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COUNTY RECORDS AND MAJOR RANGE EXTENSIONS FOR WEST CROSS TIMBERS ANGIOSPERMS FROM PROCTOR LAKE RESERVOIR IN COMANCHE COUNTY, TEXAS.

Floristic work in Comanche County associated with wetlands and surrounding uplands at Lake Proctor Reservoir in Comanche County, Texas, was conducted in association with an ecological comparison of a constructed wetland to a natural wetland (Brister 2005; Brister & Nelson 2012). The floral list was developed by collecting each plant species found in flower and identifying that species using Diggs et al. (1999). Specimens were then deposited in the Tarleton State University (TAC) Herbarium. Two of the specimens, Colorado River-hemp (Sesbania herbacea (Mill.) McVaugh) and knot grass (Paspalum distichum L.), were reported by Brister (2005) as major range extensions but voucher specimens were either not made or lost and thus are not included. Plants were collected in 2001 (April-June and August-September), 2002 (March-April, June, and September), and 2003 (April-May, July, and September-October). The resulting list of 82 species new to Comanche County was then examined to determine the number of native versus introduced species, noxious weeds, rare or endemic species, as well as threatened and endangered species. Plants were compared to those that occur on the Federal-listed Noxious Weeds list (United States Department Agriculture (USDA) 2016), state threatened and endangered plant species list (Texas Parks and Wildlife Department (TPWD) 2016), and rare plants of Texas (Poole et al. 2007). None of the taxa collected occurred in the aforementioned electronic databases or in Poole et al. 2007.

Specimen occurrence and distribution records were compared to data available in the Atlas of the Vascular Plants of Texas (Turner et al. 2003a; 2003b) and floristic studies from the region (Nelson et al. 2016; Harsley & Nelson 2010; McPhail & Nelson 2005). Taxa new to Comanche County but occurring in bordering counties are listed in Table 1. Those not reported from bordering counties are discussed as major range extensions for the region. Both the table and discussion of major range extensions are organized alphabetically by family, genera, and species. Sixteen species were introduced and 66 are native to Texas (Table 1 ; Diggs et al. 1999). Sixty-eight taxa new to Comanche County but occurring in bordering counties are listed in Table 1. Those not reported from bordering counties are discussed as major range extensions for the region.

SPECIES ACCOUNTS

Major range extensions:

ASTERACEAE

Rudbeckia maxima Nutt. (Giant Coneflower; TAC 5408) is a native coneflower that occurs in east Texas west of the East Cross Timbers as well as Tarrant County (Diggs et al. 1999). Correll and Johnston (1970) report it from moist, open places in East Texas. The closest locality to Comanche County reported by Turner et al. (2003a) is Tarrant County to the northeast.

CACTACEAE

Opuntia engelmannii Salm-Dyck var. lindheimeri (Engelm.) B. D. Parfitt & Pinkava (Prickly Pear; TAC 5335) is a native cactus known from the Blackland Prairie south to South Texas and west to the Trans-Pecos (Diggs et al. 1999). Turner et al. (2003a) reports its nearest location as Lampasas County, to the southeast in Central Texas but Diggs et al. (1999) notes that it occurs in Mills County on the southern border of Comanche County. Stanford (1971) reported it in Brown County, which borders Comanche County to the west, but this locality nor the locality from Mills County (Diggs et al. 1999) is included in Turner et al. (2003a).

CYPERACEAE

Schoenoplectus acutus (Muhl. ex. Bigelow) A. Love & D. Love (Hard-stem Bulrush; TAC 5384) is a native bulrush that occurs in Grayson and Rockwall counties (Diggs et al. 1999) as well as west Texas. Schoenoplectus acutus is reported as rare in east and north central Texas (Correll & Johnston 1970; Diggs et al. 1999). The closest locality to Comanche County is Taylor County to the northwest and all other reports are in the Panhandle as well as West Texas (Turner et al. 2003b).

Schoenoplectus pungens (Vahl) Palla (American bulrush; TAC 5493) is a native bulrush that occurs mainly in Ellis, Montague, and Wise counties, but is considered widespread in Texas (Diggs et al. 1999). Correll and Johnston (1970) report that it occurs in moist habitats throughout the state. The closest localities to Comanche County reported by Turner et al. (2003b) are San Saba and Parker counties.

FABACEAE

Gleditsia tricanthos L. (Common Honey-locust; TAC 5334) is a native legume that occurs in southeast and east Texas, west to the Cross Timbers and is also scattered in the Rolling Plains as well as the Edwards Plateau (Diggs et al. 1999). The closest locality to Comanche County is Coryell County to the southeast (Turner et al. (2003a).

Lotus unifoliolatus (Hook.) Benth. (Pursh's Deer-Vetch; TAC 5536) is a widespread, native legume in much of the eastern half of Texas (Diggs et al. 1999) and is abundant in north-central Texas (Correll & Johnston 1970). Turner et al. (2003a) reports it in counties to the north and south of Comanche with the closest localities being San Saba and Palo Pinto counties.

Vicia ludoviciana Nutt. subsp. leavenworthii (Torr. & A. Gray) Lassetter & C.R. Gunn (Leavenworth's Vetch; TAC 5338) is a native vetch that occurs in southeast and east Texas, west to eastern Rolling Plains and Edwards Plateau (Diggs et al. 1999). Correll and Johnston (1970) as well as Stanford (1976) report the range as extending from the eastern half of Texas, west to Wichita, Taylor, Edwards, and Kinney counties. Turner et al. (2003a) reports it in the western half of the state with the closest locality to Comanche County being Concho County to the southwest.

GERANIACEAE

Geranium texanum (Trel.) A. Heller (Texas geranium; TAC 5410) is a native, widespread geranium in Texas, but mainly in the Blackland Prairie, west to the Rolling Plains and Edwards Plateau (Diggs et al. 1999). The closest localities to Comanche are Callahan and Coleman counties to the west and Coryell County to the southeast (Turner et al. 2003a).

LILIACEAE

Allium canadense L. var. canadense (Wild Onion; TAC 5435) is a native onion that occurs in east and southeast Texas and west to the East Cross Timbers (Diggs et al. 1999). Correll and Johnston (1970) report it as occurring in the eastern one-third of the state. However, Stanford (1971) collected it from Hamilton County, adjacent to Comanche County, while Stanford (1976) reported it from Bexar, Hays, Travis, and Hamilton counties, in addition to the Grand Prairie region of Texas. Turner et al. (2003b) reports it in the eastern half of the state, with the closest localities to Comanche County being Bell, Llano, and McLennan counties to the south and southeast.

LYTHRACEAE

Ammannia robusta Heer & Regel (Toothcup; TAC 5582) is a native toothcup that occurs in Falls and Williamson counties (Diggs et al. 1999) as well as other locations from north central to southeast Texas (Correll & Johnston 1970; Diggs et al. 1999). Turner et al. (2003a) reports it in Bastrop, Cameron, Dallas, Hemphill, Kenedy, Milam, Travis, and Williamson counties. Our collection extends its range into the West Cross Timbers region.

POACEAE

Echinochloa muricata (P. Beauv.) Fernald var. muricata (Barnyard Grass; TAC 5393) is a native grass that is widespread in Texas (Correll & Johnston 1970; Diggs et al. 1999). The closest locality to Comanche County is to the east in Taylor County (Turner et al. 200b).

Eragrostis hypnoides (Lam.) Britton, Sterns, & Poggenb. (Teal Love Grass; TAC 5458) is a native grass that occurs mainly in east and southeast Texas (Correll & Johnston 1970), as well as the Edwards Plateau (Diggs et al. 1999). Turner et al. (2003b) reports it mostly in the eastern half of the state with Williamson County to the southeast being the closest locality to Comanche County.

Eragrostis reptans (Michx.) Nees (Creeping Love Grass; TAC 5456) is a native grass that occurs in Bell, Cooke, Dallas, Denton, Grayson, and Kaufman counties, as well as the eastern half of Texas (Diggs et al. 1999). Stanford (1976) reports it from Brown County, adjacent and west of Comanche County. Turner et al. (2003b) reports it mostly in the eastern half of the state, with the closest locality to Comanche County being Burnet County to the south and Taylor County to the west.

Setaria viridis (L.) P. Beauv. (Green Bristle Grass; TAC 5423) is an introduced Eurasian grass that occurs in the southern Blackland Prairie and West Texas (Diggs et al. 1999). Stanford (1971) collected it from Brown and Hamilton counties. The closest locality to Comanche County reported by Turner et al. (2003b) is San Saba County to the south and Parker County to the northeast.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We wish to thank Kalee Smith for labeling and mounting plants and personnel at Lake Proctor Reservoir for granting us permission to conduct research and for assistance given during the course of our work.

LITERATURE CITED

Brister, J. S. 2005. Soils, hydrology, vegetative ecology, and floristics of natural and constructed wetlands along the Leon River in the West Cross Timbers, Comanche County, Texas. Unpublished M.S. thesis, Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Texas, 115 pp.

Brister, J. S. and A. D. Nelson. 2012. Vegetative ecology of natural and constructed wetlands along the Leon River in Comanche County, Texas. Texas J. of Sci., 64:103-128.

Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Manual of the vascular plants of Texas. Texas Research Foundation, Renner, Texas. 1083 pp.

Diggs, G. M., Jr., B. L. Lipscomb & R. J. O'Kennon. 1999. Shinners and Mahler's Illustrated Flora of North Central Texas. Botanical Research Institute of Texas, Fort Worth, Texas, 1626 pp.

Harsley, S. & A. D. Nelson. 2010. County records and major range extensions for the West Cross Timbers' angiosperms from Tarleton State University's Hunewell Ranch in Erath County, Texas. Texas J. of Sci., 62:111-126.

McPhail, S. & A. D. Nelson. 2005. Range extensions and county records for angiosperms from the southwestern Cross Timbers in Eastland County, Texas. Texas J. of Sci., 57:211-222.

Nelson, A. D., J. R. Goetze, & K. Smith. 2016. Range extensions and county records for vascular plants from Mills County, Texas. Texas J. of Sci. 68:23-30.

Poole, J. M., W.R. Carr, D. M. Price, and J. R. Singhurst. 2007. Rare plants of Texas. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, 640 pp.

Stanford, J. W. 1976. Keys to the vascular plants of the Texas Edwards Plateau and adjacent areas. Published by the author, Brownwood, Texas, 365 pp.

Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. 2016. Endangered and threatened plants in Texas and the United States. Austin, Texas. Available: http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/huntwild/wild/species/endang/plants/index.phtml. (Accessed 15 Jan 2016).

Turner, B. L., H. Nichols, G. Denny, & O. Doron. 2003a. Atlas of the vascular plants of Texas, Volume I. Botanical Research Institute of Texas, Fort Worth, Texas, 648 pp.

Turner, B. L., H. Nichols, G. Denny, & O. Doron. 2003b. Atlas of the vascular plants of Texas, Volume II. Botanical Research Institute of Texas, Fort Worth, Texas, 240 pp.

United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resource Conservation Service. 2016. Federal Noxious Weeds. The PLANTS Database, National Plant Data Center. Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Available: http://plants.usda.gov/java/noxious?rptType=Stateastatefips=48. (Accessed 15 Jan 2016).

J.S. Brister, A.D. Nelson & J. Calahan

Department of Biological Sciences, Box T-0100, Tarleton State University, Stephenville, TX 76402

ADN at: nelson@tarleton.edu
Table 1. Floral records for Comanche County that have also been
reported from bordering counties (Nelson et al. 2016; Harsley & Nelson
2010; McPhail & Nelson 2005; Turner et al. 2003a; 2003b) including
Brown (B), Eastland (EA), Erath (ER), Hamilton (H) and Mills (M).
Common names are included in brackets. Plants that are native (N) to
Texas or introduced (1) are indicated. Tarleton State University
Herbarium (TAC) accession numbers are included.

                                              Bordering
Family/Species/Common name                    Counties         N/I  TAC

Acanthaceae
Ruellia nudiflora (Engelm. & A. Gray) Urb.    B                N    5362
[Violet Ruellia]
Amaranthaceae
Amaranthus rudis J.D. Sauer                   B, EA            N    5361
[Nuttall's Water-hemp]
Apiaceae
Torilis arvensis (Huds.) Link                 B, EA, ER            I5372
[Hedge-parsley]
Asteraceae
Aster subulatus Michx.                        B, ER            N    5364
var. ligulatus Shinners
[Saltmarsh Aster]
Baccharis neglecta Britton                    B                N    5578
[Roosevelt Weed]
Cirsium texanum Buckley                       B, M             N    5407
[Texas Thistle]
Ecliptaprostrata (L.) L.                      B, ER            N    5438
[Pieplant]
Eupatorium serotinwn Michx.                   B, ER            N    5472
[Late Eupatorium]
Helenium microcephalum DC.                    B                N    5352
[Small-head Sneezeweed]
Helianthus annus L.                           B, EA, ER, M     N    5390
[Common Sunflower]
Sonchus asper (L.) Hill                       B, EA, ER, M     I    5343
[Prickly Sow-thistle]
S. oleraceus L.                               B                I    5501
[Common Sow-thistle]
Xanthium strumarium L.                        B, EA, ER, M     N    5506
[Cocklebur]
Boraginaceae
Heliotropium currassavicum L.                 B                N    5590
[Salt Heliotrope]
Brassicaceae
Rapistrum rugosum (L.) All.                   ER               I    5412
[Bastard cabbage]
Convolvulaceae
Ipomoea cordatotriloba Dennst.                B, EA, ER, M     N    5422
var. torreyana (A. Gray) D.F. Austin
[Cotton Morning-glory]
Cyperaceae
Carex tetrastachya Scheele                    B                N    5451
[Four-angle Caric Sedge]
Cyperus acuminatus Torr. & Hook, ex Hook      B, ER            N    5591
[Taper-leaf Flat Sedge]
Cyperus odoratus L.                           B                N    5434
[Fragrant Flat Sedge]
Eleocharis palustris (L.) Roem. & Schult.     B                N    5368
[Large-spike Rush]
Schoenoplectus californicus (C.A. Mey.)       B, ER            N    5425
Sojak [California Bulrush]
Euphoribaceae
Chamaesyce serpens (Kunth) Small              B, M             N    5388
[Mat Euphorbia]
Fabaceae
Medicago polymorpha L.                        M                I    5450
[Bur Clover]
Melilotus indicus (L.) All.                   B, EA            I    5494
[Yellow Sour-clover]
Vicia sauva L.                                EA, ER, M        I    5464
[Common Vetch]
Fagaceae
Quercus fusiformis Small                      B, EA, ER, H, M  N    5332
[Live Oak]
Gentianaceae
Sabatia campestris Nutt.                      ER               N    5535
[Prairie Rose Gentian]
Juglandaceae
Carya illinoisensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch        B, EA, ER, M     N    5333
[Pecan Tree]
Lamiaceae
Monarda citriodora Cerv. ex. Lag.             HR               N    5498
[Lemon Beebalm]
Teuerium canadense L.                         EA, ER           N    5457
Lemnaceae
Lemna aequinoctialis Welw.                    B                N    5322
[Duckweed]
Liliaceae
Allium canadense L. \dx.fraseri Ownbey        B, EA            N    5386
Lythraceae
Ammannia coccinea Rottb.                      B, ER            N    5592
[Purple Ammannia]
Moraceae
Madurapomifera (Raf.) C. K. Schneid           ER               N    5453
[Bois D'Arc]
Papaveraceae
Argemonepolyanthemos (Fedde) G.B. Ownbey      B, M             N    5568
Pedaliaceae
Proboscidea louisianica (Mill.) Thell.        B, EA, ER        N    5351
Poaceae
Avenafatua L.                                 B                I    5462
[Wild Oats]
Promus japonicus Thunb. ex Murray             B, EA, ER, M     I    5430
[Japanese Brome]
Digitaria cognata (Schult.) Pilg.             EA, ER           N    5454
subsp. cognata
[Fall Witch Grass]
Ely mus virginicus L.                         B, ER            N    5378
[Virginia Wild Rye]
Leptochloa mucronata (Michx.) Kunth           B, EA, H         N    5589
[Red Sprangletop]
Lolium perenne L.                             B, H             I    5373
[Italian Rye Grass]
Nassella leucotricha (Trin.&Rupr.) Barkworth  B, EA, H         N    5359
[Texas Winter Grass]
Panicum virgatum L.                           B                N    5505
[Switch Grass]
Paspalum dilatatum Poir.                      M                I    5512
[Paspalum Grass]
Phalaris caroliniana Walter                   H                N    5353
[Wild Canary Grass]
Poa arachnifera Torr.                         B, EA, ER, H     N    5341
[Texas Blue Grass]
Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt) Trel.        B                N    5461
[Tumble Grass]
Sorghum halapense (L.) Pers.                  B, EA, ER, M     I    5474
[Johnson Grass]
Tridens texanus (Wats.) Nash                  B                N    5586
[Texas Tridens]
Polygonaceae
Rumex altissimus Wood                         ER               N    5346
[Pale Dock]
Rumex crispus L.                              B                I    5466
[Curly Dock]
Rumex hastatulus Baldwin                      ER               N    5447
[Heart-wing Sorrel]
Rumex pulcher L.                              B                I    5561
[Fiddle Dock]
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculus scleratus L.                       ER, H            N    5324
[Blister Buttercup]
Rubiaceae
Cephalanthus occidentalis L.                  B, EA, ER, H, M  N    5541
[Button Bush]
Salicaceae
Populus deltoides Bartram ex Marshall         ER               N    5418
var. deltoides
[Cottonwood]
Sapindaceae
Cardlospermum hallcacabum L.                  M                N    5440
[Balloonvine]
Scrophulariaceae
Agalinus heterophylla (Nutt.) Small ex.       ER               N    5508
Britton [Prairie Agalinis]
Castilleja indivisa Engelm.                   EA, ER, H        N    5331
[Texas Paintbrush]
Veronica peregrina L.                         ER               N    5433
subsp. xalapensis (Kunth) Pennel
[Necklaceweed]
Smilacaceae
Smilax bona-nox L.                            ER               N    5342
[Saw Greenbrier]
Solanaceae
Physalis angulata L.                          B                N    5486
[Cut-leaf Ground-cherry]
Tamariaceae
Tamarix chinensis Lour.                       ER               I    5325
[Chinese Tamarisk]
Typhaceae
Typha domingensis Pers.                       B                N    5371
[Narrow-leaf Cat-tail]
T. latifolia L.                               ER               N    5347
[Common Cat-tail]
Ulniaceae
Ulmus crassifolia Nutt.                       B, ER            N    5345
[Cedar Elm]
Verbenaceae
Phyla nodiflora L. Greene                     B, ER, M         N    5468
[Common Frog Fruit]
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Title Annotation:GENERAL NOTES
Author:Brister, J.S.; Nelson, A.D.; Calahan, J.
Publication:The Texas Journal of Science
Article Type:Report
Date:Dec 1, 2017
Words:2610
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