Busways instead of light rail? Honolulu's switch suggests A trend.
Why? First there's compelling need. Some people are leaving home as early as 4:30 a.m., then sleeping in their cars until work time, to avoid the gruesome traffic tie-ups between the growing suburban Kapolei area, 25 miles to the west, and downtown Honolulu.
A partially exclusive busway system from Kapolei, through downtown Honolulu and the Waikiki Beach area and the University of Hawaii, argues Honolulu City Councilman Duke Bainum, can be up and running, reducing traffic migraines, much faster than rail. And the costs will also be dramatically lower.
As opposed to the early '90s, when Honolulu's mayor and the transit agency pressed for a preconceived system, the current process first involved citizens from across Oahu in extensive debates about the island's transportation alternatives. More recently, local user groups have been consulted extensively on individual segments of the busway system that emerged as the peoples' favorite.
So far, Honolulu's switch in preferences--from rail to bus--is an exception. Light rail has been the overwhelming choice, picked in recent years by 15 cities, from Baltimore and Buffalo to Dallas, San Diego and the Twin Cities. Because it's fixed, rail suggests permanence. That more easily stimulates private investments along the right of way. People prefer the ride on railcars and trolleys; most, in any event, have never ridden on a new, low-platform, truly high-quality bus.
Busways, though, are starting to gain ground. They have positive records, enjoying positive reputations in such cities as Pittsburgh, Ottawa and just recently Los Angeles. L.A.'s new Wilshire-Whittier line, with service every five minutes, is racking up ridership levels comparable with any U.S. light rail line. The nearby San Fernando Valley gets its own busway this fall.
Openness to busways has expanded rapidly as U.S. politicos and transit officials have visited Curitiba, Brazil. Curitiba's expansive system of "surface subways"--five exclusive busway routes carrying hundreds of thousands of passengers daily--sets a kind of marker for system superiority: the buses are triple-length, accommodating up to 270 passengers; they pre-empt traffic signals to maintain speed; fares are collected before passengers board.
The Federal Transit Administration, which subsidizes many new transit starts across the United States, has jumped into the busway effort with a demonstration program covering 10 cities--Honolulu included. The FTA'S new slogan: "Think rail, use buses."
Not that some activists are ready for a rubber-tired future. In Boston, for example, there's a brouhaha over the just-opened Silver Line connecting low-income Roxbury with downtown Boston. It's an advanced busway, with satellite tracking, elaborate bus shelters offering digital messages on bus arrivals, traffic signal priority, compressed natural-gas-fuel motors and other embellishments.
But it's not a raft line and therefore not the equal, say critics, of the transit service that's functioning for more privileged Boston suburbs.
Where the Silver Line--and many other busways--are truly inferior is in lack of completely exclusive lanes in inner cities. From Boston to Honolulu, merchants and motorists right to keep privileges that easily slow buses, from parking along the bus mutes to right turns across the bus lanes.
And even with lower capital costs, public approvals don't come easily. Despite Honolulu's clear commitment to a rapid bus system, Hawaii's Transportation Department remains aloof--100 percent auto-oriented, "prehistoric on new alternatives," charges Bainum. It even favors double-decking the Nimitz Highway artery, he notes.
"But people don't come to Hawaii to see concrete: that's not why we live here, why people come here," adds Bainum. "We need to diminish our total reliance on automobiles. "Adequate transit, he says, is like a major improvement to one's house: It's a big heartache to get done, but afterward one wonders "how could we ever not have done it?"
Sitting 2,000 nautical miles west of the continental United States, it's heartening to hear a local official impatient for action and quality. "Great cities of the world have great transit systems," says Bainum. "Hawaii has limited land space; we're picture perfect for bus rapid transit. Years from now, we may be ready for rail. But not yet. To do nothing now is shameful."
What the bus rapid transit movement may achieve is just what Bainum says Honolulans now want--affordability, sustainability, and community-responsive design. It's a breakthrough opportunity.
One can imagine hundreds of American communities malting the same choice. In time, many may choose to convert to rail for still-higher capacity. But today's mounting congestion adds urgency. Where the choice is a busway now or rail much later, then busway logic is tough to refute.
Other cities on the FTA demonstration list include Boston, Charlotte, Cleveland, the Washington-Dulles Airport corridor, Eugene (Ore.), Hartford, Miami, San Juan and San Jose.
Neal Peirce's e-mail address is firstname.lastname@example.org.
[C] 2002, The Washington Post Writers Group
The opinions expressed in this column are not necessarily those of Nation's Cities Weekly or the National League of Cities.
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|Publication:||Nation's Cities Weekly|
|Article Type:||Brief Article|
|Date:||Sep 2, 2002|
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