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Tourism economically values and capitalizes on the riches generated by nature and climate, or those due to history, folklore and civilization, also holding an important role in human terms, which is materialized in a number of positive effects as far as, the tourist is concerned, and, on the other hand, the population in the areas of tourist destinations.

Setting out from the hypothesis that the industry of tourism and travelling represents a branch of activity having deep implications on the economic-social life of society, one can say it contributes to social development. The question that arises is to keep the best quality standards possible, even at modest prices.

After 2000 various periods of economic crises started to occur, inequality between people came about, all very obvious effects of climate changes, and aspects that urge world-wide debates concerning the sense and course of development of the countries. This is why increased attention is to be wished for a "social economy of solidarity", as a distinct approach that promotes sustenability and development within the context of observing human rights. These aspects directly influence social tourism, too.

Through the Nucleus scientific research Programme (1), financially supported by the government, a short research was started concerning the situation of social tourism in Romania. The goal was to see which are the interferences of social tourism with other social and economic domains. Then it was outlined which are the tourist programmes used as a support in social tourism, which support tourist destinations in having turistic flows all over the year. That approach was useful when there are few researches, and it gives a starting point for drafting strategies meant to help the tourist industry.

The motivational context of social tourism

A product of both nature and society, and also of man's constant fight with his own self, man has a threefold image, with a biologic, a social and a rational dimension. Man's existence and his development imply satisfaction of multiple needs.

Consequently, human needs appear in the shape of what human feel, directly or indirectly, as needful for their existence, for molding and developing human personality. The people's wishes, aspirations and expectations of having, being, knowing and believing represent their subjective side. The need of relaxation and entertainment is a human datum that dates back to the very beginnings of human society.

From going through a rich documentation, it turned out that there is a variegated range of manifestation of tourist motivation, backed by this context of human needs, namely:

* the motivation of escaping everyday medium, which, as a rule, is stressing and boring, and can have negative aspects for the unprivileged social categories;

* the motivation of retrieving and surpassing a number of disabilities, as a biologic necessity of self-excelling and inner satisfaction;

* the ethnic motivation--the opportunity of going back to the roots, strengthening family ties, especially for migrants of all ages;

* the playful motivation--the need to go back to childhood, to know the changes occurred in the areas where one's family comes from;

* the motivation of getting the opportunity to get or keep prestige for coming up to the living standard at a certain point, which ensures a certain social prestige;

* the motivation related to the opportunity of self-recovery, the spiritual necessity of the individual who wants to come closet o nature, to a certain culture or a certain life-style.

These motivations of travelling evolved once with human society, and consequently the needs multiplied at superior levels. Some researchers in the field of tourism states that "the study of needs can supply an explanation to motivated behavior" (Witt and Wright 1992). (2)

The concepts of such interpretations are based on is meeting the needs or wishes to know, and the balance that results from satisfying them, and such hypotheses are also taken over in the attempt to explain tourist motivation. There are authors concerned by this form of tourism (Minnaert 2011), who state there is an implicit presupposition in all the studies, which explains motivation for tourism, and the consumer will choose the holiday destination or type that will best meet the wishes or needs which they feel.

Conversely, most researches in the field of tourist studies have traditionally been based on the idea of tourism as a consumer, and the factors that stimulate or facilite demand. While the economic constraints were included in the demand models, emphasis was placed on the turist that reaches the destination, rather than the future turist who is left behind. Recently, that feature started to change.

While research of tourism failed to become oriented towards wellbeing, the researches in the field of tourism have nevertheless begun to admit that a wider examination of constraints can lead to a better understanding of tourist motivation, of decision-making models and the destination of image and of destination (Witt & Wright, 1992;) Once the constraints have been identified, the field focuses on a relative hierarchy of constraints and the manner in which constraints are negotiated for those who do not still want to participate.

The current concept of social tourism

Over time, social tourism has been present very little in tourist industry in keeping with the economic level reached. The lengths of time largely differ from one country to the next, according to their degree of economic development, their national holidays, and also from one social group to another, the profession practised, respectively from one age group to another. At a certain level of general development, spare time appears, an dis individualized as a direct interval of time budget, remaining, however, largely determined by working time. Once with the expansion of the use of robots, there are all the premises that the duration of spare time should increase in the decades to come.

Therefore, the appearance and evolution of social tourism is related to the respect of the Declaration of Human Rights and the first signs of trade union movements that brought to the fore, among other things, the duration of the working weeks and granting work holidays and days of weekly resting days. After World War Two, the trade unions recorded a time of strenghtening, while enterprises saw a more difficult period. In 1936, the adoption by the Convention of the International Labour Organization (ILO), of recommendation no. 52 concerning paid holiday, the starting point of social tourism was envisaged. The principle of this agreement was an official recognizance of social tourism, which was included in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948, which states that "any person has a right to rest and relax, including a reasonable limitation of working time, and periodic paid holidays".

Over the decades, the pool of issues concerning social tourism evolved with the improvement and expansion of the application of the right to social protection. However, development of social tourism distinguished itself in the sixth decade of the past century. Worldwide, in 1963 there appears the International Bureau of Social Tourism (BITS) based in Brussels, founded by the first 15 European organizations that supported this form of tourism. While travelling is part of the life style of modern societies, we often forget that there still exists a very large portion of the population for whom the right to holidays and tourism remain a utopia or far-off dream. The first interpretation of social tourism was generically designated as "Tourism for everybody", and the next one has in the meantime become an action generically called "Solidarity of tourism", which includes both hosts and tourists.

Later, in 2010, BITS became the International Social Tourism Organization (ISTO) (4), initially by the name of the International Bureau of Social Tourism (BITS) in 1963, being an international non-profit organization, whose task is to promote access to spending free time, holidays and tourism for everybody namely young time, families, elderly people and disabled people.

Subsequently, during the fortieth anniversary meeting in Belgium, from 28 to 30 April 2004, at the international congress, ISTO took the chance to express he idea that social tourism can be considered a type of development tourism, which can combine tourist activities and protection of the environment, conservation of traditional art and culture, efficient and effective support of local economies.

Currently, ISTO has extended, from its starting point, Europe, to the two American subcontinents, and also to Africa, in order to share and consolidate its convictions in the field of social tourism, and keep on working together to serve a right, noble and fair cause, to ensure access of more and more social categories to taking part in tourism.

Together with ISTO, since 2006, the Economic and Social European Committee (CESE) (5), explicitates, in a public document, the idea of social tourism through the existence of three conditions:

* existence of a situation, real, total or partial, of an incapacity of fully exerting the right to tourism, on a medium and long term;

* necessity to act through a public or private institution, a company, a union, or simply an organized group of people, who propose to take action to surpass, or reduce, the obstacle that hinders a person to exert their right to tourism;

* this action is efficient, and actually helps a group of people to participate in tourism in a manner that should observe the values of sustainability, accessibility and solidarity.

CESE recognizes that social tourism "includes all the initiatives that make tourism accessible to people having special difficulties and have a positive impact on social and economic order, also, in various sectors, activities, communities and capitalizing on real estate by investment in tourism, as direct and indirect effects of that domain of activity. The young, families of several children, elderly people and people with physical disabilities are the main customers implied by the policies of social tourism, which also have significant economic repercussions.

After 2008, and the economic crisis, many European nations were compelled to create and bring to light new modalities and solutions that can answer the social needs appeared in society. Social economy and solidarity have to be seen as an instrument of social cohesion. The main aim of social economy is to create as many workplaces as possible, to strengthen social cohesion, and integrate marginalized population. It is here that the role of social tourism intervenes.

Consequently, social tourism promotes access of a growing number of people to holiday, irrespective of age, social milieu, availability of economic and physical capacity, an dis based on socializing of values, growing of the person and protection of the environment.

When it comes to social actions dedicated to tourism, especially for people having low incomes, the most important things are facilitating the possibilities of travelling, and also expanding tourist services at the level of destination. The International Social Tourism Organization--ISTO adopted different terms for the two interpretations/connotations:

To differentiate this form of tourism from other types of tourism, economists Minnaert, Maitland and Miller (2007, 2009) (6) defined social tourism as being a "tourism with a moral added value", whose maina im is to make either the host or the visitor benefit from tourism, in a procedure of change of value and experiences. Likewise, this definition makes a distinction between the initiatives that mainly aim to increase participation in tourism for disadvantaged groups and those that mainy aim to increase the economic benefits of tourism for disadvantaged groups through capitalizing on local resources.

This concept has 10 action coordinates:

* Grouping/associating, at a local level, all those actors who can make a contribution to supporting social tourism;

* Representing/delegating, at the level of local public administrations, other public and private bodies (at the level of districts and local communities), of a representative for social tourism;

* Defending, at the level of the legislation and juridical regulations, of the values of social tourism and the right to holiday for everybody;

* Defining and promoting a genuine policy of development of social tourism for all underprivileged social categories;

* Including the needs of social demands in the plans of land and town planning and the policies of development of tourism;

* Establishing relationships and ways of information reporting between local and district communities, tourism bureaus, trade unions and employers' unions in tourism, and managers of tourist structures;

* Periodically promoting, via the mass media, of the initiatives of social tourism, for participation and obtaining sources of funds through donations and sponsoring;

* Conveying official data concerning social tourism also through modern means, towards all those who adhered and supported social tourism;

* Achieving a supply and a range of tourist services specific to social tourism, and promoting the ethical values that underlie this form of tourism.

* Initiating changes of experience and meetings with representatives of social tourism in various countries, in order to apply the best formulas of action and support. (7)

It is through social tourism that the phenomenon occurs of diversifying the domain of services, especially the tourist supply in the field of balneary, mountain and seacoast tourism, with beneficial effects on the dimensions and the manner of using free time, as well as increasing the population's life quality, especially in the conditions of heightened stress which characterizes 21st century civilization.

Types of social tourism

The spectacular evolution of social tourism, in its two correlative sides: production and consumption, followed by the amplification and diversification of its implications, shows the receptiveness of this phenomenon to the dynamics of society, its evolution under the incidence of a complex system of factors, mutually differentiated through their nature, role and participation, in various proportions, in determining the phenomenon of tourism.

The field of tourism is currently undergoing very deep changes, connected with the evolution of communication technologies, the appearance of new motivations and demands from the potential tourists, as well as the appearance of new products and players. From this angle, social tourism, especially associative tourism, has in itself undergone a number of changes at the same time as human society has been evolving, especially as these were complemented by the difficulties due to the constraints on which the more and more expensive social policies are based, and also the policy of uncertainty for the evolution of global economy and the EU economy, under the reserve of the much more rapid liberalization of the market of social tourism.

For the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), "social tourism, also often called popular tourism, is supported, in some countries, through associations, mutual societies, cooperatives and trade unions, and its aim ist o efficiently and more widely make available tourist activities, especially for the most underprivileged categories of the population"

The existence of social tourism is connected with the level of social protection secured in each country, in keeping with the dynamics and structure of the population, its degree of economic development. As a result of the research conducted, several types of social tourism emerged:

* tourism for children, in organized forms;

* tourism for families with several children;

* tourism for various categories of young people;

* tourism for the third age--seniors;

* tourism for people with disabilities.

Children, as either preschool or school pupils, can become young potential tourists. Their first contact with nature and adventure activities, can represent a unique, ideal moment for them in expanding their horizons of knowledge. Many tourist activities, which also have an educative role, take place in the form of the holiday camps dedicated to them. They are going to become the future passionate, confirmed tourists. For them, the most suitable form is going to holiday camps.

Since the emergence of the European system of paid holidays, many nations considered it adequate to adopt a social policy, in oder to make holidays and tourism accessible to a growing number of wage-earning people. Later on, it was extended to other states world-wide. To this type the concept of family tourism is applicable. There are tourism agencies and tour-operators focusing on tourist products devoted to families with children. Hotels and guest-houses can boast special tariff offers, children-tailored menus and tall chairs for the small ones. There are numerous offers for families with children under the age of 12.

The society of the 21st century brings to the fore another generation of young people whose horizons and motivations in their own lives and professional careers are different. The distance between generations seems greater during this period full of changes, when the new digital and robotized technologies placed their imprint on the character and education of those born between 1990-2000. Many tour-operators are aware of the fact that the current generation, called Y, focused on technology, will not follow the same style as their parents in generation X. However, up to the present there have been no significant researches relative to the tendencies and changes which this generation will bring to the industry of hospitality. Actually, these tourists require real-time information, flexibility, authentic local experiences, social and environmental responsibility. These are major criteria for this generation, who no longer trust their colleagues to make the selection of a holiday tourist destination, apart from what the tourist sites--some less credible--promote (9)

Active aging is a concept recently developed by the World Health Organization, and several governments use a set of measures taken to approach the "problem" of aging population and in order to encourage elderly people in remaining active and becoming active in a personal, family and professional or social line. Elderly tourists are identified through a few peculiarities: many of them are the most experienced tourists, have more time at their disposal, own more savings, and travelling becomes a strong motive of knowing other cultural horizons. They have a greater flexibility to the duration of the sojourn of trip, off the peak season, they ask for quality services including some extra commodiousness features, they prefer to travel as a group, carefully choose the tourist destination, especially if they have health problems.

The likelihood of disability is due to pollution, over-chemicalized food, hereditary diseases and undetected genetic causes. A society's degree of civilization is largely determined by attitudes towards those with a disability.

In the context of increasing social participation, the issue of access to recreation and tourism for people with disabilities has become an element of international law since 2006, through the United Nations' Convention on Disabled Persons, Article 9 (Accessibility), which provides for "identifying and removing obstacles and barriers to accessibility", and Article 30 (Participation in cultural life, recreation), which emphasizes the need to "ensure that people with disabilities have access to places for cultural activities such as theatres, museums, cinemas, libraries and tourist services". (10)

Social tourism in Romania

From all the documentation done and the information provided by some institutions with social functions, it is clear that the functioning of this form of tourism is dependent on several factors, namely:

* the existence of some social policies, in combination with action strategies;

* major socio-demographic changes in the population;

* the degree and risk of poverty at national level;

* the presence of professional tourism associations with social tourism activities;

* the existence of special tourist programs dedicated to social tourism.

In Romania, social policy is coordinated by the Ministry of Labour, Social Solidarity and Family, and supported by other ministries, such as the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Education. Priority funding of social policy is from budgetary sources, and is coordinated by the Ministry of Economy and Finance. However, the state is no longer the only body that can intervene through certain regulations, but also the social partners, multinational corporations and firms. Every social policy system is made up of various social benefits and services, focusing on health and education, and very little on housing and jobs. The amount of social spending was 18.2% of GDP in 1999, 40.9% in 2010, and reached 42% in 2016.

The level of poverty has increased in Romania over the last two decades. The transition of the economic system from the centralized economy to the market economy was the first and most important cause of the degradation of social protection and the appearance of the phenomenon of poverty. The categories severely affected by poverty are: children, young people with no professional qualifications, families with many children, single-parent families, especially rural ones, the unemployed, farmers, retirees, the elderly and their families, or the single, homeless people, part of the Roma population, abandoned children and street children.

The poverty and social exclusion rate in Romania was 42% of the population in 2012, and 38.9% in 2016 (11). If in 2008, at the height of the economic crisis, Romania had over nine million citizens at risk of poverty and social exclusion, in 2016, the number of those entering this category was almost eight million. According to recently published data, Eurostat warns that 66% of Romanians did not afford to take a holiday in 2016.

Many other studies, including some conducted by international organizations, show that four out of ten Romanians live on the brink of poverty. The phenomenon is generally and cyclically addressed, depending on the governance system. Social assistance passed into the responsibility of local communities, and is uneven and incongruent, depending on the possibilities of the community, precisely where the needs are highest, the community being poorer and there is not enough local funds to give.

The phenomenon of economic transition in Romania has led to profound demographic changes in the number and structure of the population. On 1 January 2017, the resident population was over 19.63 million people, down 122.000 compared to January 1, 2016. The main reason for this decrease is the negative natural increase (the number of deceased persons surpassing the number of live births by 68.061 persons). The phenomenon of demographic aging continues to increase, the gap between elderly people aged 65 and over and the young population aged 0-14 reaching 440,000 people (3,494 million compared to 3,054 million people), up from 371,000 on 1 January 2016. (12)

The long-term international migration balance was equally negative in 2017 as in 2016 (-76,208 people). These demographic phenomena make labour resources shrink, increase poverty and increase social spending.

The Federation of Romanian Tourism Patronages (FPTR) is a professional and non-governmental organization created in 1992, which has the role of a flexible and useful tool for this economic field. The Romanian Spa Tourism Employers Organization (OPTBR) was established in 1993 with the main purpose of supporting the promotion and development of spa tourism. The National Association of Tourism Agencies represents the professional interests, at the national level, as well as European and international levels. ANTREC is a non-governmental and apolitical organization founded in 1994, which identifies, develops and promotes Romanian hospitality and rural tourism. The association "The most beautiful villages in Romania"--AFSR, founded in 2010 in Brasov, after the French model, supports modest tourism in terms of tourist services, yet having a high value as far as the natural and cultural environment of these villages is concerned.

They are followed by a series of regional associations supporting the development and promotion of tourism, represented mainly by the Association for Promotion and Development of Tourism SEACOAST-DANUBE DELTA, which is a tripartite structure, founded in 2007, Prahova Tourism Promotion and Development Association represents a public-private partnership set up in May 2008, Bucovina Tourism Association, created in 2001, whose main objective is to promote the overall tourist offer of the region and to promote its members, Brasov County Tourism Promotion and Development Association (APDTBrasov) founded in 2006 by the County Council for Development and Promotion of Tourism.

From the statistical data available, it was possible to get an image of what social tourism in Romania really is, based on the number of tickets sold at reduced rates, from the spa resorts situated in the spa, mountain and seaside resorts. Table 1 shows the correlation between the total population, the overall mortality rate, and the number of tourists who benefited from social tourism.

These data demonstrate the very low level of social tourism in this country. Social protection through recreation and relaxation in tourist resorts is very low. Until the onset of the economic crisis, this form of tourism had a slightly upward trend, with the positive economic outcomes. We have a high mortality rate, which reflects the lack of forms of disease prevention and forms of complementary medicine. The period 2009-2016 shows an involution of the tourist phenomenon. Reverting to values of more than 1.0 percent will be even more difficult in the context of the current economy facing many tax and impost issues and rising inflation.

The tourism programs encouraging social tourism are supported by the aforementioned associations and by some initiatives of the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection. These are the following:

* "Seaside for All" was designed to reduce the phenomenon of seasonality. Approximately 5,000 accommodation places are offered each year during the start and end times of the tourist season.

* "Free Holidays Day" was started in 2010 by the National Association of Tourism Agencies. (13) This program translates into hotels offering a free day of accommodation for a certain number of paid days.

* "Early registrations" was initiated by the Bibi Touring Agency in Ploiesti in 2004. Subsequently, ANAT took it over from 2009, together with the most important tourism associations: ANTREC, FPTR, the Seacoast-Danube Delta Association, and with the support of the Ministry of Tourism.

* "One week in the mountains" provides access to rest, at special tariffs, for a large number of Romanian tourists. It started in 2008.

* "One-Week Relaxation" is a national programme launched by the OPTBR and the Employers of the National Association of Tourism Agencies, for the periods 25 January to 30 May, and 1 October to 15 December.

* "Let Us Go to the Bathing Places" is another OPTBR programme, including five full-board accommodation nights (three meals a day), two treatment procedures a day, five days of treatment and a medical consultation with lower rates

* The "Spa 10-Day Period" programme includes 10 days of full-board stay, for at least 7 days of treatment, two procedures per day and a medical checkup during off-season periods.

* The "Wellness Spa" program, which includes three nights of accommodation, two days of half board, a festive meal, access to the swimming pool, sauna, gym, and two wellness procedures (massage or facial maintenance/cosmetics) for those enrolled in this programme.

* "Country holidays" is organized by the National Rural and Cultural Tourism Association (ANTREC), and includes 5-night stays in Romanian villages, with discounts. (14) The offer is valid from April 15 to June 15, and September 20 to October 30.


Tourism is placed within the category of created needs, i.e. by the growing economic development, people's mentality, habits, traditions, cultural level, and living standards. In the analysis and development of social tourism there are strategies and approaches that require minimizing social spending, especially in the public sector. It is therefore very important to have a workable smaller and progressive tax system, which maintains a revenue scale to ensure decent living and the formation of the middle classes. As a result, it is the most disadvantaged categories that receive facilities in the tourism sector, with a prevalence of children and young people, as well as retirees, and low-income people.

From the whole analysis of social tourism, through the study carried out, quite a few important conclusions were drawn, namely:

* Social tourism is subdimensional as compared to the real needs of the population categories that should benefit from low-priced tourism activities;

* Social spending is not well targeted to support domestic tourism, and is allocated more to encourage work disinterest;

* In the practice of tourism, the most disadvantaged are families with more children, who should actually benefit from special programs;

* Decreasing specific forms of social tourism for children and young people in modern formulas focused on attractive themes (nature, informatics, mathematics, plastic arts, etc.);

* The formulas of tourism programmes in social tourism should take into account the number and structure of the population, and also address the Romanians in the diaspora.

* Statistically, there is no complete information on social tourism other than that considered from the perspective of the tickets sold;

* The tourist associations that run social tourism programmes do not have annual analyses of the participation data with more details about the participating companies, accommodation units, places, number of tourists, etc.

As an economic process, social tourism would entail the existence of an institutional redistribution system of welfare, viewed in a broad context of access to various resources: opportunities, income, goods and financial power. Such redistribution is necessary to correct at least natural inequalities, but also the structural inequalities generated by the current social system. The lack of such institutional redistribution mechanisms (made up not only of government actors, but also of private actors and civil society, as associations), as well as their inefficiency, shows the low level of this form of tourism in Romania.


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*** INCDT, (2017), Oportunitati strategice de dezvoltare a turismului social in romania prin prisma noilor evolutii socio-demografice, faza a Ill-a--Impactul schimbarilor socio-demografice asupra turismului social din Romania, p.1-73, Bucuresti;

*** INCDT, (2017), Oportunitati strategice de dezvoltare a turismului social in Romania prin prisma noilor evolutii socio-demografice, faza a III-a--Analiza experientei international si europene privind mecanismele economico-financiare ale turismului social, p.1-74, Bucuresti.



*** Institutul National de Statistica,--Sistemul indicatorilor de incluziune sociala. accesat pe 05.07.2017;



*** frumoase sate...




Tamara SIMON

Marian-Florin BUSUIOC,

Alina Cristina NICULESCU

Adrian RADULESCU (*)

(*) Tamara SIMON is Sc. Researcher I, INCDT (National Institute for Research and Development in Tourism), Bucharest,

Marian-Florin BUSUIOC is PhD, Assoc. Professor, Romanian-American University, Bucharest

Alina Cristina NICULESCU is Sc. Researcher III, INCDT, Bucharest

Adrian R[Angstrom]DULESCU is Sc. Researcher III, INCDT, Bucharest.

(1) That research was made through the Nucleus programme conducted with the support of ANCSI (National Authority for Scientific Research and Innovation), contract no. 42N/2016, project no. PN 16-03 02 02.

(2) Witt, C.A. & Wright, P.L. (1992). Tourism motivation: Life after Maslow. In, Peter Johnson and Barry Thomas (eds) Choice and Demand in Tourism. London: Mansell, p.2-29.

(3) Journal Current Issues in Tourism /Volume 14, 2011 - Issue 5: social tourism: perspectives and potential/Lynn Minaert, Robert Maitland, Graham Miller, What is social tourism?.


(5) AVIS du Comite economique et social europeen, le "Tourisme social en Europe [archive]" (INT/312), 14 septembre 2006.

(6) Social tourism as a potential measure to reduce social exclusion by Dr Lynn Minnaert, Prof Robert Maitland--University of Westminster Dr Graham Miller--University of Surrey (For full text and references please refer to Minnaert, L., Maitland, R. & Miller, G. (2009), "Tourism and social policy --The value of social tourism", in: "Annals of Tourism Research", Vol. 36, n[degrees] 2, 316-334).

(7) portail de [GAMMA]economie, des finances, de Tactions, et des comptes publics du Gouvernement Frangais/2012.



(10) Law No. 221/2010 concerning the ratification of the Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities, adopted in New York by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 13 December 2006, opened for signature on 30 March 2007, and signed by Romania on 26 September 2007. The United Nations' Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities has been published in the Official Gazette of Romania (part I, no. 792 of 26 November 2010)

(11) Data from the National Statistics Institute.

(12) Data from the National Statistics Institute.


Table no. 1--The level of development of social tourism in Romania

Year  Total population  Rate of mortality  Persons with   Percentage of
      in Romania        [per thousand]     treatment and  total
                                           rest tickets   population %

1994  23093262          11.5               193,426        0.83
1996  23009075          12.5               142,961        0.62
1998  22885802          11.8               192,108        0.83
2000  22825288          11.2               239,060        1.04
2002  22779441          11.9               330,030        1.44
2004  22688392          11.4               291,699        1.28
2006  22614980          11.4               272,653        1.20
2008  22561686          11.2               250,786        1.11
2010  22516004          11.5               169,816        0.75
2012  22433741          11.4               202,143        0.90
2014  22346178          11.4               210,359        0.94
2016  22260798          11.6               211,930        0.95

Source : INSSE 2017
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Author:Simon, Tamara; Busuioc, Marian-Florin; Niculescu, Alina Cristina; Radulescu, Adrian
Publication:Romanian Economic and Business Review
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:4EXRO
Date:Dec 22, 2017
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