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CONE-BEAM COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY STUDY OF ROOT NUMBER AND ROOT CANAL CONFIGURATION OF PREMOLARS IN SERBIAN POPULATION/ANALIZA BROJA KORENOVA I KONFIGURACIJE KANALA KORENOVA PREMOLARA KOMPJUTERI-ZOVANOM TOMOGRAFIJOMSA KONUSNIM SNOPOM ZRACENJA U SRPSKOJ POPULACIJI.

Introduction

Knowledge of the root canal morphology and possible variations in the root canal number and configuration is the basic prerequisite for successful endodontic therapy. One of the most common causes of endodontic therapy failure is omission of one or more root canals, which are overseen. The most common reasons for neglecting the root canal therapy are morphological variations of the root canal system [1, 2]. Previous studies have shown that premolar teeth can vary considerably in the number of roots and root canals. The frequency of three root canals in the maxillary premolar teeth varies from 0% [3] to 10% [4]. Variations in the root number and root canal morphology of premolar teeth are seen among subjects of different race, geographical
Abbreviations
CBCT--cone-beam computed tomography
FOV--field of view


origin, and gender. A study in Chinese population [5] has demonstrated the incidence of a single root in the maxillary first premolars in 66%, while a study in Saudi population showed an incidence of two roots in 81% [6]. Configurations with multiple root canals in maxillary first premolars vary from 37% to 86[degrees]% [3, 10]. A single root canal in mandibular first premolars in different populations is seen from 66% to 94% [3, 4, 7-15]. The study of Trope et al. demonstrated that premolar teeth with multiple root canals are more frequently observed in black people [16]. Gender diversity in the number of roots and root canals has also been reported [17]. A study of Ok et al. showed a higher incidence of single-rooted mandibular premolars in females, while two-rooted and tree-rooted mandibular premolars are more common in males [10].

There are various methods used for studying internal root morphology. The most common methods include clearing and staining techniques [4, 9, 11, 15, 18-22], cross-sections [23], radiographic techniques and others [13, 24]. These methods require the use of extracted teeth, and some methods require complete destruction of the observed samples. In the last decade, cone-beam computer tomography (CBCT) has been widely used in the assessment of the root internal morphology [3, 7, 8, 10, 12, 14, 25, 26]. CBCT provides an overview of the object in three dimensions: axial, sagittal and coronal sections without superimposition of anatomical structures. Furthermore, CBCT can be used to evaluate root canal configuration in clinical conditions.

The South-Eastern region of Europe has traditionally been considered as a connecting bridge between the Middle East and Western Europe. Centuries of migrations of different ethnic groups have allocated a specific population of Balkan Peninsula that has specific genetic traces [27]. Thus, due to genetic similarities of many nations of Balkans, it is impossible to separate populations by their ethnicity in order to analyze dental morphology. To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies on the internal configuration of premolar roots by using CBCT in the Serbian population. The aim of this study was to examine the number of roots and the number and configuration of root canals in the maxillary and mandibular first and second premolars, and the relations of these characteristics with two genders and position (left or right side of the jaw) in Serbian population, as a subpopulation of South-Eastern Europe, using CBCT.

Material and Methods

The research was conducted respecting the Declaration of Helsinki and Good Clinical Practice guidelines, as approved by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac (No: 01-15942).

The total study sample included CBCT images of 570 teeth, of 150 patients from a pre-existing database. All CBCT images were made at the Radiology Department, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, from September 2014 to February 2017. The scans were obtained using Orthophos XG 3D device (Sirona Dental Systems GmbH, Bensheim, Germany), with three-dimensional settings for recording, VOL1 or VOL1 HD, and a voxel size of 160 inn; the layer thickness of 0.16 mm with large field of view (FOV). The reasons for CBCT scanning were different (prosthetic, surgical, orthodontic and endodontic).

The main image inclusion criterion was the existence of at least one premolar in the maxilla or mandible. Other inclusion criteria were as follows: 1) full tooth visibility; 2) complete root growth; 3) no radiographically visible periapical lesions; 4) no radiographically visible external or internal root resorption; 5) no endodontic treatment, and 6) no prosthodontic restoration.

The teeth were classified in groups (maxillary first premolars, maxillary second premolars, mandibular first premolars and mandibular second premolars) and the following parameters were examined:

- The number of roots per tooth

- The number of root canals

- The root canal configuration

- Position of the tooth - left or right side of the jaw

- Patients' gender.

The root canal configuration was classified into eight types of Vertucci's classification (Vertucci FJ, 1984) [9] (Figure 1).

Cone-beam computer tomography images were analyzed using a software program GALAXIS v1.9.4 (Sirona Dental Systems GmbH, Bensheim, Germany), in axial, sagittal, and coronal sections. The examination was conducted using a 23-inch Philips LED monitor, with a resolution of 1920 x 1080 pixels in a room with dim lighting. Brightness and contrast were adjusted using a software program.

Statistical data analysis was performed using a commercial Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software v20.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The number of roots, the number of root canals and root canal morphology were described using descriptive statistics: incidence, percentage, mean (average), median, standard deviation (SD) and scope (range). The incidence of different parameters and possible correlations were analyzed between the two genders and side of the jaw where the tooth was located. Chi-square (% (2)) test was used to compare the incidence of category variables and to demonstrate statistical significance. All results where the probability of null hypothesis was less than 5% (p < 0.05) were considered statistically significant.

Results

Scans of 150 patients were analyzed, of whom 78 were male (52%) and 72 female (48%), with a mean age of 39.87 years (SD: 15.86), where the youngest patient was 13, and the oldest was 80 years old. In regard to the maxillary first premolars, 27% of patients had unilateral, 29% had bilateral, and 44% had no maxillary first premolar teeth. The maxillary second premolars were bilaterally present in 28% of the scans, unilaterally in 14%, and 58% had no second premolars. In regard to the mandibular first premolars, 58% of patients had bilateral, 18% unilateral, and 24%o had no mandibular first premolar teeth. The mandibular second premolars were bilaterally present in 36%, unilaterally present in 19%, and missing in 45% of scans. The final sample included 570 teeth (129 maxillary first premolars, 109 maxillary second premolars, 202 mandibular first premo-lars and 130 mandibular second premolars).

Maxillary First Premolars

Out of the total maxillary first premolars (n= 129), one root was present in 55 teeth (42.6%), two roots in 69 teeth (53.5%) and three roots were present in 5 teeth (3.9%). There was a statistically significant difference in the number of roots between males and females (p < 0.05, p = 0.002), where single-rooted first premolars were more common in females (63.6%) and two-rooted in males (60.9%). Also, all tree-rooted premolars were observed in males. There was no statistical difference in the number of roots in regard to the teeth position (p > 0.05, p = 0.597) (Table 1).

The maxillary first premolars with two canals were present in 84.5%, one canal in 10.1%, and three root canals were found in 5.4% (Figure 2). The number of root canals was statistically different between the two genders (p < 0.05, p = 0.012), where one root canal was more prevalent in females (n = 9, 69.2%) and three canals were significantly more prevalent in males (n = 7, 100%). The tooth position showed no difference in root canal number (p > 0.05, p = 0.076) (Table 1).

The most common configuration of root canal was type IV (58.9%) followed by type II (20.2%), type I (10.1%), type VIII (5.4%) and other types (5.5%). The gender and tooth position showed a significant difference in different types of Vertucci's classification. Type IV and type VIII were more prevalent in males, while type I was more prevalent in females (p < 0.05, p = 0.033). On the right side of the jaw most of teeth were type IV (n = 40, 70.2%) (p < 0.05, p = 0.000) (Table 2).

Maxillary Second Premolars

Of the maxillary second premolars, one root was found in 96 teeth (88.1%), and two roots in 13 teeth (11.9%). There was a statistically significant difference in the number of roots between males and females (p < 0.05, p = 0.00); single-rooted teeth were more prevalent in females (63.5%), while two-rooted were more prevalent in males (92.3%). The tooth position showed no difference (p > 0.05, p = 0.795) (Table 1).

Most maxillary second premolars were with one root canal (n = 65, 59.6%), while two root canals were found in 42 maxillary second premolars (38.5%). Three root canals were observed only in two cases (1.8%). Statistical analysis revealed a statistically significant difference between the two genders (p < 0.05, p = 0.000). Single-canal teeth were more common in females (n = 53, 81.5%), while two canals were more frequent among males (n = 30, 78.6%). The position of the teeth showed no significant difference (p > 0.05, p = 0.225) (Table 1).

The most common root canal configuration was type I (n = 65, 59.6%), followed by type IV (n = 17, 15.6%), type II and type III (n = 9, 8.3%), and other types in 8.2% (n = 9). There was a statistical difference between the two genders (p < 0.05, p = 0.000), where type I was more prevalent in females (81.5%), and type IV in males (94.1%) (Table 2). Regarding the teeth position, there was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05, p = 0.421).

Mandibular First Premolars

Almost all the mandibular first premolars had one root (n = 199, 98.5%). Two roots were observed only in three teeth (1.6%) with two root canals. Most of the mandibular first premolars had one root canal (n = 168, 83.2%), and 34 teeth had two root canals (16.8%). The number of root canals differed in males and females (p < 0.05, p = 0.02); two canals were more predominant among males (n = 24, 70.6%). The teeth position showed no difference (p > 0.05, p = 0.347) (Table 1).

According to the Vertucci's classification, the most common type was type I (n = 168, 83.2%), followed by type V (n = 14, 6.9%), type III (n = 13, 6.4%). and other types (n = 7, 3.5%). Root canal configurations differed between males and females (p < 0.05, p = 0.041) with more complex root canals in males, while teeth position showed no difference (p > 0.05, p = 0.269) (Table 2).

Mandibular Second Premolars

All the examined mandibular second premolars had one root (n = 130) and most had one root canal with type I root configuration (n = 125, 96.2%). Two root canals were found in 5 teeth (3.8%) (Table 1). Among the teeth with two root canals, 3 teeth had type II configuration (2.3%), and two had type V configuration (1.5%). No significant difference was seen in regard to the gender or the position of the teeth (Table 2).

Discussion

A lack of knowledge of the anatomy of the pulp cavity may contribute to the failure of endodontic therapy. Root canal therapy of two- and three-rooted teeth is less successful when compared with single-rooted teeth [28]. It is hardly possible to diagnose root configuration with multiple canals just by clinical observation or by using a clinical microscope [29]. Studies of root morphology in different populations provide clinicians with general knowledge of most frequent root configurations.

In previous studies, a variety of methods were used for evaluating the internal morphology of teeth in laboratory and clinical settings [4, 9, 11, 13, 15, 18-24]. Laboratory methods are highly accurate, whereas the clearing and staining technique is considered the gold standard in assessing root canal morphology, but their implementation requires tooth extraction [4]. In the last decade, the CBCT was often used to study anatomical and morphological characteristics of root canals in clinical settings [3, 7, 8, 10, 12, 14, 25, 26]. CBCT is an accurate gold standard (clearing and staining technique) [30]. To our knowledge, this is the first study of the internal morphology of maxillary and mandibular premolars in Serbian population using CBCT. To describe the root canal configuration we used the Ver-tucci's classification, the same as in most of the previous studies [3, 7-13, 19, 21, 23, 25, 26].

Maxillary Premolars

Using CBCT, the present study showed that maxillary first premolars mostly had two roots (53.5%), while one root was present in 42.6%. Similar results were reported in the study of Loh et al. [20] using the clearing method, where maxillary first premolars with two roots were present in 51%.

Differences in the number of roots and canals are seen in different geographical regions. Previous studies in Serbian population [4, 22] reported a similar incidence of one root in maxillary first premolars as our study (43% and 46.3%, respectively) by using clearing and staining techniques. A study conducted in Spanish population showed similar results, where one root was present in 46% [26]. In Indian population [18], the frequency of one root was 11.7%, whereas the highest prevalence of one root was reported by Tian et al. (66%) who analyzed CBCT scans of the Turkish population [25]. In our study, three roots in the maxillary first premolars were present in 3.9%, which is comparable to the results of Nikolic et al. (5.1%) [4], but higher than Bulut et al. (1%) [3]. Studies of Stosic et al. [22], Loh et al. [20] and Rwenyonyi et al. [19] did not report any maxillary first premolars with three roots.

In the group of maxillary second premolars, our study showed the highest incidence of one root, in 88.1%. Previous studies in different populations have reported similar results ranging from 82.1% to 89.6% [3, 12, 18, 22, 26]. A greater difference was reported by Kartal et al. in Turkish population, where they found the incidence of one root in 69.6% [21]. The incidence of three roots was very low in previous studies (0.6% - 1.6%), while our study showed no three-rooted second premolars [18, 21, 26].

In the present study, we demonstrated a different incidence of root number in maxillary premolars between the two genders. Single-rooted maxillary premolars were more common in females, while multi-rooted were more common in males. All three-rooted maxillary premolars were found in males. Similar differences were reported in previous studies [3, 10].

Most maxillary first premolars in the present study had two root canals (84.5%), while-three root canals were found in 5.4%, which is similar to the values shown in the previous studies in the Serbian population [4, 22]. Studies in other populations showed a lower incidence of three root canals (0% - 3.4%) [3, 10, 19, 21, 24]. In the group of maxillary second premolars, one root canal was present in 59.6%, while three root canals were observed only in 1.8%. A similar incidence of one canal was reported in the Turkish population (59.7%) [10], while previous studies in the Serbian population showed a significantly higher incidence of one root canal (79.3%) [4]. Yang et al. [12] reported the highest frequency of two root canals in 54.3%. The incidence of three root canals in previous studies was from 0.3% to 2% [10, 12, 21, 22, 24, 26]. We observed a significantly higher incidence of two root canals in maxillary premolar teeth among males, and one root canal in females. All teeth with three root canals were among males (n = 7). Previous studies reported the same difference between the two genders [3, 10].

In the present study, the most common type of root canal configuration in the maxillary first premolars was type IV (58.9%), followed by type II (20.2%). The Vertucci's classification [9] showed the highest incidence of type V in 62%, which is in contrast to our study (0.8%). This difference could be attributed to methodology since Vertucci used clearing and staining technique, or to the examiner's precision. Since the majority of previous studies, regardless of the methodology, showed the highest frequency of type IV (71.3% - 80%) [10, 19, 21], and studies of Tian et al. [25] and Abella et al. [26], showed the similar incidence of type IV configuration (51% and 52.8%, respectively), we assume that the results differ due to the population. The presence of type VIII in previous studies ranged from 0% to 2.6%, which is lower than in our study (5.4%) [9, 10, 19, 21, 25, 26]. In the group of maxillary second premolars, the most common were type I in 59.6%, followed by type IV in 15.6%. The highest incidence of type I was shown in most of the previous studies [3, 10, 12, 21, 26], while the study of Vertucci [9] showed the highest frequency of type IV (37.5%). The next most common type in our study was type III (8.3%). A similar frequency was shown by Yang et al. [12], in Chinese population (11.4%). Comparison of our results in root configuration with results of other studies for maxillary premolar teeth is shown in Table 3. We found difference in the incidence of root canal configuration in maxillary first premolars in regard to both genders and sides of the jaw in which the tooth was located. Also, in the group of maxillary second premolars, we observed a significant difference in relation to both genders, where the type I was higher in females (81.5%), while type IV was higher in males (94.1%). Our results are in accordance with the previous study by Ok et al. [10].

Mandibular Premolars

In previous studies examining the root morphology of mandibular first premolars, the incidence of two roots varied from 1% to 17% [3, 7, 11, 12, 14]. A study of Nikolic et al. [4] observed single-rooted mandibular first premolars in 100% in Serbian population. In the present study, the frequency of single-roots was also high (98.5%). All mandibular second premolars in our study had one root, which is consistent with some of the previous studies [3, 7].

In the present study, the largest number of mandibular first premolar teeth had one root canal (83.2%), which is similar to the results of other studies in Serbian population (78%) [4]. Results of studies in other ethnic groups showed the frequency of one root canal from 66% to 98% [3,7-12, 14]. Most studies reported the presence of three root canals in mandibular first premolars, while in our study three root canals were not found [7-12, 14]. Our research showed that two root canals were more common in males, which was also reported in some of the previous studies [3, 10].

The most common type of Vertucci's classification in mandibular first premolars was type I, which was expected, given that the most teeth had one root canal. Among the other types, the most common were type III and type V in 6.4% and 6.9%, respectively. A study by Llena et al. [8] in Spanish population, also showed the highest incidence of type I followed by type III, but the type V was not observed. In other studies, the frequency of type III was ranging from 0% to 4% [3, 7, 9, 10, 12, 13].

The present study showed that all mandibular second premolars had one root and most of the teeth had type I configuration (96.2%). In most of the previous studies, a high incidence of type I was also observed [3, 7-10, 15]. A study by Singh and Pawar [11] showed a significantly lower frequency of Type I (66%) in Indian population, as compared to studies in other ethnic populations. In our study, among teeth with two root canals, we observed only type II and type III configuration, which is similar to previous studies [7, 8, 15]. There are no previous studies showing the configuration of the root canals of mandibular premolars in Serbian population. Comparison of our results in root configuration with results of other studies for mandibular premolar teeth is shown in Table 4.

Conclusion

The results of this study showed that maxillary first premolars usually have complex root configuration with two roots, and two root canals. We also reported presence of three-rooted maxillary first premolars in the studied population. Maxillary second premolars usually have one root and little less than a half have configurations with multiple canals. This study also shows that mandibular premolars mostly have type I configuration, and that mandibular first premolars showed higher root canal complexity than second premolars. These findings emphasize the importance of knowledge of variations in root canal morphology, since excluding the possibility of morphological variation can lead to failure in endo-dontic therapy. Also, patient's gender should be considered when performing the preoperative assessment of endodontic treatment. Our study demonstrated that males have more complex root configurations with higher frequency of multi-rooted teeth and multiple root canals. Cone-beam computed tomography was shown to be a clinically useful tool for the detection of different root canal configurations.

References

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Milica POPOVIC, Milos PAPIC, Aleksandar ACOVIC, Suzana ZIVANOVIC and Tatjana KANJEVAC

University of Kragujevac, Faculty of Medical Sciences Department of Dentistry, Kragujevac

Corresponding Author: Dr Milica Popovic, Univerzitet u Kragujevcu, Fakultet medicinskih nauka, Katedra za stomatologiju, 34000 Kragujevac, Svetozara Markovica 69, E-mail: milicapopovic75@gmail.com

https://doi.org/10.2298/MPNS1804100P
Table 1. Distribution of different number of roots and root canals in
first and second maxillary and mandibular premolars
Tabela 1. Distribucija broja korenova i kanala korenova u grupama prvih
i drugih gornjih i donjih premolara

Tooth/Zub        Gender  Number of roots/Broj korenova
                 Pol

                         One root/        Two roots/      Three roots/
                         Jedan koren      Dva korena      Tri korena

Maxillary        male     20 (29.9%) (*)  42 (62.7%) (*)   5 (7.5%)
first premolar/  muski
Gornji prvi
pretkutnjak
                 female   35 (56.5%) (*)  27 (43.5%) (*)  /
                 zenski
                 total    55 (42.6%)      69 (53.5%)       5 (3.9%)
                 ukupno
Maxillary        male     35 (74.5%) (*)  12 (25.5%) (*)  /
second premo-    muski
lar/Gornji
drugi
pretkutnjak
                 female   61 (98.4%) (*)   1 (1.6%) (*)   /
                 zenski
                 total    96 (88.1%)      13 (11.9%)      /
                 ukupno
Mandibular       male    106 (100%)       /               /
first premolar/  muski
Donji prvi
pretkutnjak
                 female   93 (96.9%)       3 (3.1%)       /
                 zenski
                 total   199 (98.5%)       3 (1.5%)       /
                 ukupno
Mandibular       male     78 (100%)        /              /
second           muski
premo-lar/
Donji drugi
pretkutnjak
                 female   52 (100%)        /              /
                 zenski
                 total   130 (100%)        /              /
                 ukupno

Tooth/Zub          Number of root canals/Broj kanala

                   One root         Two root         Three root
                   ca-nal/Jedan     canals/Dva       canals/Tri
                   kanal korena     kanala ko-       kanala ko-rena
                                    rena

Maxillary            4 (6.0%) (*)    56 (83.6%) (*)   7 (10.4%) (*)
first premolar/
Gornji prvi
pretkutnjak
                     9 (14.5%) (*)   53 (85.5%) (*)   /
                    13 (10.1%)      109 (84.5%)       7 (5.4%)
Maxillary           12 (25.5%) (*)   33 (70.2%) (*)   2 (4.3%) (*)
second premo-
lar/Gornji drugi
pretkutnjak
                    53 (85.5%) (*)    9 (14.5%) (*)   /
                    65 (59.6%)       42 (38.5%)       2 (1.8%)
Mandibular          82 (77.4%)*      24 (22.6%) (*)   /
first premolar/
Donji prvi
pretkutnjak
                    86 (89.6%)*      10 (10.4%) (*)   /
                   168 (83.2%)       34 (16.8%)       /
Mandibular          74 (94.9%)        4 (5.1%)        /
second premo-lar/
Donji drugi
pretkutnjak
                    51 (98.1%)        1 (1.95%)       /
                   125 (96.2%)        5 (3.8%)        /

Tooth/Zub          Number of
                   teeth/Broj
                   zuba

Maxillary           67 (51.9%)
first premolar/
Gornji prvi
pretkutnjak
                    62 (48.1%)
                   129 (100%)
Maxillary           47 (43.1%)
second premo-
lar/Gornji drugi
pretkutnjak
                    62 (56.9%)
                   109 (100%)

Mandibular         106 (52.5%)
first premolar/
Donji prvi
pretkutnjak
                    96 (47.5%)
                   202 (100%)
Mandibular          78 (60%)
second premo-lar/
Donji drugi
pretkutnjak
                    52 (40%)
                   130 (100%)

(*) Statistical significance at the level ofp < 0.05 (Chi-square
test)/(*) Nivo statisticke znacajnosti p<0,05 (hikvadrat test)

Table 2. Root canal configuration according to Vertucci's s
classification in groups of first and second maxillary and mandibular
premolars
Tabela 2. Konfiguracija kanala korena prema Vertucijevoj klasifikaciji
u grupama prvih i drugih gornjih i donjih premo-lara

Tooth              Gender
                   Pol
Zub                               Type I/Tip I

Maxillary          male/muski       4 (3.1%)
first premolar
Gornji prvi
pretkutnjak*
                   female/zenski    9 (7%)
                   total/ukupno    13 (10.1%)
Maxillary          male/muski      12 (11%)
second premo-lar/
Gornji drugi
pretkutnjak*
                   female/zenski   53 (48.6%)
                   total/ukupno    65 (59.6%)
Mandibular         male/muski      82 (40.6%)
first premolar
Donji prvi
pretkutnjak*
                   female/zenski   86 (42.6%)
                   total/ukupno   168 (82.6%)
Mandibular         male/muski      74 (56.9%)
second premo-
lar/Donji drugi
pretkutnjak
                   female/zenski   51 (39.2%)
                   total/ukupno   125 (96.2%)

Tooth              Vertucci classification/Klasifikacija
                   prema Vertuciju
Zub                Type II/   Type III/    Type IV/
                   Tip II     Tip III      Tip IV

Maxillary          11 (8.5%)   2 (1.6%)    43 (33.3%)
first premolar
Gornji prvi
pretkutnjak*
                   15 (11.6%   2 (1.6%)    33 (25.6%)
                   26 (20.2%   4 (3.1%)    76 (58.9%)
Maxillary           7 (6.4%)   3 (2.8%)    16 (14.7%)
second premo-lar/
Gornji drugi
pretkutnjak*
                    2 (1.8%)   6 (5.5%)     1 (0.9%)
                    9 (8.3%)   9 (8.3%)    17 (15.6%)
Mandibular          3 (1.5%)  10 (5%)       1 (0.5%)
first premolar
Donji prvi
pretkutnjak*
                    /            3 (1.5%)      3 (1.5%)
                    3 (1.5%)  13 (6.4%)     4 (2%)
Mandibular          2 (1.5%)  /            /
second premo-
lar/Donji drugi
pretkutnjak
                    1 (0.8%)  /            /
                    3 (2.3%)  /            /

Tooth

Zub                Type V/     Type VI/  Type VIII/
                   Tip V       Tip VI    Tip VIII

Maxillary          /           /         7 (5.4%)
first premolar
Gornji prvi
pretkutnjak*
                    1 (0.8.%)  2 (1.6%)  /
                    1 (0.8%)   2 (1.6%)  7 (5.4%)
Maxillary           5 (4.6%)   2 (1.8%)  2 (1.8%)
second premo-lar/
Gornji drugi
pretkutnjak*
                   /           /         /
                    5 (4.6%)   2 (1.8%)  2 (1.8%)
Mandibular         10 (5%)     /         /
first premolar
Donji prvi
pretkutnjak*
                    4 (2%)     /         /
                   14 (6.9%)   /         /
Mandibular          2 (.%)     /         /
second premo-
lar/Donji drugi
pretkutnjak
                   /           /         /
                    2 (1.5%)   /         /

(*) Statistical significance at the level of p<0.05 (Chi-square
test)/(*) Nivo statisticke znacajnosti p<0,05 (hi kvadrat test)

Table 3. Distribution of root configuration types for maxillary
premolars according to other studies
Tabela 3. Distribucija razlicitih tipova konfiguracije kanala korenova
gornjih premolara u ranijim studijama

                                            Method          Sample

                                            Metoda          size/
                                                            Velicina
                                                            uzorka

                Bulut DG. et al.            CBCT             511
                    Vertucci
                  Ok E. et al.
                Rwenyonyi CM. et al.
                    Kartal N. et al.
                     Tian YY. et al.
                    Abella F. et al.
                Present study/Ova studija
                                            Clearing         400
Maxillary                                   CBCT            1379
first premolai
Gornji prvi
pretkutnjak
                                            Clearing         210
                                            Clearing         300
                                            CBCT             300
                                            CBCT             430
                                            CBCT             129
                    Bulut DG. et al.        CBCT             476
                    Vertucci
                    Ok E. et al.
                    Yang L. et al.
                    Kartal N. et al.
                    Abella F. et al.
Maxillary                                   Clearing         200
second
                                            CBCT            1301
premolar                                    CBCT             392
Gornji drugi
pretkutnjak
                                            Clearing         300
                                            CBCT             374
                Present study/Ova studija   CBCT             109

                                            Vertucci classification
                                            /Klasifikacija prema
                                             Vertuciju (%)

                                            Type I     Type
                                             Tip I     II/Tip II

                Bulut DG. et al.            62.6        34.1
                Vertucci
                Ok E. et al.
                Rwenyonyi CM. et al.
                Kartal N. et al.
                Tian YY. et al.
                Abella F. et al.
                Present study/Ova studija
                                             8.0        18.0
Maxillary                                    9.6         6.5
first premolai
Gornji prvi
pretkutnjak
                                             3.3         2.9
                                             8.7         1.0
                                            14.0        23.0
                                            25.1        10.2
                                            10.1        20.2
                    Bulut DG. et al.        77.6        12.5
                    Vertucci
                    Ok E. et al.
                    Yang L. et al.
                    Kartal N. et al.
                    Abella F. et al.
Maxillary                                   24.0        11.0
second
                                            54.5         8.8
premolar                                    45.4        16.3
Gornji drugi
pretkutnjak
                                            48.7         6.3
                                            39.3        22.5
                Present study/Ova studija   59.6         8.3

                                             Type      Type
                                             III       IV/Tip
                                             Tip III   IV

                Bulut DG. et al.              0.8       1.9
                Vertucci
                Ok E. et al.
                Rwenyonyi CM. et al.
                Kartal N. et al.
                Tian YY. et al.
                Abella F. et al.
                Present study/Ova studija
                                             /         26.0
Maxillary                                     1.4      76.9
first premolai
Gornji prvi
pretkutnjak
                                              0.5      80.5
                                             /         71.3
                                              4.0      51.0
                                              4.4      52.8
                                              3.1      58.9
                    Bulut DG. et al.          1.33      6.5
                    Vertucci
                    Ok E. et al.
                    Yang L. et al.
                    Kartal N. et al.
                    Abella F. et al.
Maxillary                                     2.5      37.5
second
                                              3.6      21.9
premolar                                     11.4      20.2
Gornji drugi
pretkutnjak
                                             /         38.0
                                              7.2      19.8
                Present study/Ova studija     8.3      15.6

                                             Type V   Type
                                             Tip V    VI/Tip
                                                      VI

                Bulut DG. et al.              0.6     /
                Vertucci
                Ok E. et al.
                Rwenyonyi CM. et al.
                Kartal N. et al.
                Tian YY. et al.
                Abella F. et al.
                Present study/Ova studija
                                             62.0     7.0
Maxillary                                     4.6     0.1
first premolai
Gornji prvi
pretkutnjak
                                              0.5     0.5
                                             14.7     2.3
                                              3.0     2.0
                                              1.9     1.6
                                              0.8     1.6
                Bulut DG. et al.          1.9     0.17
                Vertucci
                Ok E. et al.
                Yang L. et al.
                Kartal N. et al.
                Abella F. et al.
Maxillary                                     5.5     3.0
second
                                             10.8     /
premolar                                      6.4     /
Gornji drugi
pretkutnjak
                                              5.7     0.7
                                              4.3     3.2
                Present study/Ova studija     4.6     1.8

                                              Type      Type
                                              VII/Tip   VIII/Tip
                                              VII       VIII

                Bulut DG. et al.              /         /
                Vertucci
                Ok E. et al.
                Rwenyonyi CM. et al.
                Kartal N. et al.
                Tian YY. et al.
                Abella F. et al.
                Present study/Ova studija
                                              /         /
Maxillary                                     /         1.0
first premolai
Gornji prvi
pretkutnjak
                                              1.0       2.4
                                              0.3       1.3
                                              1.0       1.0
                                              1.4       2.6
                                              /         5.4
                Bulut DG. et al.          /         /
                Vertucci
                Ok E. et al.
                Yang L. et al.
                Kartal N. et al.
                Abella F. et al.
Maxillary                                     2.5       1.0
second
                                              /         0.3
premolar                                      /         0.3
Gornji drugi
pretkutnjak
                                              /         0.7
                                              2.1
                Present study/Ova studija     /         1.8

CBCT - kompjuterizovana tomografija sa konusnim snopom

Table 4. Distribution of root configuration types for mandibular
premolars according to other studies
Tabela 4. Distribucija razlicitih tipova konfiguracije kanala korenova
donjih pretkutnjaka u ranijim studijama

                                            Method     Sample
                                            Metoda     size/
                                                       Velicina
                                                       uzorka

                Bulut DG. et al.            CBCT        604
                Yu H. et al.
                Llena C et al.
                Vertucci
                Ok E. et al.
                Singh S. & Pawar M
                Yang H. et al.
                Liu N. et al.
                Present study/Ova studija
                                            CBCT        178
                                            CBCT         73
Mandibular                                  Clearing    100
first premola
Donji prvi
pretkutnjak
                                            CBCT       1471
                                            Clearing    100
                                            CBCT        440
                                            Micro CT    115
                                            CBCT        202
                Bulut DG. et al.            CBCT        549
                Yu H. et al.
                Llena C et al.
                Vertucci
                Ok E. et al.
                Singh S. & Pawar M.
                Present study/Ova studija
Mandibular                                  CBCT        178
second
premolar
Donji drugi
pretkutnjak
                                            CBCT         53
                                            Clearing    400
                                            CBCT       1345
                                            Clearing     66.0
                                            CBCT        130

                                            Vertucci classification
                                            /Klasifkacijaprema
                                            Vertuciju (%)
                                            Type       Type     Type
                                            I/Tip I    II/Tip   III/
                                                       II       Tip III

                Bulut DG. et al.            94.2       0.6       1.2
                Yu H. et al.
                Llena C et al.
                Vertucci
                Ok E. et al.
                Singh S. & Pawar M
                Yang H. et al.
                Liu N. et al.
                Present study/Ova studija
                                            85.0       /         2.0
                                            78.0       8.0      11.0
Mandibular                                  70.0       /         4.0
first premola
Donji prvi
pretkutnjak
                                            93.0       0.5       1.0
                                            80.0       6.0      /
                                            76.0       3.5       2.5
                                            65.0       /         3.0
                                            82.6       1.5       6.4
                Bulut DG. et al.            98.9       0.2       0.4
                Yu H. et al.
                Llena C et al.
                Vertucci
                Ok E. et al.
                Singh S. & Pawar M.
                Present study/Ova studija
Mandibular                                  97.2       0.55     /
second
premolar
Donji drugi
pretkutnjak
                                            90.6       1.8      /
                                            97.5       /        /
                                            98.5       0.1       0.1
                                            30.0       /        /
                                            96.2       2.3      /

                                             Type     Type     Type
                                             IV/Tip   V/Tip    VI/Tip
                                             IV       V        VI
                Bulut DG. et al.              0.8      3.2     /
                Yu H. et al.
                Llena C et al.
                Vertucci
                Ok E. et al.
                Singh S. & Pawar M
                Yang H. et al.
                Liu N. et al.
                Present study/Ova studija
                                             /        10.0     /
                                              1.0     /        /
Mandibular                                    2.0     24.0     /
first premola
Donji prvi
pretkutnjak
                                              1.5      4.5     /
                                             10.0      2.0     /
                                              6.5      9.5     /
                                             /        23.0     /
                                              2.0      6.9     /
                Bulut DG. et al.             /         0.5     /
                Yu H. et al.
                Llena C et al.
                Vertucci
                Ok E. et al.
                Singh S. & Pawar M.
                Present study/Ova studija
Mandibular                                   /         1.7     /
second
premolar
Donji drugi
pretkutnjak
                                             /         7.5     /
                                             /         2.5     /
                                              0.6      0.5     /
                                             /         4.0     /
                                             /         1.5     /

                                             Type      Type
                                             VII/      VIII/Tip
                                             Tip VII   VIII

                Bulut DG. et al.             /         /
                Yu H. et al.
                Llena C et al.
                Vertucci
                Ok E. et al.
                Singh S. & Pawar M
                Yang H. et al.
                Liu N. et al.
                Present study/Ova studija
                                             /         1.0
                                             /         /
Mandibular                                   /         1.0
first premola
Donji prvi
pretkutnjak
                                             /         0.5
                                             /         1.0
                                             /         2.0
                                             1.0       /
                                             /         /
                Bulut DG. et al.             /         /
                Yu H. et al.
                Llena C et al.
                Vertucci
                Ok E. et al.
                Singh S. & Pawar M.
                Present study/Ova studija
Mandibular                                   /         /
second
premolar
Donji drugi
pretkutnjak
                                             /         /
                                             /         /
                                             /         0.2
                                             /         /
                                             /         /

CBCT - kompjuterizovana tomografija sa konusnim snopom
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Author:Popovic, Milica; Papic, Milos; Acovic, Aleksandar; Zivanovic, Suzana; Kanjevac, Tatjana
Publication:Medicinski Pregled
Article Type:Report
Date:Mar 1, 2018
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