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CSA's focus area 16: actionable intelligence ... Effects of high deployment OPTEMPO and constrained resources on the pace of MI transformation.

The focus of this column is usually on MI force structure designs and new concepts of intelligence support. In this issue, I am focusing on the effects a high deployment operations tempo (OPTEMPO) and a resource-constrained environment are having on the pace of MI transformation (see Figure 1). The main point to remember is that supporting the war effort is our top priority. Logically, one would think that units undergoing modular transformation and returning to Operations IRAQI FREEDOM and ENDURING FREEDOM (OIF/OEF) would get all the necessary resources to meet the new Objective Table of Organization and Equipment (OTOE) structure design. We have charged the system with recruiting additional personnel and procuring more equipment, but there is an unavoidable, short-term time lag associated with this process. We have challenges ahead of us.
Figure 1. The State of Army Intelligence.

Army Intelligence Is Rapidly Transforming While At War

* Intelligence operations tempo is high.

** MI soldiers deployed more than 1 year out of 2
** Using stay behind equipment solutions for multiple rotations
** Retention is falling in high OPTEMPO units

* We are growing MI capabilities and force structure to improve and
sustain the fight under our modular transformation efforts

** Major Growth areas: HUMINT, Analysis, SIGINT

* We are using a spiral development approach to rapidly integrate new
effective capabilities against an asymmetric threat

** Analysis: DCGS-A, Information Dominance Center (IDC)
** Connect the Soldier to the Network


Over the past 18 months, senior leaders of the Army staff conducted numerous visits with our de ployed forces in the field and those units undergoing a modular conversion. These visits keep our Army's leadership current with lessons learned from ongoing operations and often identify issues returning units have with their future modular design conversions. As a result, we are going through a period of refinement in the Army's modular conversion.

It is important that everyone understands some of the realities associated with growing new intelligence capabilities within the modular force. We are successfully competing with other Army resourcing requirements. We are balancing operational requirements with those of transformation and are simultaneously bringing as much stability as possible to our intelligence force. Army intelligence continues to rapidly move forward with our modular transformation while continuing to be a key enabler for the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT).

Army Force Generation (ARFORGEN)

The Army has a new strategic context to how we cycle Army training and readiness. It recognizes that continuous full-spectrum operations is the default condition. It acknowledges that major combat is followed by sustained stabilization and reconstruction to create conditions for enduring victory in the GWOT. Most importantly, it recognizes that the old readiness paradigm is obsolete. Our new unit rotation, reset, and unit stabilization model means the Army is not "all ready, all the time."

The new ARFORGEN model provides a steady-state supply of trained, ready, cohesive, modular Army Forces for continuous full-spectrum operations. It means more predictable unit-rotation schedules for the Army, soldiers, families, and employers. The basis of the model is a common operational readiness cycle defined as the recurring, structured progression of increasing unit readiness through the Reset/Train, Ready, and Available phases, culminating in full mission readiness and availability to deploy.

* Active Component (AC) Operational Deployment Cycle. For planning purposes, AC units are available for one operational deployment every three years.

* Reserve Component (RC) Operational Deployment Cycle. For planning purposes, RC units are available for one operational deployment every six years and available for non-federalized commitments for every year not deployed.

For the active component, the goal of this cycle breaks out to three distinct one-year phases:

* Reset/Train Phase. The first phase of the operational readiness cycle when units redeploy from operations, recover, reorganize, stabilize personnel, receive new equipment, and conduct individual and collective training culminating in the commander's validation that the unit is ready (Year 1).

* Ready Phase. The second phase of the operational readiness cycle when units are apportioned to combatant commanders for planning, conduct mission preparation and collective training with higher operational headquarters, and may deploy if additional operational capability is required (Year 2).

* Available Phase. The third phase of the operational readiness cycle when units are in their assigned deployment periods and may receive alert, mobilization, and deployment orders (Year 3).

In the near-term as we grow the Army from 33 to 48 brigade combat teams (BCTs), we have compressed the Reset/Train and Ready phases into a one-year cycle. This will improve as we grow more BCTs and GWOT rotational requirements eventually decline with increased stability in Iraq. The RC will follow a similar operational readiness cycle stretched out of six years.

Resourcing Priorities

Units deploying in support of GWOT missions are at the top of the priorities list for personnel resourcing and equipping. Even as a priority one unit, there will still be some "just in time" fills of personnel and equipment. Many wonder what is causing this to occur.

In the case of equipment, it is often the production capacity of companies producing our systems. The Shadow Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is a great example where production of this system is optimized and running 24 hours a day. It would take significant Army investment and two years for the manufacturer to build a second factory and production line to increase output.

For our personnel, the challenge is greater as we grow. The assignment of our initial entry soldiers is rather straightforward based upon unit priorities. The assignment of experienced soldiers complicates the process. The real issue is that our MI soldiers are rotating faster than our MI unit flags. Resolving this issue is our top priority.

Every time an MI unit comes home from a deployment, the personnel go on "stop move" status for 90 days to recover the unit's equipment and spend some time with their families. After 90 days, the soldiers are eligible for a permanent change of station (PCS) move. Often, our MI soldiers will relocate to a new unit already preparing for its next deployment. On average, this gives our soldiers six to nine months to move their families, train with their new units, and redeploy back into GWOT. Resolving this high level of deployment tempo is our greatest concern.

What to Expect in the Near-Term

MI Branch is facing another tough year in meeting our ever-growing mission requirements. The Intelligence Center and School is doing a great job of training the MI Force, particularly 2,500 additional Skill Level-10 soldiers this year, as well as supporting our Army at War with the numerous mobile training teams (MTTs)

The Army Staff is working to begin activation of the MI battalion(-)in the Battlefield Surveillance Brigade (BFSB) starting in January 2006. The Army has agreed to resource a minimum of five new active component MI battalions(-), and potentially we may see as many as nine AC battalions. There will also be four new MI battalions(-) in the U.S. Army Reserve (USAR) and two new MI battalions(-) in the U.S. Army National Guard (ARNG). These new units are critical to developing a larger MI force pool, thus reducing the MI deployment tempo.

The MI battalion(-) will consist of a headquarters and headquarters company (HHC), a collection and exploitation (C&E) company, and two counterintelligence and human intelligence (CI and HUMINT) companies. The two unresourced elements are a UAV company and a technical collection (Prophet) company. The UAV company is unfeasible before fiscal year 2007 (FY07) due to equipment production shortages.

We are also standing up a new organization that will contribute to the the Joint Interrogation and Debriefing Center (JIDC). This battalion-size organization will have a specific mission of resourcing a theater interrogation and debriefing center such as Abu Ghraib. There will be two AC JIDCs and two RC JIDCs. The first AC JIDC will activate in January 2006 and deploy during the 06-08 OIF rotation. The AC JIDCs will align with the 470th MI Brigade and the 513th MI Brigade. While these are under the Unit of Employment Y (UEy, a blending of corps and army capabilities) for command and control, they may deploy to any theater. The addition of the JIDCs will further reduce the resourcing strain on the rest of the MI force.

Overall, the MI priority of fill for personnel resourcing and equipment is:

* BCT MI company.

* Unit of Employment X (UEx, currently division level) G2.

* MI battalion (BFSB).

* Joint Interrogation and Debriefing Center (JIDC).

* Theater Intelligence Brigade (TIB).

Relief is on the way. This current year (2005) (and OIF rotation 05-07) represent the peak year for Army MI. The activation of new units starting in FY06 will begin to reduce the current deployment tempo for the MI Corps. We are continuing to "grow" the MI Corps and the Army will continue to recruit and train more soldiers. The U.S. Army Intelligence Center has the throughput capability to train the required MI growth.

We are expecting increased promotions for our enlisted and junior noncommissioned officers (NCOs). We are helping the Army rewrite warrant officer accession requirements to include eliminating the P2 (physical) profile restriction, extending time-in-service eligibility to 15 years, and eliminating the requirement to attend training at Fort Rucker, Alabama, for staff sergeants and above. We also are working on increasing retention bonuses for all our MI specialties.

As the Army G2 and I travel around the Army, commanding generals consistently tell us great stories about their MI soldiers and your contributions to successful missions. MI is on the front lines providing needed support to our combat arms comrades. There are many MI heroes amongst us receiving deserved recognition. The 202d MI Battalion had 11 awards for valor during this last rotation. The 224th MI Battalion conducted an eight-hour operation in Afghanistan this summer that saved the lives of a Special Forces team. The Hunter UAV units continue to provide outstanding support with this high-demand low-density system. The U.S. Army Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM) Information Dominance Center is providing continuous tactical overwatch of the 3d Infantry Division in Iraq. MI is clearly a major element of combat power And ... Always out Front!

Lieutenant Colonel Stephen K. Iwicki

Lieutenant Colonel Steve Iwicki will retire from the U.S. Army on 29 April 2005. He has accepted a position as Vice President of Intelligence Planning with a civilian firm in Washington. D.C. Readers may contact him via E-mail at stephen.iwicki@us.army.mil.
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Author:Iwicki, Stephen K.
Publication:Military Intelligence Professional Bulletin
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2005
Words:1731
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