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Americans are always in America--no matter whether they call it Paris or Paname (Ernest Hemingway to Sherwood Anderson, 1926. SL 218)

All his life he was in search of America's mythical west, the land of heart's hard desire ... (Michael Reynolds on Ernest Hemingway, 25)

FEW ARTISTS HAVE been as successful as Ernest Hemingway in constructing and marketing a personality. Especially to those who have foregone the pleasures of his sophisticated prose, Hemingway looms large as an international celebrity, hunting in Africa and Idaho, fishing in Cuba and Spain, criss-crossing continents and oceans to catch the bullfights, check out the wars, and leave his mark. Foreign settings are so indelibly associated with Hemingway that his fans, both the scholarly and secular, follow him to Schruns and Pamplona, to Paris and Venice, and even, the State Department permitting, to Cojimar and San Francisco de Paula.

Hemingway's penchant for unfamiliar landscapes and for energetic physical involvement with rough, untamed terrain set him apart from the sedate touring preferred by literary predecessors like Henry James and Edith Wharton. And his long sojourns in these settings, as well as his intimate relations with the local populations, distinguish his travels from the hurried, somewhat supercilious wanderings of his literary contemporaries, young World War I veterans like Archibald MacLeish, Graham Greene, and Evelyn Waugh. Hemingway practiced a different kind of tourism, a kind of anti-tourism, in which the traveler "passes" as a native in the settings he visits, changing himself from outsider to insider. It is this kind of travel, paradoxically intimate and foreign, that I want to examine. Where did it come from? What defined it? What was its aim, and what needs did it satisfy?

Hemingway's focus on tourism derives from a value as formidable in his childhood environment as the work ethic: the patriotic "See America First" imperative. This forceful motto first appeared in 1905 and had lost much of its power by the time the stock market crash of 1929 put an end to most tourism.(1) During its two successful decades, the "See America First" campaign promoted large, open landscapes and advocated active physical and psychological involvement with those landscapes. Hemingway subscribed to the basic concept of intense and personal interaction with such landscapes, but he redefined it to include the foreign travel pointedly excluded by the "See America First" movement. Thus he enabled himself to embrace Europe, the Caribbean, and Africa without relinquishing a concept he valued: patriotic commitment to his native country.

Looking at his foreign excursions in this way, we can understand more clearly why the manuscript of the most Spanish of his books, Death in the Afternoon, originally concluded with a paean to Upper Michigan and included a passionate dissertation on American crops, American history, and his own family's American heritage.(2) Although he cut these and other digressions, they clearly indicate that even if the setting was Spain, the subtext was America and his own Americanness. Once we identify the relevance of "See America First" to Hemingway's foreign travels, we can see just how faithfully Hemingway adhered to its principles and ideology.

"See America First" developed as a commercial and ideological corrective to the American tourism which, in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, focused on high culture and on canonical landscapes. Familiarity with certain landmarks and landscapes defined membership in a social class, and this kind of tourism was clearly an exclusionary, divisive social instrument. Focused on Europe, it could be defined as anti-American, even though it was practiced by socially influential Americans. The "See America First" idea was, among other things, a financial reaction to the many American dollars spent abroad. Encouraged by railroad magnates, road associations, automobile manufacturers, hotel and touring professionals, travel writers, and others who would benefit from internal tourism, it targeted the middle class as well as the rich. To attract this wider audience, it aggressively marketed a radically different kind of tourism, one which emphasized unfamiliar, raw, even overpowering outdoor scenes instead of traditional, carefully framed urban and scenic landmarks. It advocated vigorous interaction instead of passive contemplation, and, instead of positing canonic agreement among the cultured few, it encouraged a variety of possible--even conflicting--personal interpretations of the sites to be visited.

Obedient to the tenets of the "See America First" idea, Hemingway travelled to unfamiliar places unburdened by literary or artistic baggage, and placed his middle-class characters in the same huge, wild, exotic, unknown territory he had seen himself. These characters, although observant, do not merely observe. They hike, fish, hunt, swim, eat, drink, sleep, copulate, defecate, bleed, and even die in the lands, towns, and waterways they visit. Theirs is an intimate, frequently sexual, highly committed tourism, attractive to all hardy souls who seek fulfillment, adventure, and identity; hence its popularity among the thousands of people, scholarly and secular, who annually embark upon relatively inexpensive European jaunts, Hemingway texts and biographies in hand. Hemingway popularized this kind of democratic, adventurous, participatory, exploratory foreign travel the "See America First" kind of travel--which was originally designed to keep American dollars at home.(3)

In tandem with its commercial goal, the "See America First" idea aimed to create and legitimatize an American identity, independent from British and European influences and, perhaps more importantly, acceptable and applicable to all Americans. At a time when the American North and South were still painfully divided and the West and East were financially, industrially, and demographically unbalanced, the "See America First" movement focused on the United States itself, to sell America to all Americans. The projected destination was the under-developed West, far from the battlefields of the Civil War, the devastated agriculture of the South, and the urban arrogance of the North. Redirecting regional pride and boosterism into a larger patriotism, the proponents of "See America First" encouraged Americans to forge a new, egalitarian identity in a territory untainted by old divisions and imbalances.

The open western landscape was ideal for this purpose: it offered both untamed wilderness and shared history, and was an undefined, liminal space which allowed travellers to see whatever they wanted or needed to see in it. As marketed by the promoters of the "See America First" campaign, this western landscape could provide access to timeless, achievable virtue, both national and personal, natural and historical. Its focus on unsettled territory and natural wonders encouraged Americans to identify the grandiose, even edenic landscape as a shared possession and the site of a shared, distant history. It drew their attention away from Europe and from domestic dissension and difference and towards a healing, unifying national nostalgia, a hearkening to the virtuous, triumphant, and, as Jay Gatsby insisted, recoverable past.

At the same time, the "See America First" campaign focused on the individual, promoting rugged, physical independence and empowering the tourist to read a heretofore unread landscape. In the western-landscapes, one could achieve physical, emotional, psychological, and communal well-being. Attempting to draw as many tourists as possible, the campaign promoted both the individual and the community, and finally inscribed individualism into the generalization we call national character.(4)

This positive, all-purpose, even paradoxical ideology of landscape is legitimately American. As Michael Kammen argues throughout his aptly titled book, People of Paradox, American culture is "particularly perplexed by ambivalence and contradictory tendencies" (l00). And this complex ideology of landscape is richly apparent in the Hemingway Text--that is, in Hemingway's biography, letters, fiction, and nonfiction.(5) Frequently, the landscape is not American, but for Hemingway and his American characters, the out-of-doors, in whatever country, is itself the destination, the aim, the place where one needs to go to become an insider, "one of us." We need only think of the variously troubled characters like Jake Barnes, Nick Adams, and Frederic Henry, who seek healing in the open landscapes of Spain, Michigan, and Switzerland, and who find community in the easy fellowship offered by isolated local populations, be they native Iberian, native American, or the native Swiss woodcutters and hunters who thinly populate the Alps.

The "See America First" idea was hatched in a favorable climate. The citizens who had brought Theodore Roosevelt into the White House in 19 o I and again in 19 o 5, were open to the influence of his vigorous, individualistic activism. The expanding economy and the rise of mass production, Spearheaded by Henry Ford, began to blur the boundaries between the haves and the have-nots. The. increased availability of goods spawned "the emerging consumer culture which defined individual fulfillment in relation to products and purchasing" (Shaffer 3). All these potent forces--athleticism, individualism, mass production and consumerism--empowered the middle and lower classes of Americans. They were harnessed by the very timely "See America First" idea and its active, drive-and-walk-through-it-yourself, nature-oriented, democratic tourism--the tourism we find in the Hemingway Text.

The First World War also boosted the "See America First" idea: not only was Europe closed to tourism but, as one magazine noted, "its various attractions will not [quickly] recover from the devastating effects of the war" (quoted in Shaffer 167). Patriotic America was encouraged to see itself as morally superior to war-divided Europe. As the nation became convinced of the necessity and virtue of consuming American-made products, Americans became increasingly inclined, as tourists and as patriots, to travel in America and consume the American landscape. Not surprisingly, 1915 was proclaimed "a `See America' year" and the Travel Club of America published an "All America Number" which focused on the natural wonders of the American West. Railroad companies offered special train fares which featured many scenic stops along the way, at no extra cost. The Page Company, a Boston publishing house, intensified the production of volumes in its "See America First" series, publishing twelve of its nineteen titles between 1914 and 1920 (see Appendix). In 1915, Stephen Tyng Mather, the newly appointed Assistant Secretary of the Interior, linked the nation's fourteen national parks and eighteen national monuments to the "See America First" slogan and launched an ambitious campaign to encourage Americans to visit western parks and historical monuments and to expand the National Parks Service.(6) Thus, within ten years of its inception at a Salt Lake City meeting in 1905, "See America First" was firmly entrenched as a patriotic tourist slogan and as official federal policy, focused on the west. Ernest Hemingway was six years old when the campaign began; he grew up with it. It focused him on travel and on the search for clean, restorative space.

Except for its exclusion of European topics, the "See America First" idea survives in the Hemingway Text. Most of the travelers we meet in the Hemingway Text, whether Hemingway himself, or a narrator named Hemingway, or Jake Barnes, or Robert Jordan, or Frederic Henry, or Catherine Barkley, are comfortably middle-class, not overly burdened by possessions or position. They keep their distance from urban high culture and aim for the unfamiliar challenge, often in rough territory: the African plains, the Gulf Stream, the mountains of Spain, the as-yet-uncharted Swiss ski slopes. They mingle democratically with the local populations, who accept them as knowledgeable, worthy members of their communities. The famous Hemingway style, which is both accessible and reticent, also echoes the "See America First" idea: it addresses a large audience, invites participation, and enables a variety of interpretive activity. And just as the "See America First" idea aimed to unify and finally to define Americans, the highly public Hemingway Text became an important factor in the definition of an American generation, both at home and abroad. It was generously and unifyingly democratic, and the large middle-class reading public, invited by the prose as well as by the subject matter, readily joined in.

Even in practical terms, which are ideological as well, we find a connection between the "See America First" idea and the Hemingway Text. Railroads and trains, usually associated with the urban evils of mechanization and pollution, made remarkable efforts to adapt themselves to the ideological aims of the "See America First" idea, which offered them enormous potential growth. In doing this, the railroads marketed themselves as practically the opposite of what they were. Their advertising did not mention the advanced technology which made train travel possible. Instead, it focused on pony rides, hikes, mountain scenery, and plain, healthy meals at comfortable inns, most of them newly built by the railroads themselves. These modern, well-equipped hotels were skillfully camouflaged to look old and rustic, with lots of rough wood and open fireplaces, in an obvious attempt to bring the outdoors indoors, to combine nature and comfort. As one tourist humorously wrote in 1914:
 all of us--Northerners, Southerners, Easterners alike were actuated by a
 common purpose--we were going West to see the country and rough it--rough
 it on overland trains better equipped and more luxurious than any to be
 found in the East; rough it at ten-dollar-a-day hotels ... We were a daring
 lot and resolute ... Let the worst come; we were prepared! If there wasn't
 any of the hothouse lamb, with imported green peas, left, we'd worry along
 on a little bit of the fresh shad roe, and a few conservatory cucumbers on
 the side. That's the kind of hardy adventurers we were! (Cobb 17)

Even campers who slept out of doors in the wilderness were assured of comfort: campers who arrived at the newly established campsite in Yosemite in search of "wildness ... nature ... as the Architect planned it before Eden"-were comforted to find that "Almost every convenience, and every luxury is provided.., such as an out-of-door swimming pool, tennis-courts, laundries and even shampoo-parlors" (quoted in Jakle, 74, 76). Fulsome advertising extolled such comforts while insisting that seeing the western landscapes was a natural, unmediated spiritual imperative:
 ... See [America] in her grandest moods ... Penetrate the wilds ... Go with
 bounding heart and tingling brain to absorb the grandeur of scenery and
 worship at the shrine of nature where your heart's offerings of gratitude
 will arise like incense into spires and recesses, into the cathedral-like
 crags and sky-vaulted spaces resounding with the echo of never ceasing
 cascades whose tumultuous chorus swells in constant diapason, soaring and
 receding in obedience to the gentle breezes that fan these sylvan cloisters
 (quoted in Shaffer 89-90).

"See America First" advertising unblushingly promises a contradictory combination of sexual excitement and high moral tone, individual satisfaction and patriotic duty, technology and nature, rugged adventure and consumer comfort. There is a similar conflation of outdoors and indoors, of physicality and spirituality, in Nick Adams's domesticated "Big Two-Hearted River" campsite with its canned beans and spaghetti, tomato catchup, sizzling pancakes, coffee, and carefully excluded mosquitoes; and in the luxurious Green Hills of Africa safari, complete with beer, Pan-Yan pickles, and the luxury of daily baths and interesting books, all enjoyed in close proximity to dangerous wild animals. Robert Jordan takes pride in his top-of-the-line sleeping bag, which provides cozy, homey warmth and privacy in a rough, mountainous outdoor setting. This self-indulgent but ideologically sanctioned consumerism is so firmly entrenched in the Hemingway Text that it intrudes even into the Depression-era To Have and Have Not, where Harry Morgan owns incongruously expensive equipment--his fishing rod boasts a Hardy reel and his boat has at least one fast, sporty "hundred horse Kermath" engine--even as financial distress leads him to the illegal activities which eventually cost him his life.

The automobile also offered an all-inclusive and finally contradictory entry into the western spaces. Advertisers emphasized the individual freedom and independence offered by the car,(7) but forbore to mention the difficulties which, in the 1910s, were far from negligible: the poor condition and sometimes the complete absence of roads; the break-downs in isolated spots; the need for fuel, mechanics and replacement parts; the daily problem of finding food and lodging for the motorist (see Jakle 107-8). The American Automobile Association (A.A.A.) did its best to promote the idea of comfortable automobile travel, publishing bluebooks with detailed maps, updated descriptions of road conditions, and locations of garages, hotels, and other comforts for travellers. Train and automobile organizations, although competitors for the consumer s dollar, joined forces. When several automobile associations organized an automobile tour, the Great Northern Railroad contributed "two special hotel trains" which provided sleeping accommodations, baggage cars, dining facilities, and "all the wherewithal necessary to take care of every break which might occur to a motor car" Thus, hardy independence and adventurousness could be divested of danger and delay and combined with comfort and even luxury--another instance of the you-can-have-it-all syndrome which was the attractive subtext of the "See America First" idea and which found concise expression in the allusive title of Irving S. Cobb's book, Roughing It Deluxe (New York: Doran, 1914).

Even in the practical details of transportation, the Hemingway Text reflects its indebtedness to the "See America First" idea. Hemingway's fiction is full of travel, but the characters are remarkably untroubled by the ills which cars are heir to. During the long car journey in "Che Ti Dice La Patria" for example, no car repairs are needed even though the car has a "bum tire" its "radiator was boiling" and "the engine was grinding" (CSS 291). Preparing for the retreat at Caporetto, Frederic Henry tells Aymo, "Get me a monkey suit and I'll help you with the oil" but Aymo answers, "Don't you do that Tenente ... It's nothing to do. You go and pack your things" (AFTA 190). In For Whom the Bell Tolls tanks and cars become inoperative because dead bodies cannot be disengaged from the steering wheel or "there had been a smash-up" (FWBT 412-13). But the novel's many cars, motorcycles, and trucks never require attention or suffer mechanical failure. This romantic view of cars is still evident at the end of Hemingway's career: driving through mountainous Spain during the bullfight season of 1959, Hemingway and Bill Davis frequently stop to eat but never to buy gasoline or have the tires checked. Transportation technology was a defining, even enabling factor of the "See America First" idea, but all its disagreeable aspects were disguised and denied. That peculiar attitude to transportation technology, originally designed to attract American tourists into America's western landscapes, survives intact in the European travel of the Hemingway Text.

Such cushioned travel contrasts sharply with the tourism prevalent among Hemingway's British contemporaries, writers like Graham Greene and Evelyn Waugh. Greene travelled to Africa in the mid 1930s, but where Hemingway's several servants carried his guns, drove the car, set up roomy tents, cooked good food, and prepared a daily bath for him, Greene took "a rugged 200-mile trip on foot through ... West Africa.... There were no places to stay but huts in villages of varying degrees of squalor.... Greene's supplies fell victim to great red ants and roaches, his person to chiggers" (quoted in Fussell 65). Evelyn Waugh reports that he "Slept in open shelter, very cold and damp. Badly bitten by fleas and found feet full of jiggers" (quoted in Fussell 191). British travellers endured and even relished such discomforts because they were intent on escaping life at home, which in the post-war years was circumscribed by dreary, if comfortable, shabbiness and by stultifying, if comforting, attachment to tradition. They sought hardship to emphasize that the place where they were was not home. They did not want to feel at home in the new environment; their aim was to experience difference. Psychological distance and physical discomfort were necessary ingredients of this kind of travel.

Hemingway's definition of travel, on the other hand, focused on the recovery or construction of a better self. His narrators and characters travel towards, rather than away from, self-knowledge and self-realization. Typically, they head for an unfamiliar, untainted landscape, or even an unexplored corner in a cityscape. There are dangers, but the psychological rewards of finding a spiritual home are great. The feeling of home is reinforced when the narrator or character can communicate in the local language, read the local newspapers, and find his way to the best eateries, salt licks, and fishing grounds. He knows how to behave and gain acceptance and even affection from admirable representatives of the local populations, be they Spanish waiters and hotel owners, as in The Sun Also Riser,, Italian porters and aristocrats, as in A Farewell to Arms;, or local tribesmen and trackers, as in Green Hills of Africa. Physical comfort, not discomfort, necessarily attends the home-coming and even the travel that takes one there. It is post-war travel, but it is defined by a pre-war ideology. The focus is on nostalgia, not rejection; the mode and manner of the travel derive from the patriotic propaganda presented in the "See America First" idea.

Although Hemingway usually disguised his sources carefully, he was somewhat more open in acknowledging his familiarity with "See America First." Both early and late in his career he made reference to the "See America First" movement. In The Sun Also Rises, Jake meets Hubert and his parents, who have delayed their European travels because Hubert's father insisted they "See America First." Hubert's mother reminds her husband that "You could have come over ten years ago, if you'd wanted to ... What you always said was: `See America first!'" (SAR 85). Although the novel seems to mock Hubert's parents, Hemingway had expressed precisely these patriotic sentiments only a few years earlier. In a letter dated August 1920, he wrote that he hoped to "buy a car in the Spring and then [drive] over all the country next summer. I hate buzzing all over Europe when there is so much of my own country I haven't seen."

Thirty years later, Hemingway again returns to the "See America First" idea, when Richard Cantwell and Renata plan a history- and consumer-oriented trip through the western countryside. In the best "See America First" tradition, they will visit national parks, including the site of Custer's last battle, near Montana's Little Big Horn river; and the site of the Wagon-Box Fight, near Sheridan, Wyoming. After admiring these "icons of nationhood;' they will "stop ... at the best Motel in the A.A.A. book" where Renata will "make ... drinks and [Cantwell will] read the paper and Life and Time and Newsweek" (ARIT 264).(8) Most tellingly, Hemingway drove cross-country more than a dozen times. His vacations combined rugged hunting with luxurious lodgings, and in Idaho he even allowed his name and fame to be used to attract tourism to the western landscape.

The tourism advocated by the "See America First" campaign, with its often paradoxical emphases on adventure, comfort, self-realization, and national identification, differs very obviously from the configurations of travel and landscape which preceded it. Focused on distant, unfamiliar western landscapes, it clearly has little in common with Thoreau's close-to-home, eastern exploration. It differs markedly from other American "readings" of the West, such as manifest destiny or the westward expansion, which offered real hardships, deprivations, and dangers, and demonized local populations. "See America First" also differs from pastoralism, or a Romantic return to nature, which advocates a change of life style and, implicitly, a permanent change in address from the city to the country. And the "See America First" campaign was radically different from the European high-culture tourism which preceded it and from the escapist travel which gripped British veterans of World War I.

In sharp contrast to all these modes of travel and constructions of place, the "See America First" movement emphasized a temporary, not a permanent, sojourn in rough or unknown territory. It focused on active interaction with the landscape, not passive observation, but it also offered itself as safe, convenient, and comfortable--quite different from the physical and psychological dangers involved in conquest and colonization. It was friendly instead of confrontational, democratic instead of elitist, and patriotic instead of rejectionist or escapist. By reading the nation's landscapes as innocent and edenic, it drew attention to the shared, even prehistoric past, instead of to the divided present or the potentially glorious future. The campaign was carefully worded and organized to attract as large a population as possible, to permit a variety of interpretations, to encourage the self to develop in isolation and in terms of community. In describing the "See America First" idea, we touch upon almost all the important factors of the Hemingway Text: Among these the configuration of travel and landscape derives most obviously from the "See America First" idea, even though in Hemingway the travel .and landscapes are most frequently not in America. Indeed, the elegiac nature of the beautiful Chapter Twenty of Death in the Afternoon, so intimate, place-centered and nostalgic, derives directly from the "See America First" construction of the western American lands.

Clearly Hemingway internalized much of the "See America First" idea to which he was exposed during his formative years in Oak Park. The significant landscapes of the Hemingway Text--the large empty spaces of Michigan, Idaho, Spain, Austria, Switzerland, Africa--and the ways in which Hemingway used and read these landscapes--derive directly from the ideas connected to the "See America First" campaign with which he grew up. His tourism, like his work ethic, was an expression of his thoroughly American values. Whatever he did and wherever he went, he went as an American, inescapably the product of his time and culture but able nonetheless to redefine those inherited values and make them unmistakably his own.


(1.) Shaffer's thorough research has established October 1905 as the earliest documented published appearance of "the magic slogan." The original two-clause motto, "See Europe if you will, but See America First" was quickly shortened to its more catchy version.

(2.) Item 22, folder 24b, 3; Item 39, folder 49(9); galley 83..3404. John E Kennedy Library, Boston. Portions of the manuscript are quoted in Beegel.

(3.) Brenner argues that one of the reasons Hemingway was drawn to bullfighting was its democratic quality: "The bullfight ... draws peasant and don, spectacle-seeker and esthete, tourist and aficionado ..., it is a communal experience, shared vicariously to varying degrees by a public" (69). Bullfighting thus becomes a defining marker for Spanish "national identity" and reflects the ideology Hemingway absorbed from "See America First" propaganda.

(4.) Here as throughout, I am indebted to Marguerite Sands Shaffer's excellent "See America First: Tourism and National Identity, 1905-1930" and to her recommendations for additional reading (e-mail, 26 June 1995).

(5.) I use the phrase "The Hemingway Text" as Scholes and Comley do: to include Hemingway's life, letters, and entire literary production.

(6.) Mather's campaign was so successful that "In 1920 nearly a million tourists visited the nation's national parks and monuments" (Jakle 68-69). The first national park, Yellowstone, was created in 1872, and Sequoia and Yosemite National Parks in 1890. After this slow beginning, eight parks and national monuments were proclaimed in quick succession, from Mount Rainier in 1899 to Glacier National Park in 1910. Kammen explains that "tradition-oriented sportsmen" such as Theodore Roosevelt and preservationists such as John Muir were instrumental in preserving these lands, but he also credits the "travel industry," including the "See America First" idea, as providing a strong impetus for their creation and popularization (Mystic Chords of Memory 265, 338-39).

(7.) Jakle writes that "touring by automobile offered freedom of action, closer contact with place, and novel kinds of sociability" (103). Automobile manufacturers and promoters were the natural partners of the "See America First" campaign. The American Automobile Association, founded in 1902, joined forces with the "See America First" campaign soon after its founding, and the national parks also encouraged automobile travel during the years of the campaign: "Automobiles were admitted at Mount Rainier in 1908, at Crater Lake in 1911, at Glacier in 1912, and at Yellowstone in 1915.... More than 55,000 automobiles entered the national parks in 1917 ... by 1926 the number had reached 400,000" (Jakle 70-71).

(8.) Harnessed to the "see America First" idea, "national parks stood as icons of nationhood ... to bring Americans closer together ... mingling ... people of all classes from all sections of the country in places of beauty and pleasure" (Jakle 68). The A.A.A. was closely identified with the "See America First" campaign throughout its history For Hemingway's own A.A.A. maps and membership cards, see the Hemingway Collection, John E Kennedy Library, Boston.


Beegel, Susan E Hemingway's Craft of Omission: Four Manuscript Examples Ann Arbor: UMI Research P, 1988.

Brenner, Gerry. Concealments in Hemingway's Works. Columbus: Ohio State UP, 1983.

Cobb, Irving S. Roughing It Deluxe. New York: Doran, 1914.

Fussell, Paul. Abroad: British Literary Traveling Between the Wars. New York: Oxford UP, 198 o.

Hemingway, Ernest. Across the River and into the Trees. New York: Scribner's, 195 o.

--. The Complete Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway. New York: Scribner's, 1987.

--. The Dangerous Summer. New York: Scribner's, 1985.

--. Death in the Afternoon New York: Scribner's, 1932.

--. Death in the Afternoon. Unpublished Manuscripts Hemingway Collection. John E Kennedy Library. Boston, MA.

--. Ernest Hemingway: Selected Letters, 1917-1961. Ed. Carlos Baker 1981. London: Panther, 1985.

--. A Farewell to Arms. New York: Scribner's, 1929.

--. For Whom the Bell Tolls New York: Scribner's, 1940.

--. Green Hills of Africa. New York: Scribner's, 1935.

--. To Have and Have Not. 1937. New York: Scribner's, 1965.

--. The Sun Also Rises. 1926. New York: Scribner's, 1954. Jakle, John A. The Tourist: Travel in Twentieth Century North America. Lincoln and London: U of Nebraska P, 1985.

Kammen, Michael Mystic Chords of Memory: The Transformation of Tradition in American Culture. New York: Vintage, 1993.

--. People of Paradox: An Inquiry Concerning the Origins of American Civilization. New York: Oxford UP, 1980.

Mellow, James R. Hemingway: A Life Without Consequences Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1992.

Reynolds, Michael. Hemingway: The Paris Years Cambridge, England: Basil Blackwell, 1989.

Scholes, Robert, and Nancy R. Comley. Hemingway's Genders: Rereading the Hemingway Text. New Haven: Yale UP, 1994.

Shaffer, Marguerite Sands. See America First: Tourism and National Identity, 1905-1930. Unpublished dissertation Harvard University, 1994.


 The See America First series was launched in 1914 by the Boston's Page
 Company. The first two books in the series were published before the series
 was formulated; the remainder were commissioned. Shaffer suggests that
 "James's volume on California ... set the standard." Excluding two volumes
 on Panama that were later dropped, the series comprised nineteen titles by
 the time it was discontinued in 1931. Although the series addressed
 American as a unified entity, fourteen of its nineteen titles focused on
 the western landscape. See Shaffer 255-65.

1912 Thomas Dowler Murphy, Three Wonderlands of the American West.

1914 Frank and Cortelle Hutchins, Houseboating on a Colonial Waterway. George Wharton James, California, Romantic and Beautiful.

1915 Thomas Dowler Murphy, On Sunset Highways, A Book of Motor Rambles in California.

1916 Nevin Otto Winter, Texas the Marvelous.

1917 George Wharton James, Arizona the Wonderland. Thomas Dowler Murphy, Oregon the Picturesque.

1918 Mae Lacy Baggs, Colorado, The Queen Jewel of the Rockies. Archie Bell, Sunset Canada: British Columbia and Beyond. Nevin Otto Winter, Florida, The Land of Enchantment.

1919 Agnes Rush Burr, Alaska, Our Beautiful Northland of Opportunity.

1920 George Wharton James, New Mexico, The Land of the Delight Makers. William Copeman Kitchin, A Wonderland of the East, Comprising the Lake and Mountain Region of New England and Eastern New York.

1922 George Wharton James, Utah, The Land of Blossoming Valleys.

1924 Thomas Dowler Murphy, New England Highways and Byways from a Motor Car.

1925 Thomas Dowler Murphy, Seven Wonderlands of the American West.

1928 George Wharton James, The Lake of the Sky, Lake Tahoe. Nathan H. Dole and Irwin Leslie Gordon, Maine of the Sea and Pines.

1931 Charles Edwin Hopkins, Ohio, the Beautiful and Historic.3
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