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COUNTY RECORDS AND MAJOR RANGE EXTENSIONS FOR VASCULAR PLANTS FROM THE WEST CROSS TIMBERS IN ERATH COUNTY, TEXAS.

Knowledge of Texas floras is crucial for determining species composition and is important for the management and preservation of individual plant species and ecoregions across the state. Floristic data for Erath County (Fig. 1), located in the southwestern portion of the West Cross Timbers, is unknown or at best limited. Having an updated list of flora for a county is important for identifying changes in species' distributions. This can be used in management plans for conserving endangered species, documenting the spread of invasive plants, and to improve the naturalness of restoration projects.

The Cross Timbers occur from Kansas to Texas, extending south into Texas about 150 miles (Diggs et al. 1999). This forest dominated by post oak (Quercus stellata) and blackjack oak (Quercus marilandica) grows on mildly acidic, sandy soils that allows for deep water penetration further (Diggs et al. 1999). Poor agricultural practices and the suppression of fires has led to an increased dominance of weedy species, while losing native grasses and climax understory vegetation (Dyksterhuis 1948). There have also been invasions of woody plants such as mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) and juniper (Juniperus asheii) in some native grasslands and forests throughout the region (Van Auken 1988).

When the Cross Timbers reach the north central boundary of Texas, it separates into two distinct sections: the East and West Cross Timbers (Dyksterhuis 1948). The West Cross Timbers extends from the Grand Prairie west to the start of the Rolling Plains, and showcases an intricate pattern of timbered areas mixed with grasslands (Diggs et al. 1999). Erath County occurs in the southwestern portion of the West Cross Timbers (Fig. 1), which has had few floristic studies in the past. The objectives of this investigation are to inventory the vascular flora from thirty-five sites in Erath County, identify introduced, endemic, threatened, rare and endangered species, as well as county records and range extensions.

MATERIALS & METHODS

Field work was conducted in Erath County over a 4.5-year period from September 2003 to April 2008. Thirty-five localities within the county were surveyed to collect plant specimens (Table 1). These sites included 12 highway right-of-ways, 14 cemeteries, three private properties, three properties owned by Tarleton State University, two rivers, and one city park. Highway right-of-ways that were sampled had wide areas of vegetation along the sides, and cemeteries were utilized due to their lack of recent disturbance. Properties were selected based on the owner's support of plant collection, while the rivers and city park allowed for sampling of wetland and aquatic species.

Specimens were processed at TSU Herbarium using standard herbarium procedures (Diggs et al. 1999). Each specimen was identified and classified as native, endemic, or introduced using Shinner's and Mahler's Illustrated Flora of North Central Texas (Diggs et al. 1999). Plants from Erath County were compared to those which occur on the Texas State-listed Noxious Weeds (United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)2017), state threatened and endangered plant species list (Texas Parks and Wildlife Department (TPWD) 2017), and rare plants of Texas (Poole et al. 2007). Distributions of taxa were compared to those published in the Atlas of the Vascular Plants of Texas (Turner et al. 2003a; 2003b). Based on data from the Atlas, species were classified as major range extensions (taxa collected in Erath County but not known from adjacent counties) or Erath County records (taxa that have been reported from adjacent counties).

RESULTS & DISCUSSION

This research offers data from a section of the West Cross Timbers that is floristically understudied or unknown. One hundred and nineteen species representing 50 families were identified from Erath County (Table 2). Ninety-three taxa are native and 26 are introduced. Of the native species, six are endemic to Texas, with one species, Penstemon guadalupensis, being endemic to the Edwards Plateau and north-central Texas. One species, Convolvulus arvensis, was found on the state noxious weeds list (USDA 2017). There were no rare (Poole et al. 2007), threatened, endangered, or state-listed plant species (TPWD 2017).

Of the 119 species identified, 54 are considered new county records for Erath County but also are found in adjacent counties (Table 2). Sixty-five taxa are considered major range extensions due to them not being previously found in Erath County or adjacent counties and are discussed individually by family in the following paragraphs.

FAMILY ACANTHACEAE

Ruellia caroliniensis (J.F. Gmel.) Steud. [Small-flower Ruellia] (TAC 6266) has been reported from the eastern third of Texas. This collection extends its range west to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It is found in sandy open woods and open ground (Diggs et al. 1999).

FAMILY ACERACEAE

Acer negundo L. [Box-elder] (TAC 6165) has been reported from the approximate eastern third of Texas, and southward in a line from Kerr to Goliad counties. This collection extends its range west to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It is found along stream banks and low woods and is the most common maple in north central Texas (Diggs et al 1999).

FAMILY AGAVACEAE

Yucca arkansana Trel. [Arkansas Yucca] (TAC 6292) has been reported in several clusters within the eastern half of Texas. This collection extends its range to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003b). It is found in rocky limestone or sandy soils (Diggs et al. 1999).

Yucca constricta Buckley [Buckley's Yucca] (TAC 6159) has been reported from the central region of Texas, extending to southern Texas in a line along the southern border from Val Verde to Zapata counties. This collection extends its range north to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It is found on limestone outcrops and rocky prairies and is endemic to Texas (Diggs et al. 1999).

FAMILY AMARANTHACEAE

Amaranthus rudis J.D. Sauer [Water-hemp] (TAC 6155) has been reported in the Texas panhandle and sporadically throughout Texas, from Grayson to Kerr counties. This collection extends its range in central Texas to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It is found in low, moist fields and is one of the most abundant native weeds of late summer and fall in Texas (Diggs et al. 1999).

FAMILY APIACEAE

Hydrocotyle verticillata Thunb. var. triradiata (A. Rich.) Fernald [Whorled Water-Pennywort] (TAC 6137) has been reported throughout eastern third and central parts of Texas, along with few reports from the southern and western tips of the state. This collection extends its range northwest to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It is found in wet places (Diggs et al. 1999).

FAMILY ASCLEPIADACEAE

Asclepias stenophylla A. Gray [Slim-leaf Milkweed] (TAC 6576) has been reported from the western third of Texas, the Panhandle, and Cook, Grayson, and Tarrant counties. This collection extends its range in north-central Texas to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It is found in prairies and open ground (Diggs et al. 1999).

FAMILY ASTERACEAE

Ambrosia trifida L. var. texana Scheele [Giant Ragweed] (TAC 6310) has been reported sporadically throughout Texas, and in a line from Kimble to Harris counties. This collection extends its range in north-central Texas to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It is found in disturbed areas (Diggs et al. 1999).

Baccharis neglecta Britton [Roosevelt-weed] (TAC 6140) has been reported along the southern border from Terrell to Cameron counties, and throughout central Texas north to Grayson County. This collection extends its range northwest to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It is found in calcareous soils and is the most common Baccharis in most of north-central Texas (Diggs et al. 1999).

Croptilon divaricatum (Nutt.) Raf. [Slender Goldenweed] (TAC 6313) has been reported as widespread in the eastern third of Texas. This collection extends its range west to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It is found in disturbed areas with sandy soils (Diggs et al. 1999).

Croptilon hookerianum (Torr. & A. Gray) House var. hookerianum [Hooker's Scratchdaisy] (TAC 6556) has been reported in central and south-central Texas. This collection extends its range north to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It is found in disturbed areas with sandy soils (Diggs et al. 1999).

Erigeron tenuis Torr. & A. Gray [Slender Fleabane] (TAC 6475) has been reported in the eastern third of Texas and central Texas. This collection extends its range northwest to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It is found in sandy, open woods and roadsides (Diggs et al. 1999).

Grindelia papposa G.L. Nesom & Y.B. Suh [Saw-leaf Daisy] (TAC 6514) has been reported throughout north-central Texas and the western half of Texas. This collection extends its range in north-central Texas to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It is found in disturbed areas and is widespread in Texas (Diggs et al. 1999).

Hymenopappus artemisiifolius DC. [Woolly-white] (TAC 6485) has been reported in the eastern third of Texas, and in a few counties in north-central Texas. This collection extends its range in north-central Texas to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It is found in sandy soils (Diggs et al. 1999).

Solidago ludoviciana (A. Gray) Small [Willow Goldenrod] (TAC 6518) has been reported throughout the eastern third of Texas. This collection extends its range west to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It is found in disturbed areas with usually sandy soils (Diggs et al. 1999).

Solidago patula Muhl. var. strictula Torr. & A. Gray [Willow Goldenrod] (TAC 6144) has been reported in Wood County in eastern Texas. This collection extends its range west to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It is found in disturbed areas (Diggs et al. 1999).

Taraxacum laevigatum (Willd.) DC. [Red-seed Dandelion] (TAC 6526) has been reported sporadically throughout central and north-central Texas. This collection extends its range in north-central Texas to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It is found in lawns, disturbed areas, and under trees in towns (Diggs et al. 1999).

Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg. [Common Dandelion] (TAC 6531) has been reported throughout west, north, and central Texas. This collection extends its range in north-central Texas to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It is found in lawns and disturbed areas in towns (Diggs et al. 1999).

FAMILY AZOLLACEAE

Azolla caroliniana Willd. [Mosquito Fern] (TAC 6445) has been reported mostly in the eastern third of Texas, extending along the coast into south Texas. This collection extends its range west to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003b). It is found in still waters of ponds, lakes, or slow-moving streams (Diggs et al. 1999).

FAMILY BERBERIDACEAE

Nandina domestica Thunb. [Sacred-Bamboo] (TAC 6304) has been reported in a few groups of counties in north-central, southeast, and mid-Texas. This collection extends its range in north-central Texas to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It is widely cultivated and escapes into sandy woods (Diggs et al. 1999).

FAMILY BIGNONIACEAE

Campsis radicans (L.) Seem, ex Bureau [Common Trumpet-creeper] (TAC 6573) has been reported in southeast and central Texas. This collection extends its range north to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It is found in stream banks, disturbed ground, along fences, and is also cultivated (Diggs et al. 1999).

FAMILY BRASSICACEAE

Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl [Flixweed Tansy-Mustard] (TAC 6287) has been reported from the western half of Texas, and is prevalent in the Panhandle. This collection extends its range east to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It is found on roadsides and waste ground in various soils (Diggs et al. 1999).

Myagrum perfoliatum L. [Bird's-eye Cress] (TAC 6286) has been reported from Delta and Hill counties. This collection extends its range west to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It is found in fields and roadsides in black clay (Diggs et al. 1999).

FAMILY CACTACEAE

Opuntia engelmannii Salm-Dyck var. lindheimeri (Engelm.) B.D. Parfitt & Pinkava [Texas Prickly-pear] (TAC 6160) has been reported along the southern part of Texas from Brewster to Refugio counties, and is widesperead in central Texas up to Dallas County. This collection extends its range northwest to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It is found in sandy, gravelly, alluvial soils and grasslands (Diggs et al. 1999).

Opuntia macrorhiza Engelm. [Plains Prickly-pear] (TAC 6262) has been reported in the Panhandle and in a cluster in central Texas, as well as sporadically in north-central Texas. This collection extends its range in north-central Texas to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003 a). It is found in sandy or rocky soils (Diggs et al. 1999).

FAMILY CAPRIFOLIACEAE

Lonicera sempervirens L. [Coral Honeysuckle] (TAC 6476) has been reported throughout eastern Texas and in a few counties in central Texas. This collection extends its range northwest to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It is found in stream banks, hillside woods, and is cultivated (Diggs et al. 1999).

Sambucus nigra L. var. canadensis (L.) Bolli [Common Elderberry] (TAC 6147) has been reported from the eastern half of Texas, and in Hutchinson and Hemphill counties in the panhandle. This collection extends its range west to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It is found in stream bottoms and ditch banks in the shade or sun (Diggs et al. 1999).

FAMILY CARYOPHYLLACEAE

Stellaria media (L.) Vill. [Common Chickweed] (TAC 6131) has been reported mainly in the eastern half of Texas, with various occurrences in west Texas and in the Panhandle. This collection extends its range in central Texas to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It is a widespread weed in stream bottoms, lawns, and disturbed sites (Diggs etal. 1999).

FAMILY CONVOLVULACEAE

Convolvulus arvensis L. [Field Bindweed] (TAC 6577) has been reported in many counties throughout Texas, as well as counties in north-central Texas. This collection extends its range in north-central Texas to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It is found in roadsides and disturbed sites, and is a problematic weed in gardens that is difficult to eradicate (Diggs et al. 1999).

FAMILY CUCURBITACEAE

Melothria pendula L. [Drooping Melonette] (TAC 6431) has been reported from the southeastern half of Texas. This collection extends its range in north-central Texas to Erath County (Turner et al 2003a). It is found in wooded areas and exposed sites (Diggs et al. 1999).

FAMILY CYPERACEAE

Carex austrina (Small) Mack. [Southern Caric Sedge] (TAC 6489) has been reported throughout north-central and central Texas. This collection extends its range in north-central Texas to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003b). It is found in open prairies alfisols, and occasionally in mollisols, vertisols, and histosols throughout north-central Texas (Diggs et al. 1999).

Cyperus erythrorhizos Muhl. [Red-root Flat Sedge] (TAC 6464) has been reported from the eastern half of Texas. This collection extends its range west to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003b). It is found in marshy areas (Diggs et al. 1999).

Cyperus esculentus L. [Yellow Nut-grass] (TAC 6544) has been reported throughout Texas. This collection extends its range in north-central Texas to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003b). It is found in sandy, disturbed soils (Diggs et al. 1999).

Cyperus polystachyos Steud. [Manyspike Flatsedge] (TAC 6566) has been reported in the eastern third of Texas and south-central Texas. This collection extends its range northwest to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003b). It is found in stream banks with moist sand (Diggs et al. 1999).

Cyperus rotundus L. [Nut-grass] (TAC 6543) has been reported in the southeast portion of Texas and sporadically in the other regions of the state. This collection extends its range in north-central Texas to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003b). It is found in disturbed waste or lawn areas (Diggs et al. 1999).

Lipocarpha micrantha (Vahl) G.C. Tucker [Small-flowered Halfchaff Sedge] (TAC 6141) has been reported in Jeff Davis and Lee counties. This collection extends its range north to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003b). It is found in moist, sandy soils in seasonally wet areas (Diggs et al. 1999).

FAMILY FABACEAE

Albiziajulibrissin Durazzo [Mimosa] (TAC 6572) has been reported in the eastern half of Texas, including north-central Texas. This collection extends its range in north-central Texas to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It is commonly cultivated, and occasionally escapes to invade native habitats (Diggs et al. 1999).

Astragalus nuttallianus DC. var. pleianthus (Shinners) Barneby [Turkey-pea] (TAC 6525) has been reported in central and eastern Texas. This collection extends its range northwest to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It is found in calcareous soils, prairies, and open woodlands (Diggs et al. 1999).

Galactia volubilis (L.) Britton [Downy Milk-pea] (TAC 6488) has been reported in the eastern half of Texas, including north-central Texas. This collection extends its range in north-central Texas to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It is found in dry open woods, thickets, and semi-open areas (Diggs et al. 1999).

Gleditsia triacanthos L. [Common Honey-locust] (TAC 6434) has been reported from the eastern half of Texas, as well as the western third of Texas. This collection extends its range in central Texas to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It is found in stream bottoms, and also invades disturbed sandy slopes and open ground (Diggs et al. 1999).

Medicago polymorpha L. [California Bur-clover] (TAC 6156) has been reported in the eastern and south-eastern parts of Texas. It is mainly found in the eastern half of Texas. This collection extends its range west to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It is found in sandy or less commonly clayey pastures, lawns, and roadsides (Diggs et al. 1999).

FAMILY IRIDACEAE

Sisyrinchium minus Engelm. & A. Gray [Least blue-eyed-grass] (TAC 6285) has been reported in the eastern half of Texas. This collection extends its range in north-central Texas to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003b). It is found in sandy soils (Diggs et al. 1999).

FAMILY JUGLANDACEAE

Juglans nigra L. [Black Walnut] (TAC 6427) has been reported sporadically in the eastern half of Texas. This collection extends its range in north-central Texas to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It is found in stream bottom woods on calcium rich soils (Diggs et al. 1999).

FAMILY LILIACEAE

Allium canadense L. var. canadense [Canada Garlic] (TAC 6164) has been reported as widespread throughout the eastern third of Texas. This collection extends its range west to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It is found in sandy open woods, fields, roadsides, and other open areas (Diggs et al. 1999).

Allium canadense L. var. hyacinthoides (Bush) Ownbey & Aase [Hyacinth Meadow Garlic] (TAC 6133) has been reported as widespread throughout the eastern half of Texas. This collection extends its range in central Texas to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It is found in calcareous prairies or infrequently in sandy soils, in sun or shade (Diggs et al. 1999).

FAMILY MALVACEAE

Sida spinosa L. [Prickly Sida] (TAC 6588) has been reported in the eastern half of Texas. This collection extends its range west to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It is found in disturbed and waste areas (Diggs et al. 1999).

FAMILY MORACEAE

Moms alba L. [White Mulberry] (TAC 6452) has been reported from counties in north-central, central, and south-central Texas. This collection extends its range in north-central Texas to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It is established in thickets in limestone areas (Diggs et al. 1999).

Morus rubra L. [Red Mulberry] (TAC 6134) has been reported as widespread in the eastern half of Texas, and in a line along the southern border from Terrell to Maverick counties. It has also been reported from Carson and Hemphill counties in the Panhandle region. This collection extends its range in north-central Texas to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It is found in stream bottoms and less often on slopes (Diggs et al. 1999).

FAMILY OLEACEAE

Ligustrum japonicum Thunb. [Wax-leaf Ligustrum] (TAC 6429) has been reported mainly in a line running north-south from Grayson to Bexar counties, as well as a few counties in far east and far west Texas. This collection extends its range in north-central Texas to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It is cultivated and escapes (Diggs et al. 1999).

FAMILY POACEAE

Avena fatua L. [Wild Oats] (TAC 6301) has been reported as widespread throughout Texas. This collection extends its range in north-central Texas to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003b). It is found on roadsides and other disturbed areas (Diggs et al. 1999).

Avena sativa L. [Common Oats] (TAC 6129) has been reported as widespread throughout the southern two-thirds of Texas. This collection extends its range in north-central Texas to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003b). It is commonly found as a weed on roadsides and other disturbed areas throughout Texas (Diggs et al. 1999).

Bouteloua barbata Lag. [Six Weeks Grama] (TAC 6578) has been reported in the western and southern regions of Texas, and sporadically in central Texas. This collection extends its range in central Texas to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003b). It is found in dry grasslands, roadsides, and wasteplaces in typically sandy soils (Diggs et al. 1999).

Bromus hordeaceus L. [Soft Chess] (TAC 6535) has been reported from central Texas, Crockett County, and in north-central Texas in Denton County. This collection extends its range in north-central Texas to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003b). It is found in disturbed sites and was first found in Texas as a weed at Denton Agricultural Experiment Station in 1947 (Diggs et al. 1999).

Bromus tectorum L. var. tectorum [Cheat Grass] (TAC 5609) has been reported in the Panhandle, western, central, and eastern regions of Texas. This collection extends its range to north-central Texas with Erath County (Turner et al. 2003b). It is found in disturbed sites, roadsides, and railroads (Diggs et al. 1999).

Echinochloa muricata (P. Beauv.) Fernald var. microstachya Wiegand [Rough Barnyardgrass] (TAC 6151) has been reported in the eastern third and western half of Texas. This collection extends its range in central Texas to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003b). It is found in low, moist areas (Diggs et al. 1999).

Muhlenbergia schreberi J.F. Gmel. [Nimble-will] (TAC 5624) has been reported throughout eastern and central Texas. This collection extends its range to north-central Texas with Erath County (Turner et al. 2003b). It is found in woods and thickets (Diggs et al. 1999).

Poa annua L. [Annual Bluegrass] (TAC 6157) has been reported throughout the eastern half of Texas, three counties in the western third, and Randall and Briscoe counties in the Panhandle region. This collection extends its range west to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003b). It is found in disturbed sites (Diggs et al. 1999).

FAMILY POLEMONIACEAE

Phlox pilosa L. subsp. pilosa [Downy Phlox] (TAC 6480) has been reported throughout the eastern third of Texas. This collection extends its range west to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It is found in prairies and open woods (Diggs et al. 1999).

FAMILY POLYGONACEAE

Polygonum virginianum L. [Jumpseed] (TAC 6142) has been reported in a few areas in the eastern third of Texas. This collection extends its range west to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It is found in woods, stream bottoms, or lower slopes (Diggs et al. 1999).

FAMILY POTAMOGETONACEAE

Potamogeton diversifolius Raf. [Water-thread Pondweed] (TAC 6433) has been reported mainly from the eastern half of Texas, with a few occurrences in the panhandle and west Texas. This collection extends its range in north-central Texas to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003b). It is found in aquatic areas (Diggs et al. 1999).

FAMILY RANUNCULACEAE

Clematis terniflora DC. [Sweet-autumn Clematis] (TAC 6138) has been reported sporadically in the eastern half of Texas, in a total of 10 counties. This collection extends its range in north-central Texas to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It is frequently cultivated as an ornamental and escapes (Diggs et al. 1999).

FAMILY RUTACEAE

Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. [Bitter Orange] (TAC 6145) has been reported mainly in southeastern Texas, and in Grayson, Dallas, and Tarrant counties to the north of that range. This collection extends its range northwest to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It was cultivated, escaped, and has naturalized in low woods at the base of bluffs (Diggs et al. 1999).

FAMILY SOLANACEAE

Capsicum annuum L. var. glabriusculum (Dunal) Heiser & Pickersgill [Bird Pepper] (TAC 6139) has been reported in the southeastern region and southern tip of Texas. This collection extends its range northwest to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It was cultivated and has been reported as wild in numerous counties (Diggs et al. 1999).

FAMILY URTICACEAE

Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Sw. [Bog-hemp] (TAC 6555) has been reported in east and central Texas, as well as Hutchinson and Hamphill counties in the panhandle. This collection extends its range to north-central Texas with Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It is found in wet areas and low woods along streams (Diggs et al. 1999).

FAMILY VERBENACEAE

Verbena neomexicana (A. Gray) Small [Hillside Vervain] (TAC 6143) has been reported in southwestern Texas in Jeff Davis, Presidio, and Brewster counties. This collection extends its range east to Erath County (Turner et al. 2003a). It is found in rocky areas (Diggs et al. 1999).

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We wish to thank Dr. Jim Goetze from Laredo Community College for constructing our map and Sara Harsley for assistance with fieldwork, when she worked as an Assistant Herbarium Curator at TAC.

LITERATURE CITED

Diggs, G. M., Jr., B. L. Lipscomb, and R. J. O'Kennon. 1999. Shinners' and Mahler's flora of north central Texas. Botanical Research Institute of Texas Press, Fort Worth. 1626 pp.

Dyksterhuis, E. J. 1948. The vegetation of the western cross timbers. Ecological Monographs, 18: 325-376.

Poole, J. M., W. R. Carr, D. M. Price, and J. R. Singhurst. 2007. Rare plants of Texas. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University Press. 640 pp.

Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. 2017. Endangered and threatened plants in Texas and the United States. Austin, Texas. http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/huntwild/wild/species/endang/plants/index.phtml. (Accessed: May 18, 2017).

Turner, B. L., H. Nichols, G. Denny, & O. Doron. 2003a. Atlas of the vascular plants of Texas, Volume I. Fort Worth, Texas: Botanical Research Institute of Texas. 648 pp.

Turner, B. L., H. Nichols, G. Denny, & O. Doron. 2003b. Atlas of the vascular plants of Texas, Volume I. Fort Worth, Texas: Botanical Research Institute of Texas. 240 pp.

United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resource Conservation Service. 2017. Texas state-listed noxious weeds. The PLANTS Database, National Plant Data Center. Baton Rouge, Louisiana.

http://plants.usda.gov. (Accessed: May 18, 2017).

Van Auken, O. W. and J. K. Bush. 1988. Competition between Schizachyrium scoparium and Prosopis glandulosa. Amer. J. Bot. 75(6): 782-789.

T. Cotton and A. D. Nelson (*)

Department of Biological Sciences, Box T-0100

Tarleton State University, Stephenville, TX 76402

(*) Corresponding author; Email: nelson@tarleton.edu

https://doi.org/10.32011/txjsci_70_1_Article3.
Table 1. Study sites, coordinates, and nearest locality within Erath
County surveyed for plant specimens.

Study Site         Coordinates

Tarleton           32[degrees] 14.889 N, 98[degrees] 12.602 W
Agricultural
Center
Patillo, TX        32[degrees] 12.881 N, 98[degrees] 12.208 W
Hunewell           32[degrees] 12.901 N, 98[degrees] 06.147 W
Property
Morgan Mill,       32[degrees] 23.051 N, 98[degrees] 10.550 W
TX, CR 163
Walter's           32[degrees] 08.804 N, 98[degrees] 15.660 W
Property
Bishop             32[degrees] 29.031 N, 98[degrees] 06.303 W
Cemetery
Dublin, TX,        32[degrees] 05.319 N, 98[degrees] 17.680 W
CR 304
CR 316             32[degrees] 02.017 N, 98[degrees] 17.796 W
Live Oak           32[degrees] 05.203 N, 98[degrees] 19.485 W
Cemetery
Dublin, TX,        32[degrees] 05.751 N, 98[degrees] 22.598 W
CR 347
Griswald           32[degrees] 25.977 N, 98[degrees] 18.174 W
Property
Huckabay,          32[degrees] 20.495 N, 98[degrees] 16.961 W
TX, CR 713
Sudman             32[degrees] 15.698 N, 98[degrees]08.416 W
Property
Acrea              32[degrees] 19.284 N, 98[degrees] 06.640 W
Cemetery
Paluxy River       32[degrees] 21.267 N, 98[degrees] 01.559 W
Thurber, TX,       32[degrees] 30.227 N, 98[degrees] 24.799 W
Gordon Center
Thurber, TX,       32[degrees] 30.236 N, 98[degrees] 25.979 W
CR 107
Indian Creek       32[degrees] 08.070 N, 98[degrees] 08.905 W
Cemetery
Johnsville         32[degrees] 08.756 N, 98[degrees] 01.888 W
Cemetery
CR 204             32[degrees] 08.796 N, 97[degrees] 59.494 W
Duffau, TX,        32[degrees] 04.885 N, 98[degrees] 01.279 W
CR 213
Alexander          32[degrees] 03.490 N, 98[degrees] 12.797 W
Cemetery
Turnbow            32[degrees] 00.412 N, 98[degrees] 11.807 W
Cemetery
Purves Live        32[degrees] 00.745 N, 98[degrees] 17.606 W
Oak Cemetery
Lingleville        32[degrees] 14.550 N, 98[degrees] 21.964 W
Cemetery
Lowell             32[degrees] 15.271 N, 98[degrees] 28.366 W
Cemetery
Old School         32[degrees] 20.276 N, 98[degrees] 27.876 W
Hill Cemetery
Bunyan             32[degrees] 09.979 N, 98[degrees] 22.446 W
Cemetery
Edna Hill, TX,     31[degrees] 57.067 N, 98[degrees] 19.695 W
CR 326
Clairette, TX      32[degrees] 02.367 N, 98[degrees] 07.450 W
Thurber            32[degrees] 30.674 N, 98[degrees] 25.097 W
Cemetery
Oak Dale           32[degrees] 17.127 N, 98[degrees] 14.973 W
Cemetery
Stephenville       32[degrees] 12.880 N, 98[degrees] 12.213 W
City Park
Bosque River       32[degrees] 22.360 N, 98[degrees] 19.935 W

Study Site       Closest Town/Intersection

Tarleton         0.1 mi N of Hwy 8 & College Farm Rd.
Agricultural     Stephenville, TX
Center
Patillo, TX      1.8 mi W of intersection of Hwy 281 &
                 CR 144. Patillo, TX
Hunewell         2.6 mi E of intersection of Hwy 67 &
Property         CR 182. Stephenville, TX
Morgan Mill,     1.4 mi W of intersection of CR 163 &
TX, CR 163       281. Morgan Mill, TX
Walter's         0.5 mi S of intersection of CR 299 &
Property         CR 298. Dublin, TX
Bishop           2 mi NW of intersection of 1189 & CR
Cemetery         146
Dublin, TX,      Intersection of Hwy 6 & CR 304.
CR 304           Dublin, TX
CR 316           Intersection of CR 219 & CR 316
Live Oak         On Hwy 6, 1.2 mi of intersection with
Cemetery         Hwy 377. Dublin, TX
Dublin, TX,      Intersection of CR 347 & Hwy 6.
CR 347           Dublin, TX
Griswald         1 mi SE of intersection of CR 126 &
Property         Hwy 1188. Huckabay, TX
Huckabay,        Intersection of CR 713 & Hwy 108.
TX, CR 713       Huckabay, TX
Sudman           0.8 mi S of intersection of Hwy 377 &
Property         CR 180
Acrea            1 mi N of intersection of CR 150 &
Cemetery         Hwy 377
Paluxy River     0.2 mi N of intersection of Hwy 377 &
                 CR 149. Bluffdale, TX
Thurber, TX,     1 mi E of exit 367 on 1-20 at Tarleton
Gordon Center    State University W. K. Gordon Center
Thurber, TX,     5 mi N of intersection of CR 107 & CR
CR 107           400. Thurber, TX
Indian Creek     0.9 mi E of intersection of Indian Creek
Cemetery         Cemetery Rd & Hwy 281
Johnsville       0.4 mi E of intersection of Hwy 2481 &
Cemetery         CR 208
CR 204           1.4 mi S of intersection of Hwy 67 &
                 CR 204
Duffau, TX,      5.7 mi S of intersection of Hwy 2481 &
CR 213           Hwy 67. Duffau, TX
Alexander        0.4 mi SW of intersection of Hwy 914
Cemetery         & Hwy 6
Turnbow          0.2 mi E of intersection of CR 543 &
Cemetery         CR 263
Purves Live      0.7 mi SW of intersection of Hwy 219
Oak Cemetery     & CR 317
Lingleville      0.1 mi S of intersection of Hwy 8 & CR
Cemetery         538
Lowell           Intersection of CR 397 & Hwy 8
Cemetery
Old School       7 mi N of intersection of Hwy 8 & CR
Hill Cemetery    397
Bunyan           0.6 mi W of intersection of CR 372 &
Cemetery         Hwy 219. Bunyan, TX
Edna Hill, TX,   Intersection of CR 326 & Hwy 1702.
CR 326           Edna Hill, TX
Clairette, TX    CR 270 between Hwy 6 and Two
                 Rivers Ranch
Thurber          0.1 mi S of intersection of Hwy 108 &
Cemetery         PR 741
Oak Dale         0.1 mi W of intersection of Hwy 108 &
Cemetery         CR 429
Stephenville     0.3 mi W of intersection of park drive
City Park        with S Graham St
Bosque River     Floodplain of river in eastern city limits
                 of Stephenville, TX

Table 2. Specimens collected from Erath County, Texas. Floral records
have also been included for counties surrounding Erath County (Turner
et al. 2003a; 2003b), with the following abbreviations: Bosque (B),
Comanche (C), Eastland (E), Hamilton (Ha), Hood (Ho), Palo Pinto (P),
Somervell (S). Common names are included in brackets. Plants are listed
as native (N), endemic to Texas (E), or introduced (I, Diggs et al.
1999). Tarleton State University Herbarium (TAC) accession numbers are
included as well. Major range extensions are abbreviated MRE.

                                                     Bordering
Family/Species/Common name                           Counties

Acanthaceae
Ruellia caroliniensis (J.F. Gmel.) Steud.            MRE
[Small-flower Ruellia]
Ruellia drummondiana (Nees) A. Gray                  B,Ha
[Drummond's Ruellia]
Aceraceae
Acer negundo L.                                      MRE
[Box-elder]
Agavaceae
Yucca arkansana Trel.                                MRE
[Arkansas Yucca]
Yucca constricta Buckley                             MRE
[Buckley's Yucca]
Alismataceae
Echinodorus berteroi (Spreng.) Fassett               C,Ha,P
[Burhead]
Amaranthaceae
Alternanthera caracasana Kunth                       C,Ha
[Mat Chaff-flower]
Amaranthus albus L.                                  B
[Tumbleweed]
Amaranthus rudis J.D. Sauer                          MRE
[Water-hemp]
Apiaceae
Daucus pusillus Michx.                               E
[Southwestern Carrot]
Hydrocotyle verticillata Thunb.                      MRE
var. triradiata (A. Rich.) Fernald
[Whorled Water-Pennywort]
Spermolepis inermis (Nutt. ex DC.)                   Ha,P
Mathias & Constance
[Spreading Scaleseed]
Asclepiadaceae
Asclepias oenotheroides Cham. & Schltdl.             C,S
[Side-cluster Milkweed]
Asclepias stenophylla A. Gray                        MRE
[Slim-leaf Milkweed]
Cynanchum racemosum (Jacq.) Jacq.                    P
var. unifarium (Scheele) Sundell
[Talayote]
Asteraceae
Ambrosia trifida L. var. texana Scheele              MRE
[Giant Ragweed]
Baccharis neglecta Britton                           MRE
[Roosevelt-weed]
Croptilon divaricatum (Nutt.) Raf.                   MRE
[Slender Goldenweed]
Croptilon hookerianum (Torr. & A. Gray) House        MRE
var. hookerianum
[Hooker's Scratchdaisy]
Croptilon hookerianum (Torr. & A. Gray) House        Ho,S
var. validum (Rydb.) E.B. Sm.
[Hooker's Scratchdaisy]
Erigeron tenuis Torr. & A. Gray                      MRE
[Slender Fleabane]
Grindelia papposa G.L. Nesom & Y.B. Suh              MRE
[Saw-leaf Daisy]
Helenium amarum (Raf.) H. Rock var. amarum           E,P
[Bitterweed]
Helenium microcephalum DC.                           P
[Small Sneezeweed]
Hymenopappus artemisiifolius DC.                     MRE
[Woolly-white]
Machaeranthera pinnatifida (Hook.) Shinners          E,P
[Spiny Ironplant]
Pinaropappus roseus (Less.) Less.                    E,P
[Small Rock-lettuce]
Senecio vulgaris L.                                  E
[Common Groundsel]
Solidago ludoviciana (A. Gray) Small                 MRE
[Willow Goldenrod]
Asteraceae (cont.)
Solidago patula Muhl.                                MRE
var. strietula Torr. & A. Gray
[Willow Goldenrod]
Taraxacum laevigatum (Willd.) DC.                    MRE
[Red-seed Dandelion]
Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg.                      MRE
[Common Dandelion]
Azollaceae
Azolla caroliniana Willd.                            MRE
[Mosquito Fern]
Berberidaceae
Nandina domestica Thunb.                             MRE
[Sacred-Bamboo]
Bignoniaceae
Campsis radicans (L.) Seem, ex Bureau                MRE
[Common Trumpet-creeper]
Brassicaceae
Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl               MRE
[Flixweed Tansy-Mustard]
Lesquerella gracilis (Hook.) S. Watson               B,Ha,Ho
subsp. gracilis (Hook.) S. Watson
[White Bladderpod]
Myagrum perfoliatum L.                               MRE
[Bird's-eye Cress]
Cactaceae
Echinocereus reichenbachii                           Ho,P
(Terscheck ex Walp.) F. Haage
[Lace Cactus]
Opuntia engelmannii Salm-Dyck var. lindheimeri       MRE
(Engelm.) B.D. Parfitt & Pinkava
[Texas Prickly-pear]
Opuntia leptocaulis DC.                              Ho,P
[Pencil Cactus]
Opuntia macrorhiza Engelm.                           MRE
[Plains Prickly-Pear]
Capparaceae
Polanisia dodecandra (L.) DC. subsp.                 P
trachysperma (Torr. & A. Gray) H.H. litis
[Clammyweed]
Polanisia erosa (Nutt.) H.H. litis                   C
[Large Clammyweed]
Caprifoliaceae
Lonicera sempervirens L.                             MRE
[Coral Honeysuckle]
Sambucus nigra L. var. canadensis (L.) Bolli         MRE
[Common Elderberry]
Caryophyllaceae
Stellaria media (L.) Vill.                           MRE
[Common Chickweed]
Commelinaceae
Tradescantia ohiensis Raf.                           B,C,E
[Ohio Spiderwort]
Convolvulaceae
Convolvulus arvensis L.                              MRE
[Field Bindweed]
Evolvulus nuttallianus Schult.                       E,S
[Hairy Evolvulus]
Crassulaceae
Sedum nuttallianum Raf.                              P
[Yellow Stonecrop]
Cucurbitaceae
Melothria pendula L.                                 MRE
[Drooping Melonette]
Cyperaceae
Carex austrina (Small) Mack.                         MRE
[Southern Caric Sedge]
Cyperus erythrorhizos Muhl.                          MRE
[Red-root Flat Sedge]
Cyperus esculentus L.                                MRE
[Yellow Nut-grass]
Cyperus lupulinus (Spreng.) Marcks                   P
[Slender Flat Sedge]
Cyperus polystachyos Steud.                          MRE
[Manyspike Flatsedge]
Cyperaceae (cont.)
Cyperus rotundus L.                                  MRE
[Nut-grass]
Lipocarpha micrantha (Vahl) G.C. Tucker              MRE
[Small-flowered Halfchaff Sedge]
Dryopteridaceae
Woodsia obtusa (Spreng.) Torr. subsp. occidentalis   P
Windham
[Common Woodsia]
Euphorbiaceae
Chamaesyce misswica (Raf.) Shinners                  E,Ho,S
[Prairie Spurge]
Fabaceae
Albizia julibrissin Durazzo                          MRE
[Mimosa]
Astragalus nuttallianus DC.                          MRE
var. pleianthus (Shinners) Barneby
[Turkey-pea]
Desmanthus illinoensis (Michx.) MacMill.             C,Ha
ex B.L. Rob. & Fernald
[Illinois Bundleflower]
Desmodium tweedyi Britton                            P
[Tweedy's Tick-clover]
Galactia volubilis (L.) Britton                      MRE
[Downy Milk-pea]
Gleditsia triacanthos L.                             MRE
[Common Honey-locust]
Lupinus texensis Hook.                               B,C,E,Ha,Ho
[Texas Bluebonnet]
Medicago minima (L.) L.                              P
[Bur-clover]
Medicago polymorpha L.                               MRE
[California Bur-clover]
Strophostyles helvula (L.) Elliott                   E
[Amberique-bean]
Iridaceae
Sisyrinchium minus Engelm. & A. Gray                 MRE
[Least Blue-eyed-grass]
Juglandaceae
Juglans nigra L.                                     MRE
[Black Walnut]
Liliaceae
Allium canadense L. var. canadense                   MRE
[Canada Garlic]
Allium canadense L. var. hyacinthoides (Bush)        MRE
Ownbey & Aase
[Hyacinth Meadow Garlic]
Muscari neglectum Guss. ex Ten.                      C
[Starch Grape-hyacinth]
Malvaceae
Abutilon fruticosum Guill. & Perr.                   S
[Indian-mallow]
Abutilon theophrasti Medik.                          C
[Indian-mallow]
Malva neglecta Walk.                                 Ha
[Common Mallow]
Sida spinosa L.                                      MRE
[Prickly Sida]
Moraceae
Morus alba L.                                        MRE
[White Mulberry]
Morus rubra L.                                       MRE
[Red Mulberry]
Nyctaginaceae
Mirabilis jalapa L.                                  Ha
[Four-o'clock]
Oleaceae
Ligustrumjaponicum Thunb.                            MRE
[Wax-leaf Ligustrum]
Oxalidaceae
Oxalis drummondii A.Gray                             C,S
[Drummond's Oxalis]
Phytolaccaceae
Phytolacca americana L.                              H
[Pokeweed]
Poaceae
Aristida oligantha Michx.                            B,C,E
[Oldfield Threeawn]
Avena fatua L.                                       MRE
[Wild Oats]
Avena sativa L.                                      MRE
[Common Oats]
Bouteloua barbata Lag.                               MRE
[Six Weeks Grama]
Bromus hordeaceus L.                                 MRE
[Soft Chess]
Bromus tectorum L. var. tectorum                     MRE
[Cheat Grass]
Echinochloa muricata (P. Beauv.) Fernald             MRE
var. microstachya Wiegand
[Rough Barnyardgrass]
Muhlenbergia schreberi J.F. Gmel.                    MRE
[Nimble-will]
Pascopyrum smithii (Rydb.) A. Love                   C,P
[Western Wheat Grass]
Poa annua L.                                         MRE
[Annual Bluegrass]
Sporobolus cryptandrus (Torr.) A. Gray               B,C,E,P,S
[Sand Dropseed]
Trisetum interruptum Buckley                         E,Ha
[Prairie Trisetum]
Polemoniaceae
Phlox pilosa L. subsp. pilosa                        MRE
[Downy Phlox]
Polygonaceae
Eriogonum multiflorum Benth.                         C,E
[Heart-sepal Wild Buckwheat]
Polygonum virginianum L.                             MRE
[Jumpseed]
Potamogetonaceae
Potamogeton diversifolius Raf.                       MRE
[Water-thread Pondweed]
Pteridaceae
Pellaea atropurpurea (L.) Link                       Ha,Ho,P,S
[Purple Cliff-brake]
Ranunculaceae
Clematis terniflora DC.                              MRE
[Sweet-autumn Clematis]
Delphinium carolinianum Walter                       B,E,P
subsp. virescens (Nutt.) R.E. Brooks
[Prairie Larkspur]
Rhamnaceae
Ziziphus obtusifolia (Hook. ex. Torr. & A. Gray.)    P
A. Gray
[Lotebush]
Rosaceae
Prunus rivularis Scheele                             B
[Thicket Plum]
Rubiaceae
Sherardia arvensis L.                                S
[Spurwort]
Rutaceae
Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.                        MRE
[Bitter Orange]
Sapindaceae
Sapindus saponaria L.                                B,C,Ha
var. drummondii (Hook. & Arn.) L.D. Benson
[Western Soapberry]
Scrophulariaceae
Penstemon guadalupensis A. Heller                    C
[Guadalupe Penstemon]
Solanaceae
Capsicum annuum L. var. glabriusculum (Dunal)        MRE
Heiser & Pickersgill
[Bird Pepper]
Ulmaceae
Celtis laevigata Willd. var. reticulata Torr.        C,P
[Net-leaf Hackberry]
Urticaceae
Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Sw.                        MRE
[Bog-hemp]
Valerianaceae
Valerianella radiata (L.) Dufr.                      B,Ha,S
[Beaked Cornsalad]
Verbenaceae
Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hook.) Tronc.          P
[Common Beebush]
Lantana urticoides Hayek                             S
[Common Lantana]
Verbena neomexicana (A. Gray) Small                  MRE
[Hillside Vervain]
Vitaceae
Vitis monticola Buckley                              P
[Sweet Mountain Grape]

Family/Species/Common name                           N/E/I

Acanthaceae
Ruellia caroliniensis (J.F. Gmel.) Steud.            N
[Small-flower Ruellia]
Ruellia drummondiana (Nees) A. Gray                  E
[Drummond's Ruellia]
Aceraceae
Acer negundo L.                                      N
[Box-elder]
Agavaceae
Yucca arkansana Trel.                                N
[Arkansas Yucca]
Yucca constricta Buckley                             E
[Buckley's Yucca]
Alismataceae
Echinodorus berteroi (Spreng.) Fassett               N
[Burhead]
Amaranthaceae
Alternanthera caracasana Kunth                       N
[Mat Chaff-flower]
Amaranthus albus L.                                  N
[Tumbleweed]
Amaranthus rudis J.D. Sauer                          N
[Water-hemp]
Apiaceae
Daucus pusillus Michx.                               N
[Southwestern Carrot]
Hydrocotyle verticillata Thunb.                      N
var. triradiata (A. Rich.) Fernald
[Whorled Water-Pennywort]
Spermolepis inermis (Nutt. ex DC.)                   N
Mathias & Constance
[Spreading Scaleseed]
Asclepiadaceae
Asclepias oenotheroides Cham. & Schltdl.             N
[Side-cluster Milkweed]
Asclepias stenophylla A. Gray                        N
[Slim-leaf Milkweed]
Cynanchum racemosum (Jacq.) Jacq.                    N
var. unifarium (Scheele) Sundell
[Talayote]
Asteraceae
Ambrosia trifida L. var. texana Scheele              N
[Giant Ragweed]
Baccharis neglecta Britton                           N
[Roosevelt-weed]
Croptilon divaricatum (Nutt.) Raf.                   N
[Slender Goldenweed]
Croptilon hookerianum (Torr. & A. Gray) House        N
var. hookerianum
[Hooker's Scratchdaisy]
Croptilon hookerianum (Torr. & A. Gray) House        N
var. validum (Rydb.) E.B. Sm.
[Hooker's Scratchdaisy]
Erigeron tenuis Torr. & A. Gray                      N
[Slender Fleabane]
Grindelia papposa G.L. Nesom & Y.B. Suh              N
[Saw-leaf Daisy]
Helenium amarum (Raf.) H. Rock var. amarum           N
[Bitterweed]
Helenium microcephalum DC.                           N
[Small Sneezeweed]
Hymenopappus artemisiifolius DC.                     N
[Woolly-white]
Machaeranthera pinnatifida (Hook.) Shinners          N
[Spiny Ironplant]
Pinaropappus roseus (Less.) Less.                    N
[Small Rock-lettuce]
Senecio vulgaris L.                                  1
[Common Groundsel]
Solidago ludoviciana (A. Gray) Small                 N
[Willow Goldenrod]
Asteraceae (cont.)
Solidago patula Muhl.                                N
var. strietula Torr. & A. Gray
[Willow Goldenrod]
Taraxacum laevigatum (Willd.) DC.                    I
[Red-seed Dandelion]
Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg.                      I
[Common Dandelion]
Azollaceae
Azolla caroliniana Willd.                            N
[Mosquito Fern]
Berberidaceae
Nandina domestica Thunb.                             I
[Sacred-Bamboo]
Bignoniaceae
Campsis radicans (L.) Seem, ex Bureau                N
[Common Trumpet-creeper]
Brassicaceae
Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl               I
[Flixweed Tansy-Mustard]
Lesquerella gracilis (Hook.) S. Watson               N
subsp. gracilis (Hook.) S. Watson
[White Bladderpod]
Myagrum perfoliatum L.                               I
[Bird's-eye Cress]
Cactaceae
Echinocereus reichenbachii                           N
(Terscheck ex Walp.) F. Haage
[Lace Cactus]
Opuntia engelmannii Salm-Dyck var. lindheimeri       N
(Engelm.) B.D. Parfitt & Pinkava
[Texas Prickly-pear]
Opuntia leptocaulis DC.                              N
[Pencil Cactus]
Opuntia macrorhiza Engelm.                           N
[Plains Prickly-Pear]
Capparaceae
Polanisia dodecandra (L.) DC. subsp.                 N
trachysperma (Torr. & A. Gray) H.H. litis
[Clammyweed]
Polanisia erosa (Nutt.) H.H. litis                   N
[Large Clammyweed]
Caprifoliaceae
Lonicera sempervirens L.                             N
[Coral Honeysuckle]
Sambucus nigra L. var. canadensis (L.) Bolli         N
[Common Elderberry]
Caryophyllaceae
Stellaria media (L.) Vill.                           I
[Common Chickweed]
Commelinaceae
Tradescantia ohiensis Raf.                           N
[Ohio Spiderwort]
Convolvulaceae
Convolvulus arvensis L.                              I
[Field Bindweed]
Evolvulus nuttallianus Schult.                       N
[Hairy Evolvulus]
Crassulaceae
Sedum nuttallianum Raf.                              N
[Yellow Stonecrop]
Cucurbitaceae
Melothria pendula L.                                 N
[Drooping Melonette]
Cyperaceae
Carex austrina (Small) Mack.                         N
[Southern Caric Sedge]
Cyperus erythrorhizos Muhl.                          N
[Red-root Flat Sedge]
Cyperus esculentus L.                                N
[Yellow Nut-grass]
Cyperus lupulinus (Spreng.) Marcks                   N
[Slender Flat Sedge]
Cyperus polystachyos Steud.                          N
[Manyspike Flatsedge]
Cyperaceae (cont.)
Cyperus rotundus L.                                  I
[Nut-grass]
Lipocarpha micrantha (Vahl) G.C. Tucker              N
[Small-flowered Halfchaff Sedge]
Dryopteridaceae
Woodsia obtusa (Spreng.) Torr. subsp. occidentalis   N
Windham
[Common Woodsia]
Euphorbiaceae
Chamaesyce misswica (Raf.) Shinners                  N
[Prairie Spurge]
Fabaceae
Albizia julibrissin Durazzo                          I
[Mimosa]
Astragalus nuttallianus DC.                          N
var. pleianthus (Shinners) Barneby
[Turkey-pea]
Desmanthus illinoensis (Michx.) MacMill.             N
ex B.L. Rob. & Fernald
[Illinois Bundleflower]
Desmodium tweedyi Britton                            N
[Tweedy's Tick-clover]
Galactia volubilis (L.) Britton                      N
[Downy Milk-pea]
Gleditsia triacanthos L.                             N
[Common Honey-locust]
Lupinus texensis Hook.                               E
[Texas Bluebonnet]
Medicago minima (L.) L.                              I
[Bur-clover]
Medicago polymorpha L.                               I
[California Bur-clover]
Strophostyles helvula (L.) Elliott                   N
[Amberique-bean]
Iridaceae
Sisyrinchium minus Engelm. & A. Gray                 N
[Least Blue-eyed-grass]
Juglandaceae
Juglans nigra L.                                     N
[Black Walnut]
Liliaceae
Allium canadense L. var. canadense                   N
[Canada Garlic]
Allium canadense L. var. hyacinthoides (Bush)        N
Ownbey & Aase
[Hyacinth Meadow Garlic]
Muscari neglectum Guss. ex Ten.                      I
[Starch Grape-hyacinth]
Malvaceae
Abutilon fruticosum Guill. & Perr.                   N
[Indian-mallow]
Abutilon theophrasti Medik.                          I
[Indian-mallow]
Malva neglecta Walk.                                 I
[Common Mallow]
Sida spinosa L.                                      N
[Prickly Sida]
Moraceae
Morus alba L.                                        I
[White Mulberry]
Morus rubra L.                                       N
[Red Mulberry]
Nyctaginaceae
Mirabilis jalapa L.                                  I
[Four-o'clock]
Oleaceae
Ligustrumjaponicum Thunb.                            I
[Wax-leaf Ligustrum]
Oxalidaceae
Oxalis drummondii A.Gray                             E
[Drummond's Oxalis]
Phytolaccaceae
Phytolacca americana L.                              N
[Pokeweed]
Poaceae
Aristida oligantha Michx.                            N
[Oldfield Threeawn]
Avena fatua L.                                       I
[Wild Oats]
Avena sativa L.                                      I
[Common Oats]
Bouteloua barbata Lag.                               N
[Six Weeks Grama]
Bromus hordeaceus L.                                 I
[Soft Chess]
Bromus tectorum L. var. tectorum                     I
[Cheat Grass]
Echinochloa muricata (P. Beauv.) Fernald             N
var. microstachya Wiegand
[Rough Barnyardgrass]
Muhlenbergia schreberi J.F. Gmel.                    N
[Nimble-will]
Pascopyrum smithii (Rydb.) A. Love                   N
[Western Wheat Grass]
Poa annua L.                                         I
[Annual Bluegrass]
Sporobolus cryptandrus (Torr.) A. Gray               N
[Sand Dropseed]
Trisetum interruptum Buckley                         N
[Prairie Trisetum]
Polemoniaceae
Phlox pilosa L. subsp. pilosa                        N
[Downy Phlox]
Polygonaceae
Eriogonum multiflorum Benth.                         N
[Heart-sepal Wild Buckwheat]
Polygonum virginianum L.                             N
[Jumpseed]
Potamogetonaceae
Potamogeton diversifolius Raf.                       N
[Water-thread Pondweed]
Pteridaceae
Pellaea atropurpurea (L.) Link                       N
[Purple Cliff-brake]
Ranunculaceae
Clematis terniflora DC.                              I
[Sweet-autumn Clematis]
Delphinium carolinianum Walter                       N
subsp. virescens (Nutt.) R.E. Brooks
[Prairie Larkspur]
Rhamnaceae
Ziziphus obtusifolia (Hook. ex. Torr. & A. Gray.)    N
A. Gray
[Lotebush]
Rosaceae
Prunus rivularis Scheele                             N
[Thicket Plum]
Rubiaceae
Sherardia arvensis L.                                I
[Spurwort]
Rutaceae
Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.                        I
[Bitter Orange]
Sapindaceae
Sapindus saponaria L.                                N
var. drummondii (Hook. & Arn.) L.D. Benson
[Western Soapberry]
Scrophulariaceae
Penstemon guadalupensis A. Heller                    E
[Guadalupe Penstemon]
Solanaceae
Capsicum annuum L. var. glabriusculum (Dunal)        N
Heiser & Pickersgill
[Bird Pepper]
Ulmaceae
Celtis laevigata Willd. var. reticulata Torr.        N
[Net-leaf Hackberry]
Urticaceae
Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Sw.                        N
[Bog-hemp]
Valerianaceae
Valerianella radiata (L.) Dufr.                      K
[Beaked Cornsalad]
Verbenaceae
Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hook.) Tronc.          N
[Common Beebush]
Lantana urticoides Hayek                             N
[Common Lantana]
Verbena neomexicana (A. Gray) Small                  N
[Hillside Vervain]
Vitaceae
Vitis monticola Buckley                              E
[Sweet Mountain Grape]

Family/Species/Common name                           TAC

Acanthaceae
Ruellia caroliniensis (J.F. Gmel.) Steud.            6266
[Small-flower Ruellia]
Ruellia drummondiana (Nees) A. Gray                  6268
[Drummond's Ruellia]
Aceraceae
Acer negundo L.                                      6165
[Box-elder]
Agavaceae
Yucca arkansana Trel.                                6292
[Arkansas Yucca]
Yucca constricta Buckley                             6159
[Buckley's Yucca]
Alismataceae
Echinodorus berteroi (Spreng.) Fassett               6562
[Burhead]
Amaranthaceae
Alternanthera caracasana Kunth                       6243
[Mat Chaff-flower]
Amaranthus albus L.                                  6246
[Tumbleweed]
Amaranthus rudis J.D. Sauer                          6155
[Water-hemp]
Apiaceae
Daucus pusillus Michx.                               6162
[Southwestern Carrot]
Hydrocotyle verticillata Thunb.                      6137
var. triradiata (A. Rich.) Fernald
[Whorled Water-Pennywort]
Spermolepis inermis (Nutt. ex DC.)                   6284
Mathias & Constance
[Spreading Scaleseed]
Asclepiadaceae
Asclepias oenotheroides Cham. & Schltdl.             6293
[Side-cluster Milkweed]
Asclepias stenophylla A. Gray                        6576
[Slim-leaf Milkweed]
Cynanchum racemosum (Jacq.) Jacq.                    6435
var. unifarium (Scheele) Sundell
[Talayote]
Asteraceae
Ambrosia trifida L. var. texana Scheele              6310
[Giant Ragweed]
Baccharis neglecta Britton                           6140
[Roosevelt-weed]
Croptilon divaricatum (Nutt.) Raf.                   6313
[Slender Goldenweed]
Croptilon hookerianum (Torr. & A. Gray) House        6556
var. hookerianum
[Hooker's Scratchdaisy]
Croptilon hookerianum (Torr. & A. Gray) House        6571
var. validum (Rydb.) E.B. Sm.
[Hooker's Scratchdaisy]
Erigeron tenuis Torr. & A. Gray                      6475
[Slender Fleabane]
Grindelia papposa G.L. Nesom & Y.B. Suh              6514
[Saw-leaf Daisy]
Helenium amarum (Raf.) H. Rock var. amarum           6130
[Bitterweed]
Helenium microcephalum DC.                           6559
[Small Sneezeweed]
Hymenopappus artemisiifolius DC.                     6485
[Woolly-white]
Machaeranthera pinnatifida (Hook.) Shinners          6148
[Spiny Ironplant]
Pinaropappus roseus (Less.) Less.                    6149
[Small Rock-lettuce]
Senecio vulgaris L.                                  6136
[Common Groundsel]
Solidago ludoviciana (A. Gray) Small                 6518
[Willow Goldenrod]
Asteraceae (cont.)
Solidago patula Muhl.                                6144
var. strietula Torr. & A. Gray
[Willow Goldenrod]
Taraxacum laevigatum (Willd.) DC.                    6526
[Red-seed Dandelion]
Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg.                      6531
[Common Dandelion]
Azollaceae
Azolla caroliniana Willd.                            6445
[Mosquito Fern]
Berberidaceae
Nandina domestica Thunb.                             6304
[Sacred-Bamboo]
Bignoniaceae
Campsis radicans (L.) Seem, ex Bureau                6573
[Common Trumpet-creeper]
Brassicaceae
Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl               6287
[Flixweed Tansy-Mustard]
Lesquerella gracilis (Hook.) S. Watson               6456
subsp. gracilis (Hook.) S. Watson
[White Bladderpod]
Myagrum perfoliatum L.                               6286
[Bird's-eye Cress]
Cactaceae
Echinocereus reichenbachii                           6161
(Terscheck ex Walp.) F. Haage
[Lace Cactus]
Opuntia engelmannii Salm-Dyck var. lindheimeri       6160
(Engelm.) B.D. Parfitt & Pinkava
[Texas Prickly-pear]
Opuntia leptocaulis DC.                              6507
[Pencil Cactus]
Opuntia macrorhiza Engelm.                           6262
[Plains Prickly-Pear]
Capparaceae
Polanisia dodecandra (L.) DC. subsp.                 6512
trachysperma (Torr. & A. Gray) H.H. litis
[Clammyweed]
Polanisia erosa (Nutt.) H.H. litis                   6276
[Large Clammyweed]
Caprifoliaceae
Lonicera sempervirens L.                             6476
[Coral Honeysuckle]
Sambucus nigra L. var. canadensis (L.) Bolli         6147
[Common Elderberry]
Caryophyllaceae
Stellaria media (L.) Vill.                           6131
[Common Chickweed]
Commelinaceae
Tradescantia ohiensis Raf.                           6126
[Ohio Spiderwort]
Convolvulaceae
Convolvulus arvensis L.                              6577
[Field Bindweed]
Evolvulus nuttallianus Schult.                       6468
[Hairy Evolvulus]
Crassulaceae
Sedum nuttallianum Raf.                              6123
[Yellow Stonecrop]
Cucurbitaceae
Melothria pendula L.                                 6431
[Drooping Melonette]
Cyperaceae
Carex austrina (Small) Mack.                         6489
[Southern Caric Sedge]
Cyperus erythrorhizos Muhl.                          6464
[Red-root Flat Sedge]
Cyperus esculentus L.                                6544
[Yellow Nut-grass]
Cyperus lupulinus (Spreng.) Marcks                   6124
[Slender Flat Sedge]
Cyperus polystachyos Steud.                          6566
[Manyspike Flatsedge]
Cyperaceae (cont.)
Cyperus rotundus L.                                  6543
[Nut-grass]
Lipocarpha micrantha (Vahl) G.C. Tucker              6141
[Small-flowered Halfchaff Sedge]
Dryopteridaceae
Woodsia obtusa (Spreng.) Torr. subsp. occidentalis   6442
Windham
[Common Woodsia]
Euphorbiaceae
Chamaesyce misswica (Raf.) Shinners                  6498
[Prairie Spurge]
Fabaceae
Albizia julibrissin Durazzo                          6572
[Mimosa]
Astragalus nuttallianus DC.                          6525
var. pleianthus (Shinners) Barneby
[Turkey-pea]
Desmanthus illinoensis (Michx.) MacMill.             6439
ex B.L. Rob. & Fernald
[Illinois Bundleflower]
Desmodium tweedyi Britton                            6545
[Tweedy's Tick-clover]
Galactia volubilis (L.) Britton                      6488
[Downy Milk-pea]
Gleditsia triacanthos L.                             6434
[Common Honey-locust]
Lupinus texensis Hook.                               6128
[Texas Bluebonnet]
Medicago minima (L.) L.                              6132
[Bur-clover]
Medicago polymorpha L.                               6156
[California Bur-clover]
Strophostyles helvula (L.) Elliott                   6277
[Amberique-bean]
Iridaceae
Sisyrinchium minus Engelm. & A. Gray                 6285
[Least Blue-eyed-grass]
Juglandaceae
Juglans nigra L.                                     6427
[Black Walnut]
Liliaceae
Allium canadense L. var. canadense                   6164
[Canada Garlic]
Allium canadense L. var. hyacinthoides (Bush)        6133
Ownbey & Aase
[Hyacinth Meadow Garlic]
Muscari neglectum Guss. ex Ten.                      6127
[Starch Grape-hyacinth]
Malvaceae
Abutilon fruticosum Guill. & Perr.                   6122
[Indian-mallow]
Abutilon theophrasti Medik.                          6553
[Indian-mallow]
Malva neglecta Walk.                                 6146
[Common Mallow]
Sida spinosa L.                                      6588
[Prickly Sida]
Moraceae
Morus alba L.                                        6452
[White Mulberry]
Morus rubra L.                                       6134
[Red Mulberry]
Nyctaginaceae
Mirabilis jalapa L.                                  6590
[Four-o'clock]
Oleaceae
Ligustrumjaponicum Thunb.                            6429
[Wax-leaf Ligustrum]
Oxalidaceae
Oxalis drummondii A.Gray                             6505
[Drummond's Oxalis]
Phytolaccaceae
Phytolacca americana L.                              6446
[Pokeweed]
Poaceae
Aristida oligantha Michx.                            6250
[Oldfield Threeawn]
Avena fatua L.                                       6301
[Wild Oats]
Avena sativa L.                                      6129
[Common Oats]
Bouteloua barbata Lag.                               6578
[Six Weeks Grama]
Bromus hordeaceus L.                                 6535
[Soft Chess]
Bromus tectorum L. var. tectorum                     5609
[Cheat Grass]
Echinochloa muricata (P. Beauv.) Fernald             6151
var. microstachya Wiegand
[Rough Barnyardgrass]
Muhlenbergia schreberi J.F. Gmel.                    5624
[Nimble-will]
Pascopyrum smithii (Rydb.) A. Love                   6549
[Western Wheat Grass]
Poa annua L.                                         6157
[Annual Bluegrass]
Sporobolus cryptandrus (Torr.) A. Gray               6459
[Sand Dropseed]
Trisetum interruptum Buckley                         6163
[Prairie Trisetum]
Polemoniaceae
Phlox pilosa L. subsp. pilosa                        6480
[Downy Phlox]
Polygonaceae
Eriogonum multiflorum Benth.                         6270
[Heart-sepal Wild Buckwheat]
Polygonum virginianum L.                             6142
[Jumpseed]
Potamogetonaceae
Potamogeton diversifolius Raf.                       6433
[Water-thread Pondweed]
Pteridaceae
Pellaea atropurpurea (L.) Link                       6261
[Purple Cliff-brake]
Ranunculaceae
Clematis terniflora DC.                              6138
[Sweet-autumn Clematis]
Delphinium carolinianum Walter                       6282
subsp. virescens (Nutt.) R.E. Brooks
[Prairie Larkspur]
Rhamnaceae
Ziziphus obtusifolia (Hook. ex. Torr. & A. Gray.)    6273
A. Gray
[Lotebush]
Rosaceae
Prunus rivularis Scheele                             6158
[Thicket Plum]
Rubiaceae
Sherardia arvensis L.                                6154
[Spurwort]
Rutaceae
Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.                        6145
[Bitter Orange]
Sapindaceae
Sapindus saponaria L.                                6150
var. drummondii (Hook. & Arn.) L.D. Benson
[Western Soapberry]
Scrophulariaceae
Penstemon guadalupensis A. Heller                    6125
[Guadalupe Penstemon]
Solanaceae
Capsicum annuum L. var. glabriusculum (Dunal)        6139
Heiser & Pickersgill
[Bird Pepper]
Ulmaceae
Celtis laevigata Willd. var. reticulata Torr.        6135
[Net-leaf Hackberry]
Urticaceae
Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Sw.                        6555
[Bog-hemp]
Valerianaceae
Valerianella radiata (L.) Dufr.                      6152
[Beaked Cornsalad]
Verbenaceae
Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hook.) Tronc.          6153
[Common Beebush]
Lantana urticoides Hayek                             6279
[Common Lantana]
Verbena neomexicana (A. Gray) Small                  6143
[Hillside Vervain]
Vitaceae
Vitis monticola Buckley                              6579
[Sweet Mountain Grape]
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Author:Cotton, T.; Nelson, A.D.
Publication:The Texas Journal of Science
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1U7TX
Date:Feb 1, 2018
Words:8301
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