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Burying the 1st AIF *.

The typical diary or autobiography of a 1st AIF soldier starts with the enthusiasm and naivety of youth, the great adventure sailing from Australia and seeing exotic lands, the training in Egypt or Etaples, the brash confidence that one would do well, but the inner doubt that when the moment of truth arrived, when "going over the top" one would not be found wanting. Then the first encounter with the enemy goes hand in glove with the first encounter with death. One's best mate, the bloke one went to school with or the bloke one palled up with at the recruiting office, inseparable through training, the mate you got into mischief with in Cairo, your mate till the end, is suddenly dead and there's no rewind button.

Suddenly the adventure turns serious; boys mature to men in one day, the day they bury their mates. From then on the war becomes an obligation to be seen through to the end and for those who do come home, their attitudes have changed for ever.

In A Private's View of World War 1, Bert Bishop says,
 Live men were burying dead men. More live men were digging graves
 for more dead men. An endless line of dead men on stretchers were
 being tipped off beside the open graves. A system was applying to
 the burying. Officers were given a grave each. NCO's and privates
 were buried two to a grave. And in a big excavation dead Germans
 were being stacked like sardines in a tin. When the level of the
 sardines reached a certain height the great hole was filled up with
 earth, and bodies were taken further along to the hard-working
 diggers of new graves. (1)


The loss of life was more overwhelming than ever anticipated by our enthusiastic young men, and the First World War marked a considerable change in the attitude to burying the humble soldier.

Observe the opening scenes of the French movie Colonel Chabert, where after the battle, bodies are stripped by military authorities of their more costly accoutrements like metal breastplates and boots and by the camp-following scavengers of any saleable items. Victor Hugo covers this subject in Les Miserables and has the unattractive character Thenardier robbing the corpses at Waterloo. Then the bodies are heaped unceremoniously into mass graves or burnt or both while Generals go home to write their memoirs and have statues erected to them in Whitehall or the Quay D'Orsay. Where are the great military cemeteries of Waterloo? Thackeray indignantly comments that; the ordinary soldier had been "shovelled into a hole ... and so forgotten."

The American Civil War changed attitudes to burying dead combatants. Lincoln's famous Gettysburg Address in November 1863 dedicated the Arlington Cemetery to the Union soldier. In doing so he both turned the military burial ground into a sacred place and honoured the common soldier. This change of attitude could be simply an evolution of more egalitarian ideals or the need to pay homage to the sacrifices of brothers fighting brothers in their homeland. It could also have something to do with the invention of the camera and its brilliant use in the hands of Matthew Brady. His photographs of bloated and mangled corpses of the American Civil War were a shocking revelation of the realities of war. Previously painters had illustrated battles as something heroic and bloodless. Brady's photos were described as "like a funeral next door" and when an exhibition of these gruesome photos was mounted in New York, recruitment numbers hit rock bottom. (2)

The lesson was not wasted. Cameras were forbidden as part of personal equipment in the Great War. Of course, some got through, as in the case of a family in Perth who handed over grandad's photos of burials on Gallipoli, including photos of Roy Facey's burial, to an historian 60 years after the event in dread that somehow the authorities would seek the family out and punish them. Roy Facey was one of three brothers on Gallipoli, two of whom died: their brother Albert wrote A Fortunate Life and described being called down to the Shell Green Cemetery to see Roy's body which was in several pieces. (3)

After Matthew Brady, photos of dead bodies were carefully vetted and "official" photos released to present a sterilised picture to the home front.

The Boer War dead are scattered around South Africa in an assortment of cemeteries. They were commemorated by public subscription organised by women, not at the expense of any government instrumentality. In Adelaide the South African Graves' Fund under the patronage of Lady Tennyson was established to raise money to erect "suitable monuments for the gallant soldiers who have entered on their long sleep in the lone silence of the veldt" (4) "But there was no formal policy to preserve all the graves and those which were located away from the main centres were rarely maintained." (5) Many have since been consolidated by the South African Government.

By 1914 the idea of burying and individually naming soldiers was probably here to stay despite the enormity of the task in the years ahead. George L Mosse in his book Fallen Soldiers, attributes the popular 19th century romantic vision of soldiering to literacy; authors like Kipling, that great army groupy, writing inspiring tales of derring-do which encouraged more than a few adventurous spirits to enlist. This increased literacy also changed attitudes towards the average footslogger far more than the great ideals of democracy and equality. (6)

Gone were the days when ne'er do wells were press-ganged into the military and the degree of education was such that sergeants needed to march their men to the railway station to catch the train to go on leave because going alone was beyond their level of education. Now the army had men who could not only read but could write letters home to mothers who could show the letters to their members of parliament, or the local reporter, or indeed write their own memoirs.

The Australian volunteers of the Great War were largely literate and along with New Zealanders were unique in that their women had the vote. And as Billy Hughes learned to his cost, never underestimate the power of an outraged mother!

The Australian volunteer with a doting voting mother found himself training in Egypt, where the army circulates an order detailing "Procedure for funerals at Alexandria:
 Telephone to the Ven. Archdeacon Ward, No. 7 Rue Adib, and to
 the District Officer, Royal Engineers, Mustapa Pasha, the date
 of the funeral, the rank, name, number, corps, religion and
 denomination of each deceased.


Copies of the death certificate, on official form of Alexandria Municipality, as follows:

* One copy by post to the Officer Commanding Unit, or Camp "A" of Base Depot.

* One copy by post to Mustapha Pasha.

* One copy by hand of the soldier (ambulance driver, etc.) who conducts the coffin to the cemetery. This certificate becomes the official record of the Egyptian Government.

* Provide a coffin from a stock to be kept in each hospital, obtained from the Royal Engineers Contractors

* Send the body, covered by a Union jack, in a motor ambulance to be received at the gate of the Military Cemetery at 7.45 a.m. or 4.45 p.m.

* The cost of the stock coffin is 1.5 [pounds sterling] s. (7)

What a lovely, well ordered ideal. One can almost hear passing bells being rung while the colonial masters have their evening pink gin on the verandah.

Things changed on 25 April 1915. Men died in the boats before they reached the beach, their bodies thrown overboard; men died in the water and their bodies washed out to sea. The casualties were so great that the medical facilities were inadequate; men died slowly in crowded barges for want of medical attention.
 The medical facilities were, even by the standards of the day,
 primitive--they were in fact, little better than those provided
 during the Napoleonic or the Crimean Wars. A wounded man frequently
 waited two or three days to be carried the short distance to the
 beach. Once at the beach another two or three days delay was not
 uncommon before he was put on board a hospital ship. During this
 entire time he would be lucky if he received any more medical
 attention than having his wound dressed. The so-called
 'hospital ships' were criminally understaffed, veterinarians
 and non-medical personnel regularly performed operations. (8)


Men advanced far inland on the first day at Gallipoli and for many, their bodies were not found until December 1918 when the Graves Registration Unit went back to Gallipoli. Charles Bean, who followed them to record the event for posterity, testifies to the courage of the Australians who were found so far inland and reports on the hundreds of bodies still lying in a row at the Nek in 1919. (9) Men were buried in shallow graves in a ravine and the rain washed the thin layer of soil away exposing the skeletons.

On 24th May 1915 there was an armistice for burial of bodies, instigated by the Turks "for reasons of humanity and necessary hygiene". Lieut Dundas negotiated in German with the Turks under the Red Cross flag. Dundas said that at the area where the meeting took place, the dead were so thick that it was difficult to find a clear place to stand. (10)

Orders were issued:-
 All bodies or wounded taken to the dividing line marked by the
 white flag bearers will be laid down in rows, and not in heaps,
 and treated with every respect due to the dead. (11)


It is interesting that this little aberration, the armistice to bury the dead, only happened at ANZAC and only happened once. General de Lisle & General Marshall were against the armistice because in their opinion "the sight of the corpses lying in the open has a bad effect on the morale of the Turks" (12) They probably didn't do a lot for Australian morale either. Particularly as a Turkish officer pointed out during the negotiations that the prevailing wind was towards the Australian troops.

After the murderous charge on The Nek in August, there was no second armistice to collect the dead. The famous comment during the withdrawal from Gallipoli "I hope they don't hear us going" probably has more to do with the men feeling ashamed of leaving their unburied mates than of leaving their buried comrades.

In Gallipoli Mission Bean says that
 The little cemeteries at Anzac had been carefully tended throughout
 the campaign, crosses being made by men's mates, mostly from
 biscuit boxes, with the names painted on them or punched into small
 plaques of tin-plate which were then nailed to the cross. In
 December 1915 when it became known that Anzac was to be evacuated,
 the little enclosures were never without individual men or parties
 "tidying up' or otherwise tending the graves of their particular
 mates. (13)


General Birdwood had taken advantage of having a surveyor amongst the troops and the graves were carefully mapped and the general statistics of deaths at Anzac were recorded: 8,000 Australians had died; of these about 3,000 were buried in the Anzac cemeteries; 3,500 were missing and 1,000 had died on hospital ships and were buried at sea; others died in Lemnos, Egypt and Malta. So when the Anzacs left Gallipoli it is estimated that half of the 3,500 missing were unburied. (14)

Some time in 1916 the Pope was asked to send delegates to Gallipoli to ensure the graves were not being despoiled. Being forewarned the Turks sent parties ahead to do a bit of housekeeping. Some graves had lost their clarity because of human intervention or the elements, so the Turks obligingly dug around, removed the grass, replaced the stones and made them presentable for the Pope'e delegation. (15)

Unfortunately, graves that had been surveyed as, for instance, running north/south, were casually re-aligned, so when the British Graves Registration Unit arrived in November 1918 with their accurate charts it was immediately recognised that the graves had been interfered with. The original positions were then accurately located by probing a steel rod which easily penetrated the worked earth but was resisted by undisturbed earth. (16)

Charles Bean and his Historical Mission arrived in February 1919. The men who charged The Nek in August 1915 were still there. 63 bodies were found in tunnels at Lone Pine and Quinn's Post as late as July 1921. (17)

The only Australian body returned home was of course General Sir William Bridges. This in itself caused a great deal of controversy. He was initially buried in Alexandria and his exhumation contravened all the rules of the Egyptian authorities, mainly that no body will be exhumed less than a year after burial. Having overcome all bureaucratic obstacles, the body was finally exhumed and the transport to Australia was organised. Unfortunately the good General's travelling companions were Diggers with VD returning to Australia in disgrace and there was a tremendous uproar at home about the implied disrespect this represented.

The AIF moved on to France, where any good intentions of burials being well ordered were undermined by the enormity of the slaughter, and the ferocity of artillery bombardments.

Throughout the war there were reams of paper issued to every commanding officer listing in very plain language the procedures and rules of burials.

Instructions

1. Remove nothing from dead until placed in grave.

2. Bury British, French and German dead separately.

3. Mark flanks of graves with posts if available wire.

4. Enter map reference and nearest landmark in note book.

5. Select unexposed position.

6. Bury officers with men.

7. Enter particulars as body placed in the grave.

8. Tie up all personal belongings with identity card, place in envelope, write particulars on outside.

9. Mark all graves with Peg and Disc and enter serial no. in book." (18)

Despite the plain language, the same advice was issued repeatedly. Correspondence about the removal of identity discs was so frequent, surely the advice should have been redundant.

Letter dated 26.9.17 from AIF HQ;
 It has been brought to the notice by the Graves Registration
 Department that owing to lack of means of identification, it
 has been necessary to mark the graves of 80 Australian
 Soldiers in one area as 'Unknown Australian Officer' or
 'Unknown Australian Soldier'. The only reason for the lack of
 means of identification was the non-observance of Army Order 287
 of 1916. It will of course in these cases not be possible to
 inform relatives of the place of burial, thus causing much painful
 disappointment, as many anxious inquiries regarding such matters
 are received." (19)


This appears to be a frequent complaint about Australian soldiers, that they removed the identity discs and rendered the bodies "unknown". Was this over-enthusiastic souveniring, some boys' own adventure attempt to stop the Germans discovering the identity of the unit opposite them or simply that the protocol was never adequately explained to successive burial parties.

The whole concept of identity discs seems to have caused as much trouble as it was supposed to eliminate. Identity discs appear to have been fast used in the American Civil War, supplied not by the authorities, but available from the free-enterprise suffers who followed the fighting selling metal tags onto which were impressed the name of the purchaser. (20) The employment of identity discs gained importance as technology advanced. Before the extensive use of shrapnel and quick firing artillery, casualties weren't quite so mangled.

The instructions for identification of bodies were quite blunt.
 With reference to Army Order 287 of 1916, in case of the death of
 an officer or soldier in the field, the lower disc, known as 'Disc,
 identity, No. 2, red,' will be removed and disposed of in the
 same manner as heretofore.

 The upper disc, known as 'Disc, identity, No. 1, Green' will not be
 removed but will be buried with the body.

 Consequently in cases where a body can be reached and identified
 but cannot be brought back for burial, the lower will be
 removed to ensure proper notification of death, while the upper
 disc will remain as a safeguard against loss of identity when it
 becomes possible to bury.

 The two discs will be worn around the neck, as directed in Army
 Order 287 of 1916, by all officers and soldiers on active service,
 and neglect to wear the discs will be regarded as a breach of
 discipline. (21)


However,
 When men are detailed to make raids, and are relieved of identity
 discs, numbers should be given them to correspond with numbers
 attached to their personal effects left behind." (22)


Frequently both discs were removed from the body, both placed in the bag for personal effects and happily posted to the Deputy Adjutant General. And
 in many instances the green identity disc has been found to have
 been removed from the body and placed in the slot of the burial
 peg. This practice entirely frustrates the purpose for which the
 green disc was intended; namely the identification of the body
 at some future date. (23)


Officers may have been buried with the men, but there were definite social distinctions in other fields as the following source demonstrates:

Letter from HQ Second Army, 6 July 1916.
 It is noticed that several Field Hospitals are reporting deaths,
 admissions for wounds, etc. of Other Ranks by wire to this
 Office. This is unnecessary, as the instructions issued with the
 G.R.O. 729 dated 17th March, 1916 still holds good in this
 respect--vis "Officers deaths by wire as they occur", Other
 Ranks deaths by post at first opportunity, Wounds (all ranks) on
 A.36. (24)


On the Western Front the French authorities tried valiantly to designate areas for burials. "The suitability of a site depends among other things on its being at least one hundred metres distance from groups of houses whether standing or in ruins, and not near a well or water supply." (25) But frequently having set out a burial ground in a suitable spot and all the proper procedures followed, the area was then bombarded and all traces lost.

One Army Chaplain described what had once been an organised burial ground.
 The gruesome remains of the Somme fighting last year is still left
 to tell the tale. Where the men had been buried, repeated shelling
 had unearthed the remains. Now and then the Germans had erected a
 rude cross, on one of which was written 'Herr Schwartz ruben in
 Gott'. Here is an indication of what war costs. Someone loved Herr
 Schwartz, and now they mourn him. (26)


Actually at the beginning of the war the French were known to bury combatants with the Officer named and having an impressive memorial surrounded by his minions unnamed. (27)

Advice was that in normal circumstances divisions bury their own dead, but it was acknowledged that it may occur that the burial of the dead "is so large a business as to be beyond the power of the Division, depleted by casualties." (28)

Instructions marked SECRET suggested that "burial parties should NOT be detailed from units which are going into action." (29)

Indians were not allowed to be buried in the same enclosure as Christians and that if buried in communal cemeteries a separate plot had to be reserved for them. (30) In 1914 the term "Indians" was pre-partition and it is unclear whether this means moslems or hindus. It was stressed that Christian Indians be taken to a Christian burial ground. (31) The bodies of Gurkha hindus on Gallipoli had a ritual cremation after the war.

This was at a time when back in Australia, municipal cemeteries had specific areas for the Catholics, the Church of England, the Methodism and Presbyterians, the Jews were buried to one side, but inevitably the Chinese and Afghan Moslems were down the back in the scrub, separate of course.

When one shifted from the battlefield to blighty, it seems that deaths from wounds in hospitals in the UK were required by law to be notified to the coroner as a "death from violence". This applied to British and Colonial soldiers as well as German prisoners of war. (32)

Further notice came from Tidworth hospital in the UK concerning members of the AIF who died in UK hospitals:
 Relatives are not to be permitted to select grave sites, order
 coffins, or otherwise participate in military funeral arrangements.
 Each soldier must be interred in a separate grave and on no account
 is the body to be buried in a common grave, unless at the expressed
 wish of relatives. Roman Catholics must be buried in Roman Catholic
 ground. (33)


Remember Mustapa Pasha back in Cairo and his stock of coffins for 1.5s [pounds sterling] each? Well, as the war wore on the idea of contacting Mustapa for a coffin and gun carriage became a quaint practice from another era.

In December 1915, Divisional Headquarters in Egypt gave notice that crosses would be erected when wood became available. Each grave was to be identified by a bottle containing a piece of paper, having the name, regimental number and unit of the deceased marked on it; as soon as possible a cross would be erected, and it was intended to have the numbers stamped in metal and nailed to each cross. (34)

November 1916, To All Companies:
 It has been reported in many cases the dead have been buried in
 their full equipment and that their graves have been marked by
 sticking the barrel of their rifles into the earth and writing
 the man's name on the butt. Please issue instructions to all
 ranks that graves are not to be marked in this way and that
 equipment is to be removed before burial. Considerable difficulty
 is experienced in maintaining the supply of arms & equipment." (35)


In October 1917, came the orders,
 With a view to economy in blankets, it has been decided to
 substitute canvas for burial purposes instead of blankets.
 Approval is therefore given for a stock of 100 yards of 'canvas
 packing hessian' to be maintained by each casualty Clearing Station
 or Field Ambulance. Blankets will not be used for burial purposes in
 future. (36)


Correspondence was generated in September 1917 that a complaint had been received that three men were buried in one blanket and the cost of the blanket charged to each man's pay account. Assurances were given by the CO of the field ambulance that this complaint had no foundation in fact. (37)

So imagine the uproar in April 1918 when von Richtofen was buried in a coffin delivered to the cemetery in a motor vehicle, with the extravagance of having a firing party. This was done for an enemy who just happened to be a Baron, although his fame could have had a lot to do with it!

There were furphies around of bodies being "mined" and assurances from the authorities that no casualties to burial parties had occurred because of this. (38)

Probably the greatest furphy of the war concerned the practice of rendering dead horses down to fat to be made into glycerine to make TNT. Something like nine thousand tons of fat were reportedly produced by an English Major Ellis on the French coast (39) However the idea of the Army transporting thousands of dead horses to the knackers seems quite incredible. A dead horse is a dreadfully inconvenient weight to transport, and conditions were hardly favourable.

However a report in a German newspaper boasted that the Germans were using cadavers for this purpose and the English rubbed their hands with glee at having found another atrocity with which they could accuse the Germans. It transpired that kadaver is German for an animal corpse not a human corpse, 40 but this subtle error of translation didn't stop the rumours being expanded into "Germans melting down babies for soap", a comment by a New Zealand soldier being that with German efficiency, why would they waste time using 10 pound babies when there was an almost unlimited supply of adult corpses. (41)

Desecration of graves was something the enemy did, but that we didn't do. Yet Siegfreid Sassoon said in France it was so cold in the trenches and "fuel was so scarce that wooden crosses were taken from casual graves". (42) Thus a known soldier becomes either an unknown or missing. In Palestine the Anzac Provost Corps were advised "wherever possible, boots of soldiers buried on the battle field should be removed. Local inhabitants dig up the feet of the grave for the boots." (43) Chaplain J J Booth MM of the 8th Bn AIF reports in his diary, "I am sorry to have to say that our own soldiers ... defiled the great German memorial and disfigured many of the smaller German headstones." (44)

According to Behind the Lines, on 10th December 1918 NZ troops attacked the Palestinian village of Surafend. The New Zealanders accused the Arabs of despoiling the bodies of soldiers killed in the fighting: "It did not occur to the New Zealanders that the Arabs might have taken equal exceptions to their habit of digging up cemeteries in search of souvenirs to send back to their wives and girlfriends in New Zealand." (45)

Perhaps the most unkind furphy has often been repeated by apologists for the obscene casualty lists, that death was commonplace in those days and one less child in a family was hardly missed.

Robert Graves tells of spending leave at the home of a regimental friend whose brother had been killed. The mother went around with a bright religious look on her face during the day, but at 3am Graves heard a diabolical yell and a succession of laughing, sobbing shrieks. The mother spent her nights trying to get in touch with her dead son by spiritual means. (46)

In December 1916 an Almira Brockway was bought to trial in the UK. She was a fake spiritualist and was raking in 25 [pounds sterling] per week (workers in the war factories putting in a 48 hour week earned 1 [pounds sterling]). (47) Such was the desperation of grieving families. Books claiming to be "as light from beyond the grave to many bereaved persons, bringing hope and consolation to those who would otherwise have continued to dwell in the shadow on the great darkness of the valley of death" were advertised in the Australian press. (48) When women saw the priest walking down the street they hurried inside and shut the door. Twenty to thirty years after the war women would often be buried holding their son's memorial plaque.

The decision to bury all allied troops where they fell and not allow any bodies to be returned to their homes was firstly influenced by the argument that it was unfair on the poor if only the rich could afford to bring their boy's body home. But the deciding argument came from Rudyard Kipling, whose son was amongst the missing, that parents of missing boys simply didn't have a body to bring home.

Of course this policy discriminated against the soldiers of the empire. Rich people in the UK could relatively easily visit their son's memorials in France, societies like the YMCA, the Salvation Army, the Church Army and the St Barnabas society were formed to help the poor afford the trip to France and the government provided some very limited funds. (49) Even a poor person could get from England to France on a two day trip, probably less than comfortably, but considerably more conveniently than an Australian parent contemplating the enormous expense of a long sea voyage either way.

It seems that the 1st AIF was unique not only in that it was the only volunteer army of the Great War, but that some volunteered to stay on past the cessation of hostilities to tidy up before then went home. The British used German prisoners of war for this task, some of whom were not repatriated until as late as 1920. The French used their Senegalese and Indo Chinese labour corps while the Americans gave this unpleasant job to their Negro regiments as a deliberate policy of discrimination, (50) but Australians, some of whom felt they had arrived too late to "do their bit" volunteered to stay on in France or travel back to Gallipoli, thus doing their mates the honour of getting their own hands dirty.

The beauty of the expensively maintained cemeteries on Gallipoli and in France, gives rise to several thoughts. How long will these graves be maintained? In 2015 the graves on Gallipoli will be 100 years old. In Australia some local councils would like to turn cemeteries that young into parking lots. Will our sacred sites overseas be maintained in the future only if they generate sufficient tourist dollars for the host countries or don't get in the way of proposed new airport runways?

Anybody who has even been in an old Australian cemetery cannot help but notice both the number of derelict monuments and the numerous barren plots marked only by a numbered steel plaque. One would be forgiven for thinking that a good many of the 1st AIF probably have a better monument overseas than they would ever have had at home.

"And the horses stay behind'

The lithograph 'And the horses stay behind' depicts the only surviving fragment of the original Desert Mounted Corps Memorial in Port Said, Egypt. The bronze memorial was erected to honour Australian and New Zealand soldiers who fought and died in Egypt, Palestine, Lebanon and Syria between 1916 and 1918 and was largely destroyed in the Suez conflict of 1956.

This shattered horse's head will form the centrepiece of the RSPCA's Memorial to Animals in War, to be situated in the Sculpture Garden of the Australian War Memorial in Canberra. The memorial has been designed by artist Steven Holland to stand as both a mark of deep respect to the animals that gave so much in times of war. Many different animals have served Australia in a variety of different roles and in a number of different conflicts. The memorial will celebrate the lives of these and all animals, now and in the future.

The total cost of the Memorial is estimated at $340,000. To help raise these funds Steven Holland, in association with master printer Theo Tremblay, has produced an exclusive limited edition lithograph poignantly titled "And the horses stay behind". The title refers to the fact that, although over 100,000 horses left Australian shores for overseas service in World War I, only one horse returned.

There will be only 100 copies of this beautiful print produced. By purchasing this lithograph you will be helping the RSPCA make the Memorial to Animals in War a reality and sharing in the belief that all animals deserve our care and our respect.

Enquiries for the framed ($1200) and unframed ($700) from:

RSPCA Australia Inc.

PO Box 265

Deakin ACT 2600

Ph: (02) 6282 8300

Fax: (02) 6282 8311

Email: rspca@rspca.org.au

* This paper was originally presented to the MHSA Biennial Conference at Canberra in October 2002.

(1) Bert Bishop, A Private's View of World War 1, Kangaroo Press, 1991, p.120

(2) Ken Burns, The Civil War, documentary film, 1990.

(3) Albert Facey, A Fortunate Life, Viking, 1986, p.273

(4) State Records of South Australia, GRG19/318, Records of the Committee of the South African Graves Fund.

(5) David W. Lloyd, Battlefield Tourism, Berg, Oxford, 1998, p.22/23

(6) George L. Mosse, Fallen Soldiers, Oxford University Press, 1990.

(7) Australian War Memorial, AWM25 135/31

(8) Nicholas Boyack, Behind the Lines, Allen & Unwin, Port Nicholson Press, 1989. p.50

(9) C E W Bean, Gallipoli Mission, an ABC book, 1990, p.59

(10) AWM25 45

(11) AWM27 355/71

(12) AWM45 2/1 2/9

(13) Bean, p.61

(14) Bean, ibid

(15) Bean. p.63

(16) Bean, ibid

(17) AWM25 135/39

(18) AWM25 135/3

(19) AWM25 135/3

(20) http:www.memorialbrass.com/history.htm

(21) AWM25 135/3

(22) AWM25 135/22

(23) AWM27 355/72

(24) AWM25 135/25

(25) AWM25 135/22

(26) Chaplain J J Booth M Cross, 8th Bn AIF, Letters, AWM PR 84/336

(27) Mosse, p.81

(28) AWM25 135/2

(29) AWM25 135/22

(30) AWM25 135/31

(31) AWM25 135/31

(32) AWM25 399/41

(33) AWM25 135/36

(34) AWM25 135/38

(35) AWM25 135/27

(36) AWM25 135/2

(37) AWM27 355/69

(38) AWM26 523/7

(39) Terry Deary, Horrible Histories, The Frightful First World War, Hippo, Scholastic Limited, London, 1998. P.19.

(40) Terry Deary, ibid.

(41) Nicholas Boyack, p.92

(42) Siegfried Sassoon, The Complete Memoirs of George Sherston, World Books, London, 1940, reprint by the Reprint Society Ltd. P.408

(43) AWM25 135/35

(44) AWM PR 84/336

(45) Nicholas Boyack, p. 163.

(46) Robert Graves, Goodbye To All That, first published 1929, published 1969 by Book Club Associates, London. P.206

(47) Terry Deary, p.35.

(48) Stead's Review, published by Henry Stead, Melbourne, 8th February, 1919. P.iv.

(49) David W. Lloyd, p. 38/39

(50) Arthur E. Barbequ & Florette Henri, The Unknown Soldiers, African-American Troops in World War 1, Da Capo Press, New York, 1996, p. 165/166
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Author:Gunn, Gail
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Date:Sep 1, 2003
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