to subtropical world distribution. C. salicinum is a widespread species common in woodland areas of the Iberian Peninsula, while C. viride has a circumboreal distribution being more common in the Euro-Siberian Region, and is rare in the Mediterranean Region (Sarrion et al. 1999). C. adspersum has a wide distribution in the Northern Hemisphere and occurs both in Europe and North America. In Spain it occurs in the Malaga Province (Sarrion et al. 1999).

Specimen examined: Hs, Malaga: Parauta, Sierra de Las Nieves, 30SUF1860, 1050 m, on wood of Abies pinsapo, 3-I-1993, F. J. Sarrion 41 (MACB 91876).


We are grateful to G. Aragon for critically reading the manuscript.


APTROOT, A. 1990. Lichens of Madagascar: New and interesting records and species. Cryptog. Bryol. Lichenol. 11: 401-408.

MCCARTHY, P. M. 2006. Checklist of the Lichens of Australia and its Island Territories. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Version 6 April 2006.

RIVAS-MARTINEZ, S.; DIAZ, T. E.; FERNANDEZ-GONZALEZ, F.; IZCO, J.; LOIDI, J.; LOUSA, M. & PENAS, A. 2002. Vascular plant communities of Spain and Portugal. Itin. Geobot. 15 (1): 5-432.

SARRION, F. J.; ARAGON, G. & BURGAZ, A. R. 1999. Studies on mazaediate lichens and calicioid fungi of the Iberian Peninsula. Mycotaxon 71:169-198.

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TIBELL, L. 1996. Caliciales. Flora Neotropica Monograph. 69: 1-78.

TIBELL, L. 1999. Calicioid lichens and fungi. En T. Ahti, P. M. Jorgensen, H. Kristinsson, R. Moberg, U. Sochting, & G. Thor (Eds.), Nordic Lichen Flora, 1:20-94. Bohuslan '5, Uddevalla.

TIBELL, L. & Ryan, B. D. 2004. Calicium. En T. H. Nash III, B. D. Ryan, C. Gries, & F. Bungartz (Eds.), Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region 2: 39-44. Tempe: Lichens Unlimited.

TIBELL, L. 2006. Calicium in the Indian Himalayas. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 100: 809-852.

Francisco J. Sarrion *, Ana Rosa Burgaz * and Leif Tibell **

* Departamento de Biologia Vegetal I, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040-Madrid, Spain.

** Department of Systematic Botany, Norbyvagen 18D, Uppsala University, 75236-Uppsala, Sweden.

Recibido: 10 enero 2007. Aceptado: 26 marzo 2007.
Table 1
Diagnostic features of Calicium chlorosporum,
C. adspersum, C. salicinum and C. viride.

                            C. chlorosporum           C. adspersum
                         (source Tibell 1996)     (source Tibell 1999)

Thallus                  verrucose, yellowish      granular, greyish

Capitulum                 brownish pruina and       yellowish pruina
                        often yellowish pruina

Ascus size                  33-50 x 3,5-4,5           24-33 x 6-8
([micro]m) and shape         cylindrical               clavate

Ascospore size                8-12 x 4-5              13-17 x 6-8

Arrangement of          uniseriate to biseriate       biseriate to
spores in the asci                                    threeseriate

Ascospore                  spirally arranged        cracks spirally
ornamentation                   ridges;             arranged ridges
                         occasional irregular

Chemistry                   norstictic and           norstictic and
                          placodiolic acids,         vulpinic acids

                           C. salicinum          C. viride
                         (source Tibell &     (source Tibell &
                            Ryan 2004)           Ryan 2004)

Thallus                   immersed, grey      granular, green

Capitulum                  brown pruina         brown pruina

Ascus size                 35-44 x 3-4          20-25 x 4-5
([micro]m) and shape       cylindrical            clavate

Ascospore size            8-10 x 3,5-4,5        11-14 x 5-7

Arrangement of              uniseriate          biseriate to
spores in the asci                              threeseriate

Ascospore               spirally arranged    spirally arranged
ornamentation           ridges; occasional   ridges to cracked-
                         irregular cracks         areolate

Chemistry                 norstictic and      rhizocarpic acid
                        placodioloic acids      and epanorin
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Author:Sarrion, Francisco J.; Burgaz, Ana Rosa; Tibell, Leif
Publication:Botanica Complutensis
Article Type:Report
Date:Jan 1, 2007
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