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CHECKLISTS OF THE MOSQUITOES (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) OF CHRISTIAN COUNTY AND FORT CAMPBELL, KENTUCKY, AND MONTGOMERY COUNTY, TENNESSEE.

ABSTRACT--The checklist of mosquito fauna for Montgomery County, Tennessee includes 40 mosquito species. The Christian County, Kentucky list includes 38 species. The Fort Campbell checklist, which includes only the Montgomery and Christian County sectors of the military installation, has 49 mosquito species. The checklists document the culicid species in the region, promote an awareness of the variety of the mosquito fauna, and establish a starting point for additional work.

A complete checklist of regional mosquito species is an important epidemiological and ecological tool. The presence or absence of a culicid species, especially when linked with quantitative survey data, can provide significant information regarding the potential for human and veterinary disease. In the Fort Campbell, Kentucky area, including Christian County, Kentucky and Montgomery County, Tennessee (Fig. 1) these diseases may include avian malaria, anuran filariasis, dirofilariasis, encephalitides, and other arboviruses. Additionally, the presence of certain mosquito species may present a potential for the local maintenance and transmission of emerging diseases. Mosquitoes are not often used as scientific indicators of ecological health. However, the ubiquitous mosquito is inextricably linked with the food chain of many other species, and may play a role in maintaining a healthy ecosystem. These checklists are provided to document the culicid species in the area, promote an awareness of the variety of the fauna, and establish a starting point for additional work.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Compilation of the species checklists (Table 1) is based on field collections from May 1996 to May 1998 and several other sources. The sources include unpublished Fort Campbell military installation mosquito surveillance reports obtained under the Freedom of Information Act (FOJA) from the United States Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine (CHPPM). Additional unpublished records were provided by B. Harrison, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, and E. S. Saugstad, Frederick, Maryland. The published works of Quinby et al. (1944), shlaifer and Harding (1946), Carpenter (1952), and Saugstad (1977) also were utilized. Copies of Aedes albopictus infestation reports were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Mosquito collection reports for Christian County, Kentucky were obtained from the Tennessee Valley Authority under the FOIA.

Larval and pupal field collections during May 1996 to May 1998 were made using dipper, direct pour from small artificial containers, and siphon. Adult mosquitoes were collected using sweep net, ultraviolet and white light trap, and mechanical aspirator. Some larvae and pupae were reared to adults for identification. Adult and larval specimens were identified to species level using light microscopy and the taxonomic references of Darsie and Ward (1981), Darsie (1986), Harrison and Whitt (1996), and Reinert et al. (1997).

RESULTS

The checklist for Montgomery County, Tennessee includes 40 mosquito species and the Christian County, Kentucky list includes 38 species. The Fort Campbell checklist, which includes only the Montgomery and Christian County sectors of the military installation, has 49 mosquito species.

DISCUSSION

The Fort Campbell Military Reservation includes portions of four counties: Trigg and Christian County, Kentucky and Stewart and Montgomery County, Tennessee (Fig. 1). The United States Army collection records for Fort Campbell do not list the county in which a collection was made. Additional trap records, which could indicate the precise location of mosquito collection efforts, have not been located. Historically, the preponderance of mosquito collection and control efforts on the installation coincides with the locations of family housing areas, office buildings, and troop billets. All of these areas are located within the Montgomery and Christian County sectors of the installation. The portions of Fort Campbell which are within Trigg and Stewart Counties are primarily field training areas, including artillery impact areas, parachute and aircraft landing zones, and maneuver space. It is not likely that extensive mosquito collection efforts were spent in these areas by installation medical personnel. Given t his multi-county situation with the historical collection documents, separate checklists were created for Fort Campbell, Christian and Montgomery Counties. Similar checklists for Trigg and Stewart Counties were not compiled.

The checklist for Fort Campbell, Kentucky, which includes portion of Christian and Montgomery Counties, includes 49 mosquito species. The record of six of these species is based solely on United States Army collection records, in the absence of voucher specimens. These species are Aedes atlanticus, Aedes mitchellae, Aedes sollicitans, Aedes taeniorhynchus, Coquillettidia perturbans, and Culex nigripalpus. Despite extensive larval and adult collection efforts during 1996 to 1998, no specimens of these six species were found.

United States Army historical records have reported the collection of adult and larval "A. atlanticus-tormentor" (sic) on Fort Campbell (CHPPM, personal communication; E. S. Saugstad, personal communication). As noted by Saugstad (1977), it is uncertain why the larval collections were not identified to species, given the distinct morphologies of the larvae. According to the expected geographic distributions (Darsie and Ward, 1981), both species may occur in the Fort Campbell area. During 1996-1998, the author collected A. tormentor larvae, but failed to confirm the presence of A. atlanticus in the area.

United States Army records for 1963 and 1966 reported the collection of four adult A. mitchellae on Fort Campbell. This southeastern species is not normally found in northern Tennessee (Darsie and Ward, 1981), but it may temporarily inhabit the area during shifting weather patterns. No specimens of this species have been collected on Fort Campbell since 1966. Its local presence at this time is unknown.

Aedes sollicitans may occur in the area. Fort Campbell collection records include 90 adult specimens captured in New Jersey light traps from 1963 to 1987 (CHPPM, personal communication; E. S. Saugstad, personal communication). No specimens have been collected since 1987. Although this species is normally associated with salt marshes and brackish water (Carpenter and LaCasse, 1955), anthropogenic activities, civilian and military, may create ideal larval habitat for the species. Potential military activities include spillage of brine water associated with reverse osmosis water purification units (ROWPU), surface water contaminated by various salt-based products, and the use of decontamination agents in chemical warfare training.

The geographical distribution of A. taeniorhynchus is less certain. Darsie and Ward (1981) have depicted a widespread distribution for the species along the United States Atlantic, Gulf, and southern California coasts, with numerous foci in inland areas. These foci include central Kansas, west Texas, east central Alabama, and northwestern Pennsylvania. It is conceivable that the Fort Campbell area may be an additional focus for this species. In 1987, 63 specimens were collected by New Jersey light traps on Fort Campbell (CHPPM, personal communication), but none have been collected since that time.

Coquillettidia perturbans was previously collected on Fort Campbell (Carpenter, 1952), including eleven specimens in New Jersey light traps during 1987, but could not be confirmed by field collections during 1996 to 1998. The Fort Campbell region is within the expected geographic distribution for the species (Darsie and Ward, 1981). Collection of the species is complicated by the specialized structure of the larva, enabling them to use hollow emergent plants as breathing tubes, rather than travel to the surface of the water. When disturbed, the larvae easily evade collection by quickly relocating to the sediment. The adults of the species are readily attracted to light traps (Carpenter and LaCasse, 1955). Despite numerous light trap operations, however, no specimens have been collected on the installation since 1987. The continued presence of this species in the area cannot be discounted.

Another mosquito species, C. nigripalpus, had been previously reported by the United States Army in Fort Campbell collection records (CHPPM, personal communication). However, the accuracy of the United States Army reports of C. nigripalpus on Fort Campbell is in doubt (B. Harrison, personal communication) and voucher specimens are not available. Darsie and Ward (1981) indicate that the species may be found in the area. No specimens of this species were collected in 1996 to 1998 efforts.

Aedes atropalpus was first collected in Clarksville, Montgomery County, in 1997 as larvae in waste automotive tires. The species has never been reported from Fort Campbell or Christian County, but is probably present in those areas in low numbers.

The presence of Aedes dorsalis in Montgomery County and Fort Campbell represents an extension of the expected geographic distribution (Darsie and Ward, 1981). The species is not expected to be found in Tennessee or the southeastern United States. However, the species was recorded as an adult in United States Army New Jersey light trap collections on Fort Campbell in 1987 (CHPPM, personal communication), and in larval collections in Montgomery County and Fort Campbell in 1998.

Psorophora mathesoni has been recorded in Montgomery County (as Psorophora varipes) as early as 1946 (Shlaifer and Harding; 1946). The continued presence of this species could not be confirmed during 1996 to 1998 field collections in the area.

A recently described species, Anopheles maverlius Reinert, has not been collected in the area. However, the expected geographic distribution noted by Reinert et al. (1997) indicates it may be present in the area at its extreme northern range.

A complete list of mosquito species for the region, including Fort Campbell and Christian County, Kentucky and Montgomery County, Tennessee probably includes 49 species. This list would include the 49 species listed for Fort Campbell (Table 1), with the exception of A. atlanticus, A. mitchellae, and C. nigripalpus, and the probable addition of A. atropalpus, P. mathesoni, and A. maverlius. There is a continuing need for surveys of mosquito populations throughout Tennessee and Kentucky. Typically, unless an insect poses an immediate nuisance or health threat, causes an intolerable amount of crop damage, or possesses uncommon beauty, it is often ignored, even by entomologists. The ubiquitous mosquito is the focus of extensive control efforts. Less common are efforts to understand and document the bionomics and ecological importance of the family. The connection between mosquitoes and ecological health need further study.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Grateful appreciation is extended to The Center for Field Biology and the Department of Biology, Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, Tennessee, for their support and use of laboratory facilities; to S. Hamilton, Department of Biology, Austin Peay State University, for his continued encouragement and support; and to C. Moore, Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, B. Harrison, North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, and E. S. Saugstad, Frederick, Maryland, for their encouragement, advice, and assistance.

LITERATURE CITED

CARPENTER, S. J. 1952. Notes on mosquitoes in North America: Ill, collections at military installations in Kentucky during 1944 and 1945. Mosq. News 12(4):252-253.

CARPENTER, S. J., AND W J. LACASSE. 1955. Mosquitoes of North America (North of Mexico), Univ. Calif. Press, Berkeley.

DARSIE, R. F 1986. The identification of Aedes albopictus in the Nearctic Region. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 2:336-340.

DARSIE, R. F, AND R. A. WARD. 1981. Identification and geographical distribution of the mosquitoes of North America, North of Mexico. Mosq. Syst., 1:1-3 13.

HARRISON, B. A., AND P. B. WHITT. 1996. Identifying Psorophora horrida females in North Carolina (Diptera: Culicidae). J. Am. Mosq. Control Asso., 12:725-727. MOORE, J. P. 1999. Mosquitoes of Fort Campbell, Kentucky (Diptera: Culicidne). J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 15:1-3.

QUINBY, G. E., R. E. SERFLING, AND J. K. NEEL. 1944. Distribution and prevalence of the mosquitoes of Kentucky. J. Econ. Entomol., 37:547-550.

REINERT, J. F, P. E. KAISER, AND J. A. SEAWRIGHT. 1997. Analysis of the Anopheles (Anopheles) quadrimaculatus complex of sibling species (Diptera: Culicidae) using morphological, cytological, molecular, genetic, biochemical, and ecological techniques in an integrated approach. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 13:1-102.

SAUGSTAD, E. S. 1977. Initial record of Aedes tormentor in Kentucky. Mosq. News, 37:298.

SHLAIFER, A., AND D. E. HARDING. 1946. The mosquitoes of Tennessee. J. Tennessee Acad. Sci., 21:241-256.
TABLE 1
Species checklists (Diptera: Culicidae) for Montgomery County,
Tennessee, and Fort Campbell and Christian County, Kentucky.
Taxon Montgomery Co., TN
Order Diptera: Family Culicidae
 Genus Aedes Meigen
 Subgenus Aedes Meigen
 cinereus Meigen Moore 1999 1
 Subgenus Aedimorphus Theobald
 vexans (Meigen) Shaifer and Harding 1946
 Subgenus Ochlerotatus Lynch
 Arribalzaga
 atlanticus Dyar and Knab
 atropalpus (Coquillett) * 1997 1
 canadensis canadensis (Theobald) Moore 1999 1,3
 dorsalis (Meigen) Moore 1999 1
 dupreei (Coquillett)
 fulvus Pallens Ross
 grossbecki Dyar and Knab
 infirmatus Dyar and Knab
 mitchellae (Dyar)
 sollicitans (Walker)
 sticticus (Meigen) Shalifer and Harding 1946
 taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann)
 tormentor Dyar and Knab
 trivittatus (Coquillett) Moore 1999 1
 Subgenus Protomacleaya Theobald
 hendersoni Cockerell Moore 1999 1
 triseriatus (Say) Shaifer and Harding 1946
 Subgenus Stegomyia Theobald
 aegypti (Linnaeus) Shlaifer and Harding 1946
 albopictus (Skuse) CDC 1988 8
 Genus Anopheles Meigen
 Subgenus Anopheles Meigen
 barberi Coquillett Moore 1999 1
 crucians Wiedemann Shlaifer and Harding 1946
 perplexens Ludlow Moore 1999 1
 punctipennis (Say) Shlaifer and Harding 1946
 quadrimaculatus Say sensu lato Shlaifer and Harding 1946
 quadrimaculatus Say sensu stricto Moore 1999 1
 smaragdinus Reinert Moore 1999 1
 walkeri Theobald Moore 1999 1
 Genus Coquillettidia Dyar
 Subgenus Coquillettidia Dyar
 perturbans (Walker)
 Genu Culex Linnaeus
 Subgenus Culex Linnaeus
 nigripalpus Theobald
 pipiens Linnaeus 11 Shlaifer and Harding 1946
 quinquefasciatus Say 11 Shlaifer and Harding 1946
 restuans Theobald Shlaifer and Harding 1946
 salinarius Coquillett Shlaifer and Harding 1946
 tarsalis Coquillett Shlaifer and Harding 1946
 Subgenus Melanoconion Theobald
 erraticus (Dyar and Knab) Moore 1999 1,2,3
 peccator Dyar and Knab Moore 1999 1
 Subgenus Neoculex Dyar
 territans Walker Shlaifer and Harding 1946 12
Taxon Fort Campbell, KY
Order Diptera: Family Culicidae
 Genus Aedes Meigen
 Subgenus Aedes Meigen
 cinereus Meigen ** US Army 1967 2
 Subgenus Aedimorphus Theobald
 vexans (Meigen) Carpenter 1952
 Subgenus Ochlerotatus Lynch
 Arribalzaga
 atlanticus Dyar and Knab US Army 1958 3,4
 atropalpus (Coquillett)
 canadensis canadensis (Theobald) Carpenter 1952
 dorsalis (Meigen) US Army 1987 2
 dupreei (Coquillett) Moore 1999 1
 fulvus Pallens Ross Moore 1999 2,3
 grossbecki Dyar and Knab Moore 1999 1
 infirmatus Dyar and Knab Moore 1999 1
 mitchellae (Dyar) US Army 1963 2,5
 sollicitans (Walker) US Army 1963 2,6
 sticticus (Meigen) Carpenter 1952
 taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) US Army 1987 2,7
 tormentor Dyar and Knab US Army 1958 3,4
 trivittatus (Coquillett) US Army 1959-61 2
 Subgenus Protomacleaya Theobald
 hendersoni Cockerell Moore 1999 1
 triseriatus (Say) Carpenter 1952
 Subgenus Stegomyia Theobald
 aegypti (Linnaeus) Moore 1999 1
 albopictus (Skuse) CDC 1988 8
 Genus Anopheles Meigen
 Subgenus Anopheles Meigen
 barberi Coquillett Carpenter 1952
 crucians Wiedemann carpenter 1952
 perplexens Ludlow Moore 1999 1,3
 punctipennis (Say) Carpenter 1952
 quadrimaculatus Say sensu lato Carpenter 1952
 quadrimaculatus Say sensu stricto Moore 1999 1,3
 smaragdinus Reinert Moore 1999 2
 walkeri Theobald Moore 1999 1
 Genus Coquillettidia Dyar
 Subgenus Coquillettidia Dyar Carpenter 1952 9
 perturbans (Walker)
 Genu Culex Linnaeus
 Subgenus Culex Linnaeus
 nigripalpus Theobald US Army 1963 2,10
 pipiens Linnaeus 11 US Army 1954 2
 quinquefasciatus Say 11 US Army 1953 1
 restuans Theobald Carpenter 1952
 salinarius Coquillett Carpenter 1952
 tarsalis Coquillett Carpenter 1952
 Subgenus Melanoconion Theobald
 erraticus (Dyar and Knab) Carpenter 1952
 peccator Dyar and Knab Moore 1999 1
 Subgenus Neoculex Dyar
 territans Walker Carpenter 1952
Taxon Christian Co., KY
Order Diptera: Family Culicidae
 Genus Aedes Meigen
 Subgenus Aedes Meigen
 cinereus Meigen
 Subgenus Aedimorphus Theobald
 vexans (Meigen) Quinby et al. 1944
 Subgenus Ochlerotatus Lynch
 Arribalzaga
 atlanticus Dyar and Knab
 atropalpus (Coquillett)
 canadensis canadensis (Theobald) Quinby et al. 1994
 dorsalis (Meigen)
 dupreei (Coquillett) Quinby et al. 1994
 fulvus Pallens Ross Moore 1999 2,3
 grossbecki Dyar and Knab Moore 1999 1
 infirmatus Dyar and Knab Moore 1999 1
 mitchellae (Dyar)
 sollicitans (Walker)
 sticticus (Meigen) Quinby et al. 1994
 taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann)
 tormentor Dyar and Knab Moore 1999 1
 trivittatus (Coquillett) TVA 1988 3
 Subgenus Protomacleaya Theobald
 hendersoni Cockerell
 triseriatus (Say) Quinby et al. 1994
 Subgenus Stegomyia Theobald
 aegypti (Linnaeus) Quinby et al. 1994
 albopictus (Skuse) CDC 1993 1,3
 Genus Anopheles Meigen
 Subgenus Anopheles Meigen
 barberi Coquillett Quinby et al. 1994
 crucians Wiedemann Quinby et al. 1994
 perplexens Ludlow Moore 1999 1,3
 punctipennis (Say) Quinby et al. 1994
 quadrimaculatus Say sensu lato Quinby et al. 1994
 quadrimaculatus Say sensu stricto Moore 1999 3
 smaragdinus Reinert Moore 1999 2
 walkeri Theobald Moore 1999 1
 Genus Coquillettidia Dyar
 Subgenus Coquillettidia Dyar
 perturbans (Walker)
 Genu Culex Linnaeus
 Subgenus Culex Linnaeus
 nigripalpus Theobald
 pipiens Linnaeus 11 Quinby et al. 1994
 quinquefasciatus Say 11 Quinby et al. 1994
 restuans Theobald Quinby et al. 1994
 salinarius Coquillett TVA 1988 1,3
 tarsalis Coquillett Quinby et al. 1994
 Subgenus Melanoconion Theobald
 erraticus (Dyar and Knab) Quinby et al. 1994
 peccator Dyar and Knab Quinby et al. 1994
 Subgenus Neoculex Dyar
 territans Walker Quinby et al. 1994 12
Genus Culiseta Felt
 Subgenus Climacura Howard, Dyar
 and Knab melanura (Coquillett) Moore 1999 1
Subgenus Culiseta Felt
 inornata (Williston) Shlaifer and Harding 1946
Genus Orthopodomyia Theobald
 alba Baker Moore 1999 1
 signifera (Coquillett) Shlaifer and Harding 1946
Genus Psorophora Robineau-Desvoidy
 Subgenus Grabhamia Theobald
 columbiae (Dyar and Knab) Shlaifer and Harding 1946 13
 discolor (Coquillett) Shlaifer and Harding 1946
 Subgenus Janthinsoma Lynch
 Arribalzaga
 cyanescens (Coquillett) Shlaifer and Harding 1946
 ferox (Von Humboldt) Shlaifer and Harding 1946
 horrida (Dyar and Knab) Moore 1999 1
 mathesoni Belkin and Heinemann Shlaifer and Harding 1946 14
 Subgenus Psorophora Robineau-
 Desvoidy
 ciliata (Fabricius) Shlaifer and Harding 1946
 howardii Coquillett Moore 1999 1
Genus Toxorhynchites Theobald
 Subgenus Lynchiella Lahille
 rutilus septentrionalis
 (Dyar and Knab) Moore 1999 1
Genus Uranotaenia Lynch Arribalzaga
 Subgenus Uranotaenia Lynch
 Arribalzaga
 sapphirina (Osten Sacken) Shlaifer and Harding 1946
Genus Culiseta Felt
 Subgenus Climacura Howard, Dyar
 and Knab melanura (Coquillett) Moore 1999 1
Subgenus Culiseta Felt
 inornata (Williston) US Army 1967 2,**
Genus Orthopodomyia Theobald
 alba Baker US Army 1963 2
 signifera (Coquillett) Carpenter 1952
Genus Psorophora Robineau-Desvoidy
 Subgenus Grabhamia Theobald
 columbiae (Dyar and Knab) Carpenter 1952 13
 discolor (Coquillett) Carpenter 1952
 Subgenus Janthinsoma Lynch
 Arribalzaga
 cyanescens (Coquillett) Carpenter 1952
 ferox (Von Humboldt) Carpenter 1952
 horrida (Dyar and Knab) Carpenter 1952
 mathesoni Belkin and Heinemann
 Subgenus Psorophora Robineau-
 Desvoidy
 ciliata (Fabricius) Carpenter 1952
 howardii Coquillett Moore 1999 1,2
Genus Toxorhynchites Theobald
 Subgenus Lynchiella Lahille
 rutilus septentrionalis
 (Dyar and Knab) Carpenter 1952
Genus Uranotaenia Lynch Arribalzaga
 Subgenus Uranotaenia Lynch
 Arribalzaga
 sapphirina (Osten Sacken) Carpenter 1952
Genus Culiseta Felt
 Subgenus Climacura Howard, Dyar
 and Knab melanura (Coquillett)
Subgenus Culiseta Felt
 inornata (Williston) Quinby et al. 1994
Genus Orthopodomyia Theobald
 alba Baker
 signifera (Coquillett) Quinby et al. 1994
Genus Psorophora Robineau-Desvoidy
 Subgenus Grabhamia Theobald
 columbiae (Dyar and Knab) Quinby et al. 1994 13
 discolor (Coquillett) Quinby et al. 1994
 Subgenus Janthinsoma Lynch
 Arribalzaga
 cyanescens (Coquillett) Quinby et al. 1994
 ferox (Von Humboldt) Quinby et al. 1994
 horrida (Dyar and Knab) Quinby et al. 1994
 mathesoni Belkin and Heinemann
 Subgenus Psorophora Robineau-
 Desvoidy
 ciliata (Fabricius) Quinby et al. 1994
 howardii Coquillett Moore 1999 1,2
Genus Toxorhynchites Theobald
 Subgenus Lynchiella Lahille
 rutilus septentrionalis
 (Dyar and Knab) Moore 1999 1
Genus Uranotaenia Lynch Arribalzaga
 Subgenus Uranotaenia Lynch
 Arribalzaga
 sapphirina (Osten Sacken) Quinby et al. 1994
(*)Personal collection by the author; unpublished data.
(**)Erroneously reported by the author (Moore 1999) as later recorded.
(1)Collected as larvae or pupae.
(2)Collected as adult (light trap).
(3)Collected as adult (resting, landing, or feeding).
(4)Record based on specimens collected in 1963-1967; reported by
United States Army as "Aedes atlanticus-tornzentor" (sic) (Saugstad
1977; United States Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive
Medicine (CHPPM), personal communication).
(5)Record based on adult Aedes mitchellae specimens collected by
New Jersey light Trap: 2 in 1963 and 2 in 1966 (CHPPM, personal
communication); no specimens reported since 1966.
(6)Record based on several Aedes sollicitans adults collected by New
Jersey light trap: 1 in 1963, 9 in 1964, 42 in 1966, 19 in 1967, and
19 in 1987 (CHPPM, personal communication); no A. sollicitans specimens
reported since 1987.
(7)Record based on 63 Aedes taeniorhynchus specimens collected by New
Jersey light trap in 1987 (CHPPM, personal communication); none
reported since 1987.
(8)Collected as egg during oviposition cup sampling for Aedes albopictus
(C. Moore, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), personal
communication).
(9)Reported as Mansonia perturbans.
(10)Record based on United States Army specimens collected by New
Jersey light trap: 91 in 1963, 144 in 1964, and 4 in 1967 (CHPPM
personal communication); non reported since 1967. However, reports
of Culex nigripalpus from Fort Campbell military collection
records are doubtful (B. Harrison, personal communication).
(11)Using the taxonomic reference of Darsie and Ward (1981),
Culex pipiens and Culex quinquefasciatus cannot be separated based on
morphological features of larvae or adults. Differentiation may be
derived from maps of expected geographical distribution provided by
Darsie and Ward (1981). However, Tennessee and Kentucky are located
in a region of overlapping distributions for these species. The
taxonomic references of previous researchers are unreported. Where
previous reports differentiate between the two species, the
distinction is continued.
(12)Reported as Culex apicalis.
(13)Reported as Psorophora confinnis.
(14)Reported as Psorophora varipes.
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Author:MOORE, JAMES P.
Publication:Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science
Geographic Code:1U6TN
Date:Jul 1, 2000
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