Bueno's fall helps Rams to new best.
A third minute Tomasz Cwyka goal, a Kris Commons penalty and a Luke Moore strike delivered the record-breaking win.
But the Rams were hanging on at the end as Gareth Roberts was sent off for two bookings and Michael O'Connor's penalty brought the Iron to within one goal.
The match swung the home side's way just ten minutes after Jonathan Forte had brought Scunthorpe back into the contest with a 27th-minute reply to Cwyka's early strike.
Rams playmaker Alberto Bueno did well to force his way into the penalty area, but once the Spaniard got there he appeared to go down easily under a challenge from Michael O'Connor.
Scunthorpe complained, but to no avail, and Commons smashed home the spot-kick.
"The majority of the crowd were laughing," said Iron boss Ian Baraclough struggling to see the funny side.
"It was quite unbelievable it was given, no-one could believe it was given and I think he [the ref] may go home and think 'what have I done' but these things happen and hopefully we will get one of those in time - but I did find it hard to take."
Moore looked to have wrapped up all three points for Derby just before the hour but the Iron reduced the arrears when Roberts brought down Freddie Sears.
Roberts was sent off after being shown his second yellow card and O'Connor converted the penalty to leave Derby to negotiate a nervy final 15 minutes.
Record But the six-hitting Rams held on to smash their best home run since leaving the Baseball Ground in 1997.
Derby coach Johnny Metgod was delighted with the victory but was keen to play down any talk of promotion despite the Rams sitting fourth in the table.
He said: "I know that records in football are there to be broken. It's nice to have a record like that and I wouldn't swap it for the world but it's no guarantee.
"I haven't got a lot of hair left but not one hair on top of my head is thinking of us as promotion contenders, no way in the world.
"After 18 games we are absolutely delighted with the development we have made over the last eight or nine months but my two feet are firmly on the ground."
DERBY: Fielding 7 - Green 7, *BRAYFORD 8, Leacock 7, Roberts 5 - Cywka 6, Savage 7, Pearson 5, Commons 7 (Moxey, 76mins, 6) - Bueno 7 (Pringle, 63mins, 6) - Moore 6 (Kuqi, 87mins, 6).
SCUNTHORPE: Murphy 6 - Byrne 6, Jones 6, Raynes 6 (McClenahan, 45mins, 6), McNulty 6 - *O'CONNOR 7, Wright 6, McDonald 5 - Forte 6 (Thomson, 84mins, 6), Sears 6, N'Guessan 5 (Woolford, 55mins, 6).
REFEREE: J Linington 5.
QUICK-FIRE: Early scorer Cwyka is mobbed