Buckyballs Can Come from Outer Space.
Fullerenes are hollow, spherical molecules made of pure carbon (SN: 6/27/98, p. 406). The most famous member of the family is buckminsterfullerene, consisting of 60 carbon atoms arranged in the pattern of a soccer ball. On Earth, fullerenes can be made in the lab and have been found in rocks seared by lightning strikes.
Luann Becker of the University of Hawaii in Honolulu and her group isolated fullerenes from the Allende and Murchison meteorites. Both are carbonaceous chondrites, a rare meteorite type that contains much organic material. The researchers found, trapped inside the fullerenes, noble gases whose isotopic profile did not match those of gases on Earth.
The researchers also isolated fullerenes from a clay sediment layer deposited during an asteroid impact 65 million years ago. Some scientists believe that this collision, marking the so-called Cretaceous-Tertiary (KT)boundary, led to the demise of the dinosaurs (SN: 3/1/97, p. S20). The sediment fullerenes also contain noble gases with unusual isotope ratios.
This research lends support to the idea that organic molecules from space could have played a role in starting the chemical processes necessary for the origin of life (SN: 1/9/99, p. 24). "It confirms the possibility of organic compounds surviving the trauma of a large [meteor] impact," says Jeffrey L. Bada of the University of California, San Diego.
The findings of Becker, Robert J. Poreda of the University of Rochester (N.Y.), and Ted E. Bunch of NASA Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, Calif., appear in the March 28 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES.
In 1996, Becker's group discovered fullerenes in rocks from the Sudbury Impact Crater in Ontario. This crater was made by an asteroid that hit Earth 1.85 billion years ago. These fullerene molecules contained helium with isotope ratios that are "truly out of this world, almost out of the solar system," says Bada.
The 1996 work "came under thorough examination and scrutiny," says Becker, because the fullerenes in the crater may have arrived intact from elsewhere in the universe or formed on Earth, perhaps during the asteroid's fiery impact.
Last year, Becker and her colleagues for the first time found fullerenes within a meteorite.
More recently, the researchers ground up several grams of samples from two meteorites and the KT boundary sediment. They extracted fullerenes and heated them under vacuum to make "the gas [inside] pop out," says Becker.
The ratio of two helium isotopes, helium-3 and helium-4, was higher in these fullerenes than in air. Most dramatic, in the Allende meteorite fullerenes, the ratio was several thousand times greater than in the atmosphere.
The high ratio confirms the fullerenes' extraterrestrial origins. "If you get the unusual helium ratios, there's no other way to explain it," says Bada.
"The helium got trapped at the time when the fullerenes formed and remained there for billions of years," Becker explains. "These trapped gases can tell us about the early history of the universe."
The researchers extracted mostly carbon-60 and carbon-70, but the meteorites also contain an abundance of larger fullerenes, Becker notes. More difficult to extract, they may contain most of the trapped gases.
The results "strongly suggest that the fullerenes are extraterrestrial," says Dieter Heymann, emeritus professor at Rice University in Houston, who recently heard Becker lecture. However, it's unclear when they formed, he adds.
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|Title Annotation:||researchers find fullerenes molecules on meteorites|
|Article Type:||Brief Article|
|Date:||Mar 25, 2000|
|Next Article:||Researchers enjoy bitter taste of success.|