Printer Friendly

COMPOST AND FOLIAR IRON ENHANCED FRUIT PRODUCTION AND QUALITY OF GREWIA TENAX (FORSK.) FIORI. UNDER STRESSED ENVIRONMENT.

Byline: A. A. Elfeel and R. A. Abohassan

Keywords: Compost, foliar iron, canopy cover, fruit, minerals, sugars.

INTRODUCTION

Grewia tenax (Forsk.) Fiori. known as white cross-berry (common name), Shohat (local, KSA) and Gudeim (local, Sudan), is a member of over hundred trees and shrubs belonging to the family Teliacaea (Zia-Ul-Haq et al., 2013). It is a shrubby or small multi-stemmed plant of dry arid and semi arid areas adapted to high salinity and prolonged drought spells (Sohail et al., 2015). It is recognized as multi purpose food, fodder, fuel wood and fiber producing tree species (Sharma and Patni, 2012). It also, serves as shelterbelt, agroforestry and wasteland rehabilitation plant (Fadl et al., 2015). In addition to that, it is a plant of high medicinal and pharmaceutical values (Aboagarib et al., 2014). However, the four carpels orange-red fruits, which contains high levels of sugars, minerals and phytochemical properties, are the most valued part of the plant (Aboagarib et al., 2015).

The fruits have been used to increase the levels of hemoglobin in children (Ahmed et al., 2012), pregnant women and peoples with anemia (Elhassan and Yagi, 2010) and as ice cream flavor and refreshing drink (Abdualrahman et al., 2011). G. tenax naturally spread on dry land forests and rocky high altitudinal areas of Saudi Arabia. It occurs within the vegetation communities of Al-Hejaz area (Al-Zubaide et al,. 2017). In this zone it can be found in high altitudinal areas as high as Alshafa of the Taif (Alsherif and Fadl, 2016). It is also recorded in Farasan Island (Atiqur Rahman et al., 2002). Compost is useful to the plants by its gradual multiple effects in improving soil physical and chemical properties (Wu et al., 2013). It also, mitigate N2O emissions from the soils (Ding et al., 2013), and enhance bio-stimulation in the soil that increase soil microorganisms (Valarini et al., 2009). Organic manure also, increase nutrient uptake (Pane et al., 2015).

Iron is a micronutrient essential to plants due to its vital role in DNA and chlorophyll synthesis and as a component of several enzymes and pigments in plants (Rout and Sahoo, 2015). Although, iron required by plants in very small quantities, but it is one of most important limiting factor for plant growth as it is available in insoluble form in the soil (Jeong et al., 2017). Iron represents important element of Gudeim fruit (Abdualrahman, 2011). That is why wild fruit from this species used by local people as a source of high iron given to pregnant women, people with anemia or as famine food. Despite its high potential as fast growing, stress tolerant and a multi uses and values evergreen tree, still remains in the wild as underutilized tree species. Little attention was given for domesticating this tree. This may suggest the need for ex-situ cultivation of this species in the dry lands.

The main objective of this study was to assess growth and production of G. tenax in arid saline soils under different fertilization treatments. Specifically, to examine the combined effects of compost addition and foliar iron spraying on tree growth, canopy cover and fruit production and composition.

MATERIALAS AND METHODS

Study Site: This experiment was established in arid saline stressed environment at the research farm of the King Abdulaziz University at Al-Gumoom area Northeast of Jeddah. The seeds of Grewia used in this experiment were procured from Sudan National tree seed Centre. The seedlings raised during the season 2012/2013 and transplanted in the field during the season 2013/2014. The planting distance in the field was 4 X 4 meter, giving 625 trees per hectare. The trees were regularly irrigated by drip irrigation at frequency of once a week.

Experimental Design: The design used was factorial complete randomized block design with three replicates and two treatments (compost and foliar iron applications). The manure was added once every season in the form of Al-Morroj Compost (3.13% total nitrogen, 40% organic matter, 5.34 C/N ratio, 16.71%, total organic carbon 1.52% P and 0.23% K on dry matter basis). Three rates were used; dose one (M1) was addition of manure at the rate of 2.5 kg/tree, dose two (M2) at the rate of 5 kg/tree and the third (M3), amount of 7.5 kg/tree, plus control without manure. Whereas iron was applied through foliar spray at the rates of 30 gram/gallon/tree (I1), 45 gram/gallon/tree (I2) and control (I0). There was 10 experimental unit per block; combination of (M1I1, M1I2, M1I0, M2I1, M2I2, M2I0, M3I1, M3I2, M3I0 and control M0I0). During each season, iron treatment was divided into three equal doses and sprayed three times, to ensure that newly formed foliage treated with iron fertilizer.

The iron was mixed thoroughly with water and sprayed with hand held sprayer. Iron fertilizer used was Fe EDDHA chelate of 6% w/w. In the beginning of each season and before addition of the compost the irrigation system was repaired, the wholes around the tree were thoroughly weeded and the under branches of the trees were pruned. The climatic conditions of the study area is shown in Table-1.

Canopy Cover: Changes in green canopy cover over time was monitored throughout the year using Canopeo green canopy cover measurement tool (Patrignani and Ochsner, 2015). Six consecutive measurements at the interval of every two months (August 2016, October 2016, December 2016, February 2017, April 2017 and June 2017) were done. To measure the tree canopy, the smart phone camera was faced downward and kept parallel to the tree canopy at least 60 cm from the top in order to minimize over estimation due to interception by big branches. Then a photo was taken and canopy cover percent was processed with the software as percent cover.

Branch Measurements: Branch characteristic were measured on four branches covering the four sites per tree. Branch lengths, number of lateral branches per main branches were measured at three month interval. Relative monthly branch increment (RMBI) was derived as (last measurement - initial measurement divided by number of months between measurements). While due the initial variation in the length of the main branches, number of lateral branches per main branches was converted into number of branches per one meter of the main branch.

Fruit Set Rate (FSR): In each of the branches previously selected for branch measurements, number of flowers and fruit set were counted during flowering and fruiting periods. Then fruit set rate was calculated as a number of fruits divided by the numbers of flowers in each branch.

Fruit Production: Fruit production per tree and per each treatment were determined during the two years (2016 and 2017). To estimate production, ripe fruits were manually collected from the trees. This process was repeated several times, until all fruits were completely collected. Then fruit production (KG) per tree was determined. Production per hectare was calculated as production of the tree multiplied by number of trees per hectare.

Mineral Elements: Fruit macro-elements (K, Ca, Na and Mg) and micro-elements (Fe, Cu and Zn) were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry as described by (Hanlon, 1998).

Sugar Contents: Quantitative determination of Fructose, Glucose, Sucrose, Maltose and Lactose sugars were analyzed by High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) according to method described by (Puwastien et al., 2011). In brief, a sample of fruit was extracted with aqueous ethanol. The solution was filtered through filter paper (repeated three times), then the ethanol was evaporated in a rotary evaporator. The remaining aqueous solution was transferred to volumetric flask and made up to volume with distilled water and filtered through ultrafilter. The sample solutions and sugar standards were then injected into the HPLC. The results were expressed as g/100 g (percentages).

Data Analysis: The results of the data analysis for this study were generated using SAS/STAT software version (9.4), University Edition, copyright (2017), (SAS Institute Inc, 2017). ANOVA was analyzed to determine the effects of the main treatments and the means were separated by new Duncan's Multiple Range Test.

Table-1. Mean monthly Temperature (Temp) and relative humidity (RH) and total monthly rainfall in the study site during the period of data collection.

Year###Month###Temp_mean###RH_mean###Rainfall_total

###C###%###mm

2016###1###21.8###69.82###4.01

2016###2###24.52###58.7###0

2016###3###27.84###58.94###0

2016###4###29.35###55.29###34.53

2016###5###32.34###45.63###9.4

2016###6###34.66###35.2###0

2016###7###33.94###41.34###0

2016###8###33.42###55.54###0.66

2016###9###32.94###58.55###9.65

2016###10###30.29###59.51###3.65

2016###11###27.41###64.98###0.2

2016###12###24.05###71.56###1.55

2017###1###24.76###68.04###0.15

2017###2###24.44###55.51###0.35

2017###3###29.2###63.46###0

2017###4###25.92###54.43###0.27

2017###5###27.74###54.92###0

2017###6###31.23###51.51###0

Table-2. Effects of compost addition and foliar iron spray on canopy cover trend of Grewia tenax grown under arid saline land.

TRT###Cover1###Cover2###Cover3###Cover4###Cover5###Cover6

M 3I 2###39.6a###74.0a###77.1a###80.1a###69.9a###67.4a

M 3I 1###38.2a###69.5abc###71.0abc###73.0ab###69.1ab###67.3a

M 3I 0###50.7a###72.9ab###72.8ab###73.5ab###69.4ab###62.3abc

M 2I 2###51.1a###72.1ab###71.4abc###74.6ab###66.3###64.0ab

M 2I 1###44.5a###65.1abcd###63.8bcd###70.5ab###65.1ab###63.2ab

M 2I 0###47.0a###65.4abcd###65.8abc###66.5bc###63.9ab###57.0abc

M 1I 2###37.7a###65.7abcd###67.0abc###70.2bc###64.0ab###61.4abc

M 1I 1###32.7a###62.8bcd###59.7cd###64.4bc###60.0bc###58.9abc

M 1I 0###43.2a###57.8d###53.9cd###57.6c###53.1c###51.7c

C###43.3a###60.0cd###58.6cd###65.9bc###63.3ab###55.1bc

C. V.###18.7###8.1###9.1###7.8###7.5###9.2

F. Value###0.94###2.97###3.50###3.40###3.06###2.33

P###ns###*###**###**###*###*

Table-3. Effects of compost addition and foliar iron spray on fruit set rate (FSR), branch number per meter (Brno/m), relative monthly branch increment (RMBI) and fruit production of Grewia tenax grown under arid saline land.

TRT###FSR###Brno/m###RMBI###Production 2016###Production 2017

###Cm###Kg/tree###Kg/Ha###Kg/tree###Kg/Ha

M 3I 2###0.64a###14a###13.43a###0.86a###542.7a###1.41a###887.1a

M 3I 1###0.61ab###14a###11.35ab###0.85b###532.1b###1.15e###722.1e

M 3I 0###0.58ab###13a###7.46bc###0.78c###504.5c###0.95g###595.0g

M 2I 2###0.64a###15a###11.35ab###0.85b###533.3b###1.38b###872.5b

M 2I 1###0.56ab###13a###11.23ab###0.74d###467.1e###1.31c###700.4

M 2I 0###0.40ab###13a###87.51b###0.65g###410.6f###0.82g###517.1g

M 1I 2###0.44ab###13a###6.78c###0.85b###532.1b###1.31c###818.7c

M 1I 1###0.39ab###15a###6.61c###0.76d###477.1e###1.29d###807.5d

M 1I 0###0.40ab###14a###6.60c###0.69f###433.3f###0.77h###486.4h

C###0.23b###14a###4.33b###0.49h###306.4h###0.57j###361.4j

C. V.###39.3###21.6###26.02###0.50###0.50###0.64###0.64

F. value###1.96###0.38###3.98###937###937###748###748

P###*###ns###**###**###**###**###**

Table-4. Effects of compost addition and foliar iron spray on mineral elements contents of Grewia tenax fruits grown under arid saline land.

TRT###K###Ca###Na###Mg###Fe###Cu###Zn

###g/100g###g/100g###g/100g###g/100g###Mg/kg###Mg/kg###Mg/kg

M 3I 2###0.44a###0.130a###0.030c###0.186a###9.016a###0.850ef###2.396c

M 3I 1###0.43a###0.126ab###0.030c###0.166c###8.943b###0.850ef###2.446c

M 3I 0###0.40bc###0.120abc###0.031c###0.166c###8.850c###0.830f###2.096de

M 2I 2###0.43a###0.123abc###0.030c###0.166c###8.783de###0.830f###1.783de

M 2I 1###0.41b###0.113cd###0.031c###0.156b###8.746ef###1.000c###1.996e

M 2I 0###0.41b###0.106d###0.031c###0.176b###8.713fg###0.950cd###3.016b

M 1I 2###0.41b###0.113cd###0.050a###0.156d###8.730fg###0.900def###2.196d

M 1I 1###0.40bc###0.116bcd###0.050a###0.126e###8.800cd###0.930vdf###1.996e

M 1I 0###0.40bc###0.106d###0.043b###0.166c###8.580h###1.250b###2.163d

C###0.39c###0.106d###0.043b###0.156d###8.680g###1.500a###3.133b

C. V.###2.16###6.67###6.63###1.65###0.33###5.53###3.61

F. Value###12.18###3.61###40.00###1.03###55.94###47.94###117.18

P###**###**###**###**###**###**###**

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Canopy Cover: Canopy cover of Grewia trees treated with compost and chelated foliar iron significantly differed among the main treatments in all measurements, except the first measurement (Table-2). A combination of higher compost and iron doses resulted in higher canopy cover. Whereas the greater amount of canopy cover% was obtained in a combination of compost at the rate of 7.5 kg/tree with iron at the rate of 45 gram/tree in most measurements, compared to trees treated with compost only or control untreated trees. The increase in canopy cover obtained in this study was associated with increased growth, fruit production and quality traits for this species. Earlier studies supported the relationship between canopy cover with photosynthate production and dry matter accumulation (Jun Luo et al., 2014), fruit production (Elfeel and Abohassan, 2016) and as indicator to measure gross primary production (Street et al., 2007).

In addition to the effects of compost and foliar iron fertilization, time of measurements also has an effect on canopy cover. Changes in canopy cover trend over time showed a seasonal pattern (Fig. 1). During the hot months of August and October canopy cover values were low, reaching peak in cold months of December and February and then dropped again during the hottest months of April and June. Although, this tree is evergreen, but low CC during hot season means shedding of the leaves to reduce transpiration loss. Reduction of total leaves area is a good fitness adaption of trees in arid environments.

Branch Measurements: Number of lateral branches per meter of main branch showed non-significant differences among treatments. Whereas relative monthly branch increment statistically differed among the main treatments (Table-3). Application of compost at the rate of 7.5 kg/tree along with foliar iron at the rate of 45 gram/tree resulted in higher RMBI. In general a combination of iron fertilization with addition of compost obtained higher RMBI values than compost application only and control untreated trees. On this branchy tree, improving the levels in RMBI means better overall growth. Spraying iron in composted trees produced higher RMBI at all compost rates, compared to trees treated with compost only. For instance, applying iron at the rate of 45 g/tree with lowest doses of compost (5 and 2.5 kg/tree), revealed higher RMBI than highest compost rate of 7.5 kg/tree without iron.

Fruit Set Rate (FSR): Addition of fertilizers revealed higher FSR compared to control unfertilized trees (Table-3). However, higher doses of compost accompanied with higher iron fertilizers resulted in higher FSR. The levels of FSR decreased with decreased compost/iron combination levels with the least values in the control untreated trees. Higher FSR (0.64) was obtained in both compost at the rate of 7.5 kg/tree and 5 kg/tree combined with iron at the of 45 g/tree. In turn, applying iron at the rate of 45 g/tree with compost at the rate of 5 kg/tree resulted in higher FSR, compared to compost at the rate 7.5 kg/tree with no iron or with 30 g Fe/tree. This indicates that FSR was decreasing with decreasing compost dose. However, with lower compost dose the results can be improved by application of iron fertilizer.

Fruit Production: In both the first and second years, the results of fruit production showed highly significant differences among the main treatments (Table-3). However, in general production was higher during the second year compared to the first year. During the two years, addition of 7.5 kg compost per tree and spraying of 45 grams of chelated iron produced higher fruits. Fruit production per hectare reached about 872 kg for high compost and iron doses, compared to 352kg for control with no fertilization. Grewia trees produced fruits twice a year during both years. However, the data for production in this study was included only the high season production during April. The low season production of December was not included. The reason is that fruit production during December is relatively low. At the same time there is very high competition by the birds.

The birds catches the fruit immediately when the color start to change from green to orange or red, leaving very little or nothing to collect. Even during April there is bird competition, but at this time production is very high. Therefore, in fact fruit production data presented in this study is actually underestimated due to substantial amount lost by birds. However, in general field observations showed that the natural regeneration of the trees in its natural range is at a large extent achieved by birds dispersal of the seeds. This is supported by Tews et al., (2006) who found that birds dispersal of seeds is very crucial in Grewia flava regeneration and cover dynamics. The higher fruit production showed during the second year (Table-3), may be due to the residual effects of gradual decomposition of the compost and the effects the increasing amount of the iron applied. Also, due to the increased growth in the second year.

Mineral Elements: The results revealed highly significant differences in fruit for macro and micro elements analyzed among the different fertilization rates applied (Table-4). Most of the elements analyzed increased with high compost/iron doses, except Na that declined with increasing rates. K is the highest element in fruit of Grewia in this study. This is in accordance with many studies that reported k as the highest element in grewia fruits (Aboagarib et al., 2015). The iron although, significantly varied among various treatments, but it is relatively low. This may debate the general local communities believes that this fruit contains very high iron content the reason that is given to pregnant women and peoples with anemia. This was in accordance with Nour Eldaim and Elnadi, (2014), Who concluded that the iron in Grewia was below normal compared to other sources.

However, this is contrasting with the findings of Elhassan and Yagi, (2010), who supported the local believes that the fruits from this species contains high amount of iron. K is important elements to plants due to its role in regulating opening and closing of guard cells and osmoregulation in plant (Cushman, 2001). Application of compost and iron fertilizers reduced Na content compared to the control and trees treated with low amounts of compost and iron.

Sugar Contents: Grewia fruits contained high levels of individual monosaccharides sugars of fructose and glucose and were differed with different fertilization rates applied. Also, disaccharides (sucrose and maltose) varied with various fertilization types and rates (Fig. 2). HLPC results showed no amount of lactose sugars in any of the fruit samples tested. That is why the lactose was not presented here. Under all compost rates, iron at the rate of 45 g/tree resulted in higher amount of individual sugar contents. Whereas within compost treatment without iron the sugar contents increased with increasing compost doses.

Conclusion: It may be concluded that a combination of compost and iron under such environments have a great effects on tree growth and fruits production and composition of Grewia tenax. Foliar spraying of iron on composted trees produced highly positive effects on fruit quantity and quality. The study highlights the importance of domesticating Grewia tenax (important multipurpose) shrubby tree in arid environments. In such environments, growth and production of Grewia tenax can be improved by combined application of compost and iron.

Acknowledgements: This project was funded by the Deanship of Scientific Research (DSR) at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah under grant no. (G165/155/1437). The authors therefore, acknowledge with thanks DSR for technical and financial support.

REFERENCES

Abdualrahman, M.A.Y., A.O. Ali, and A.M.A. Suliman (2011). Nutritional Evaluation of Guddaim Fruits (Grewia tenax) and its Utilization in Ice Cream Production. J. Science and Technology. 12(3): 38 -43.

Aboagarib, E.A.A., R. Yang, Xia Hua, and A. Siddeeg (2014). Chemical Compositions, Nutritional Properties and Volatile Compounds of Guddaim (Grewia Tenax. Forssk) Fiori Fruits. J. Food and Nutrition Research. 2(4): 187-192. DOI:10.12691/jfnr-2-4-9

Aboagarib, E.A.A., R. Yang, and Xia Hua (2015). Physicochemical, Nutritional, and Functional Characteristics of Seeds, Peel and Pulp of Grewia tenax (Forssk) Fiori Fruits. Tropical J. Pharmaceutical Res. 14 (12): 2247-2254. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v14i12.14

Ahmed, M.E, H.B.B. Hamid, H.E. Babikir and A. Agab Eldor (2012). Effects of Grewia tenax (Guddaim) as a natural food on the hemoglobin level and growth among displaced children of Darfur State, Western Sudan. J. Medicine and Medical Sciences. 3 (11): 729-733.

Al Zubaide, M.A., H.S. Al Zahrani, and A.A. Al Toukhy (2017). Floristic Composition and Life Forms for Wild Plants of Shada Highest Mountain and Wadi Sagamah at Al Baha Area, Saudi Arabia. Middle-East J. Scientific Res. 25 (6): 1342-1348, DOI: 10.5829/idosi.mejsr.2017.1342.1348

Alsherif, E.A. and M.A. Fadl (2016). Floristic study of the Al-Shafa Highlands in Taif, Western Saudi Arabia. Flora. 225: 20-29. doi.org/10.1016/j. flora. 2016.09.004

Atiqur Rahman, M., M.S. Al-Said, J.S. Mossa, Al-Yahya and M.A.F. Al-Hemaid, (2002). A Check List of Angiosperm Flora of Farasan Islands, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Pakistan J. Biological Sciences.5: 1162-1166.DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2002.1162.1166

Cushman, J.C. (2001). Osmoregulation in Plants: Implications for Agriculture. American Zoologist. 41(1): 758-769, https://doi.org/10.1093/icb/41.4.758

Ding, W.,J. Luo, J. Li,H. Yu, F. Jianling and D. Liu (2013). Effect of long-term compost and inorganic fertilizer application on background N2O and fertilizer-induced N2O emissions from an intensively cultivated soil. Science of The Total Environment. 465: 115 - 124.

Elfeel, A.A. and R.A. Abohassan (2016). Compost effects on leaf area index and seed production enhancement in an important arid land leguminous tree (Acacia tortilis subsp. Raddiana). Legume Research. 39(5): 748-754. DOI:10.18805/lr.v0iOF.3546.

Elhassan, G.O.M. and S.M. Yagi (2010). Nutritional Composition of Grewia Species (Grewia tenax (Forsk.) Fiori, G. flavescens Juss and G. Villosa Willd) Fruits. Advance J. Food Science and Technology.2(3): 159-162.

Fadl, K.M., S.E. Mahmoud, and Z.M. Hamad (2015). Farmers perceptions towards agroforestry system in North and South Kordofan States, Sudan. International J. Environment. 4(2): 53 -67.

Hanlon, E.A. (1998). Elemental Determination by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Pages 157-164 in Y.P. Kalra, ed. Handbook of reference methods for plant analysis. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Jeong, J., A. Merkovich, M. Clyne, and E.L. Connolly (2017). Directing iron transport in dicots: regulation of iron acquisition and translocation. Current Opinion in Plant Biology.39:106-113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pbi.2017.06.014

Jun Luo, P. Yong-Bao, L. Xu, Y. Zhang, H. Zhang, R. Chen and Youxiong Que (2014). Photosynthetic and Canopy Characteristics of Different Varieties at the Early Elongation Stage and Their Relationships with the Cane Yield in Sugarcane. Scientific World J. Article ID 707095, 9 pages.doi: 10.1155/2014/707095

Nour Eldaim and Elnadi (2014). Determination of Iron Content in Portulaca, Dates and Grewia. International J. Recent Research and Applied Studies.19 (1): 29-35.

Pane,C., G. Celano, A. Piccolo, D. Villecco, R. Spaccini, A.M. Palese, and M. Zaccardelli (2015). Effects of on-farm composted tomato residues on soil biological activity and yields in a tomato cropping system. Chemical and Biological Technologies in Agriculture. 2(4): 1-13.

Patrignani, A. and T.E. Ochsner (2015). Canopeo: A Powerful New Tool for Measuring Fractional Green Canopy Cover. Agronomy J. 107 (6): 2312 - 2320, DOI: 10.2134/agronj15.0150.

Puwastien, P.E.,T.E. Siong, J. Kantasubrata, G. Craven, R.R. Feliciano, and K. Judprasong (eds) (2011). Determination of individual sugars by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). ASEAN Manual of Food Analysis (1st edition), pp 188, Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Thailand.

Rout, G.R. and S. Sahoo (2015). Role of iron in plant growth and metabolism.Reviews in Agricultural Science. 3:1-24,doi: 10.7831/ras.3.1

SAS Institute Inc. (2017). SASA(r), SAS/STAT Software, University Edition, version (9.4), Cary, NC, USA.

Sharma and Patni (2012). Grewia tenax (Frosk.) Fiori.-A traditional Medicinal Plant with Enormous Economic prospectives. Asian J. Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 3(5): 28 - 32.

Sohail, M., A.S. Saled, J. Gebauer and A. Buerkert (2015). Seed Dormancy Alleviation of Grewia tenax (Forssk.): A Wild Fruit Tree Species of Pakistan. Pakistan J. Bot. 47(2): 417-420.

Street, L.E., G.R. Shaver, M. Williams, and M.T. Van Wijk (2007). What is the relationship between changes in canopy leaf area and changes in photosynthetic CO2 flux in arctic ecosystems? J. Ecology.95: 139-150.

Tews, J.,A. Esther, S.J. Milton, and F. Jeltsch (2006). Linking a population model with an ecosystem model: Assessing the impact of land use and climate change on savanna shrub cover dynamics. Ecological Modelling.195: 219-228.

Valarini, P.J, G. Curaqueo, A. Seguel, K. Manzano, R. Rubio, P. Cornejo, and F. Borie (2009). Effect of compost application on some properties of a volcanic soil from central South Chile. Chilean J. Agricultural Res. 69(3):416-425.

Wu Y.,C. Li,Y. Zheng, Y. Zhang, and Z. Sun (2013). Organic amendment application influence soil organism abundance in saline alkali soil. European J. Soil Biology.54: 32 - 40.

Zia-Ul-Haq, M., M.S. Stankovic, K. Rizwan, and V. De Feo (2013). Grewia asiatica L., a Food Plant with Multiple Uses. Molecules.18: 2663-2682.
COPYRIGHT 2019 Knowledge Bylanes
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2019 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Publication:Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences
Geographic Code:6SUDA
Date:Jun 22, 2019
Words:4728
Previous Article:PATH ANALYSIS APPROACH TO ASSESS THE COMPENSATORY IMPACT OF YIELD ATTRIBUTES ON PEARL MILLET GRAIN YIELD IN SEMI-ARID AND ARID AREAS OF PUNJAB,...
Next Article:EXPLORING THE AMENABILITY OF ONIONS TO AGROBACTERIUM MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION.

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters