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Boutique clothing stores and materialism.

INTRODUCTION

A major challenge of small business owners is to compete in an increasingly aggressive marketplace. Owners of retail boutiques are in a particularly tough situation because consumers have multiple options, especially for purchasing clothes. Competition and new technology have expanded consumer options with the Internet and large retail chains challenging smaller local retailers for market share (Cowart & Goldsmith, 2007). Failures rates of small businesses are high: 50-80% in the first five years in business (Gaskill, 2001). Often small, local retailers attempt to provide product and service offerings that will produce consumer attitudes that are positive toward local businesses. The hope is that these attitudes will translate into repeat business that will produce higher sales and profits for local merchants.

Small clothing retailers are a prime example of the type of small business facing such major competitive challenges. Essential to meeting these challenges is a better understanding of customers and their attitudes toward shopping choices for clothing. In the learning of customers' preferences, fundamental questions arise, such as the factors related to a consumer's choice of a clothing retailer in general and their opinions about boutique clothing stores in particular.

In the examination of the thinking behind consumers' shopping choices for clothing, certain attitudes can be forefront in the buying decision. A person's attitude toward possessions and money (Moschis & Churchill, 1978) can be an underlying factor. Other attitudes that should be examined include the inclination toward spontaneous purchases (Rook & Fisher, 1995) and local shopping loyalty (Hozier & Stem, 1985). It would seem reasonable that a small business could be more successful if it were mindful of these variables when developing strategies and tactics.

This study examines the role of materialism and how it impacts shopping for clothes and patronization of local boutiques. The primary objective of this investigation is gain insights regarding shopping tendencies that can benefit small business retailers, clothing manufacturers, and academicians.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Materialistic attitude or materialism is a person's orientation toward possessions and money for happiness (Moschis & Churchill, 1978). Material possessions and the acquisition of "things" are generally regarded as an important element in American culture. Advertising often depict the image that material goods, high income, and wealth are the keys to happiness and quality of life. In a sense, modern culture has developed the perception that happiness can be purchased at retail stores (Kasser, 2002). As a part of life, consumers face daily decision-making about spending money and balancing purchase necessities with discretionary items. Thus, the concept of materialism focuses on the acquisition of goods and how important possession is to consumers (Fitzmaurice & Comegys, 2006).

To measure materialism, several scales have been developed. Belk in 1985 developed a scale that categorizes materialism into three subscales: possessiveness, nongenerosity, and envy (Belk, 1985). However, quantitative research conducted with this scale tended to demonstrate low reliability. To address this issue, Richins and Dawson (1992) conceptualized materialism as a personal value and as a system of central beliefs. They developed three subscales: acquisition centrality, acquisition as the pursuit of happiness, and possession-defined as success. Acquisition centrality refers to the extent to which a person's life revolves around the attainment of material possessions. The construct of acquisition as the pursuit of happiness attempts to measure an individual's view that material goods are essential to personal fulfillment. The last construct, possession (defined as success), focuses on how much individuals use both the quantity and quality of possessions to measure their success and the success of people around them. One of the most well-known measures of materialism is the MMA scale developed by Moschis and Churchill (1978). It is composed of six Likert-type items scored on a 5-point basis from strongly disagree to strongly agree.

Other studies have tried to identify factors that influence a materialistic attitude. Two studies by Roberts, Manolis, and Tanner, (2003, 2006) have identified that family structure is related to materialism. By focusing on adolescents who have experienced a divorce in their family, the authors identified a stronger link between happiness and material possessions than in intact families. Participants stated that the acquisition of material objects was an escape strategy to cope with the family disruptions. Also, the view that material possessions is a means of judging a person's worth was more dominant among people growing up in disrupted families. Often this view was correlated with the attitude that material possessions have become a central part of life. Similarly, another study found that family disruptions heighten materialism, especially when the child is in late adolescence (Rindfleisch, Burroughs, & Denton, 1997). Often younger adolescents do not show the effects of the divorce until later in life. This result could be due to the "sleeper" effect, which states that the visible effects of stressful experiences can be delayed until later in the person's life (Steinberg, 2002).

Consumer research related to aging has indicated that consumption behavior changes throughout life (Moschis, 2003). Although there is some conflict in the literature, Wei and Talpade (2010) stated that most of the research indicates a higher level of materialism with age. In a national study of materialism in tweens (9-14 year olds), Goldberg et al. (2003) found that more materialistic youths are more interested in advertising and promotional efforts than were less materialistic youths. In addition, the more materialistic tweens tend to shop more and save less than their less materialistic counterparts.

For a materialistic person, possessions are a sign of status in society and indicate wealth, power, and prestige (Eastman, Goldsmith, & Flynn, 1999). The consumer derives more pleasure from the acquisition of the possessions than the actual possession itself. Individuals with a highly materialistic attitude tend to spend more time shopping and spend more money during each shopping trip than average consumers (Fitzmaurice & Comegys, 2006). In addition, materialistic behavior often acts as a symbol of the consumer's membership or desired membership in a preferred group in order to define one's self-concept (Hoyer & MacInnis, 2007).

Materialism is often associated with negative measures of well-being. A study by Christopher and Schlenker (2004) identified the link between materialism and higher levels of negative affect. Further, higher levels of anxiety and lower levels of happiness have been attributed to materialistic people (Kasser & Ahuvia, 2002). Other research has shown that materialists are trying to cope with feelings of uncertainty about themselves or about uncertainty regarding norms in society (Chang & Arkin, 2002). In this case, spending money on material items increases the feeling of certainty while heightening one's self-esteem and overcoming feelings related to self-doubt.

Impulsiveness in purchasing goods is characterized by a relative rapid decision-making process and the presence of a subjective bias, which favors immediate possession of a good or service (Rook & Gardner, 1993). Studies have shown that the tendency towards impulsive buying is increasing and actually makes up a higher percentage of total purchases than planned purchases (Sfiligoj, 1996). In some product categories, impulse purchases account for nearly 80% of purchases (Abrahams, 1997, Smith, 1996). Point of purchase displays and package design are two tools used by marketers to persuade consumers to engage in a sudden and spontaneous act of buying impulsiveness (Jones et al. 2003). In addition, the technological developments of the Internet within the past few decades have contributed to building an environment of continuous shopping. Wells, Parboteeah, and Valacich, (2011) studied the interplay between a buyer's inherent impulsiveness to buy and website quality and found that website quality directly influences the consumer's urge to buy impulsively.

Various factors have been identified that influence this type of behavior, such as the consumer's mood (Rook 1987), self-identity (Dittmar & Friese, 1995), and cultural differences (Kacen & Lee, 2002). Other studies have focused on the individual traits present in consumers engaging in buying impulsiveness. For instance, Verplanken and Herabadi (2001) examined specific personality traits present in impulsive shoppers and found that individuals are more likely to express such behavior if the traits of extraversion and action oriented behavior are present. Kacen and Lee (2002) found that impulsive buying behavior was identified as an individualistic rather than a collectivistic trait. Lin and Chuang (2005) describe how a high emotional intelligence (EI) leads to a lower impulsive buying behavior. They also found that younger adults, who tend to exhibit lower EI, are more prone to engage in buying impulsiveness than older ones.

Initial research in local buyer loyalty focused on factors affecting loyalty of shoppers toward the local retail area, such as distance and traveling time to the shopping destination, and type of merchandise sold (Herrmann & Beik, 1968). Research then shifted to examining outshopping behavior in contrast to local shopping loyalty. For instance, Reynolds and Darden (1972) examined the psychographics of outshoppers. They found the conditions for outshopping are largely influenced by the taste and lifestyle variables of the consumer (Reynolds et al. 1972). In terms of demographics, outshoppers tend to be within the 25 to 54 age group, had some college education, had a higher family income, and were the head of the household.

Hozier and Stem (1985) developed a scale to measure the strength of retail patronage loyalty in relation to outshopping behavior. Their loyalty scale had a strong correlation between the percentage of respondents purchasing locally and dollar amount of outshopping purchases. Results from this research by Lau and Yau (1985) suggested that a consumer's outshopping behavior is product specific and is influenced by the product form and price level of the product. A study by Anderson and Kaminsky (1985) concurred with the product oriented research done by Lau and Yau (1985) regarding the outshopping of products like apparel on factors such as product form and price. Spatially inflexible goods such as food, fuel, and personal care items are purchased from the nearest retailer because traveling a greater distance offers no real comparative shopping advantage.

METHODOLOGY

Sample and Data Collection

A convenience sample was employed with the sampling frame consisting of college students at a public university in the mid-south of the United States and their family members and friends. A total of 297 usable responses were received. Data were collected by an online utilizing a survey questionnaire. The scale (MMA) to measure materialistic attitude was developed by Moschis and Churchill (1978). It is composed of six Likert-type items scored on a 5-point basis from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The coefficient alpha reliability was reported as .60.

Survey Instrument

A survey was developed by the authors to examine the relationship of materialism to shopping at boutique clothing stores. Questions were based on authors' experiences and an examination of related academic research studies. The questionnaire addressed factors the authors believe influence the selection of a clothing store, opinions about clothing boutiques, materialistic attitudes, buying impulsiveness, and local retail loyalty. Boutique was defined in the survey to be a relatively small specialty clothing store.

Measurements of Variables

In this study, materialistic attitude, buying impulsiveness, and general retail patronage loyalty were measured by previously developed scales. Buying impulsiveness was measured by a scale developed by Rook and Fisher (1995). High impulse buyers are more likely to act on sudden buying ideas and are motivated by immediate gratification. This 9-item scale accesses a consumer's tendency to buy spontaneously. Local retail shopping loyalty was measured by the General Retail Patronage Loyalty scale developed by Hozier and Stem (1985). This 10-item scale accesses the degree that consumers want to shop locally rather than outside the local community. Each item was scored on a 4-point scale with labels of never (1), occasionally (2), frequently (3), and always (4).

Respondents were asked how much more they would be willing to pay for merchandise at a local retail store versus national chain stores using a 6-point scale from "not willing to pay any more" to "price is not important, I shop locally regardless of price." Criteria for selecting clothing stores were measured across 9 items using a 5-point scale from very unimportant to very important. Attitude towards boutique clothing stores was measured by averaging each respondent's score across twelve items that relate specially to boutique stores. These items were created by the authors based on personal experiences and criteria used in the selection of retail stores.

RESULTS

Descriptive Statistics

Table 1 provides a demographic profile of the sample. The majority of the sample was between the ages of 18 and 29, 57.9%. Females accounted for 62.8% of the sample. In terms of race, 65.3% were Caucasian and 23.5% were African American. All of the income categories were represented with the $0-25,999 group being the lowest at 16.3% and $25,000-49,999 the highest at 25.1%.

The sample was divided into three groups based on the average score for the materialism construct as shown in table 2. The goal was to create three groups of approximately the same size in order to distinguish between respondents with different levels of materialistic attitude. The low materialism group indicated a low orientation toward possessions and money and tended not to see materialistic things as a source of happiness. The high materialism group was just the opposite. These individuals treasured possessions and money and saw such as a means towards happiness. The middle group, 38.1%, tended to be neutral in their attitude towards materialism.

Empirical results

The first analysis was to determine if a person's materialistic attitude impacted local shopping loyalty, buying impulsiveness, willingness to pay more at local retailers, and overall attitude towards boutique clothing stores. Results are shown in Figure 3. Materialism was significantly related to buying impulsiveness and attitude toward boutique clothing stores. For both there is a direct, positive relationship.

Table 4 shows the second step in the analysis was to examine factors that impact a person's selection of a retailer. Of the nine factors examined, two were significantly different product selection and store image (see). Product selection is less important in store selection for the low materialistic group than either the average or high materialistic groups. For store image, it appears that the more materialistic a person's attitude, the more important store image is in selecting a clothing retailer.

The next component of the analysis was to determine the impact of materialism on various statements about boutique clothing stores. Of the twelve factors examined, seven were significantly different at the .05 significance level. Results are shown in Table 5. Statements that were significantly and positively related to materialistic attitude include: (1) prefer specialty fashions in boutiques, (2) shop at boutiques for personal service, (3) boutiques help me find the perfect style, (4) shop at boutiques for high quality clothes, (5) boutiques contact customers on recent trends, (6) boutiques remember me personally, and (7) boutiques help me find the perfect size.

To further validate the findings, a LISREL model was tested to determine the relationship of materialism to local shopping loyalty, impulsiveness, and attitude towards boutique clothing stores. Results are presented in Table 6 and illustrated with a LISREL structural model in Figure 1. Materialism significantly impacted a person's level of impulsiveness, but did not directly impact local shopping loyalty or attitude towards clothing boutiques. Both local shopping loyalty and impulsiveness had a direct relationship with attitude towards clothing boutiques.

Because materialism had a significant impact on attitudes and purchase behavior for boutique clothing stores, analysis was conducted to compare demographic characteristics of the sample and materialistic attitude (as presented in Table 7). Age appears to be inversely related to materialism. The older the respondent, the lower their materialistic attitude score. Males were more materialistic than females. Family income was not a factor. Race was significantly different but not useful information since the "other" category was only 29 respondents and we know nothing about their ethnicity. There appears to be little difference between African Americans and Caucasians in terms of materialism.

DISCUSSION

Materialism is an important factor in patronage of local clothing boutique retailers. First, it is positively related to buying impulsiveness. The higher the materialistic attitude, the more impulsive individuals will tend to be. Highly materialistic individuals place a high value on possessions and money. Based on the results of this research, these individuals are also characterized by a relative rapid decision-making process and the presence of a subjective bias, which favors immediate possession of a good or service. Thus, as the level of materialism increases so does the desire to fulfill that need within a short-time frame. Materialistic individuals do not want to wait to make a purchase. They want it now!

The results of the analysis of factors that impact the selection of a clothing store were somewhat surprising. Only two out of the nine selection factors on the survey--product selection and store image--were significantly different (at the .05 level) among respondents at the different levels of materialism. In addition to these variables, the expectation was that the factors of convenience, service, location, parking, and amenities would result in significant differences. The notion that the acquisition of possessions is more important and pleasurable to the highly materialistic consumer and that this type of consumer will spend more time shopping would seem to make these factors very important to a materialistic individual when selecting a clothing store. However, generally, materialism had relatively little relationship with the factors surveyed in the selection of a clothing store in which to shop.

Materialism is positively related to individuals' attitudes toward clothing boutiques. The respondents who were in the high level category of materialism were more positive on average about boutiques on every variable than were the respondents who were in the low and medium levels. More materialistic consumers like the specialty fashions sold at boutiques and think boutiques are good at helping them find the perfect size and perfect style. They also feel that boutiques sell high quality clothes, which they prefer. In addition, materialistic individuals believe that boutiques do a good job of keeping up with the fashion trends. They like the personal service provided by boutiques. They feel that boutique employees remember them personally. They are not faceless customers!

The LISREL analysis indicates that materialism works through a buyer's impulsiveness. The higher the individuals' materialistic attitude, the more likely they are to be impulsive. Materialism does not impact loyalty towards are attitude towards clothing boutiques directly.

These results can be used by local clothing boutiques in designing advertising and marketing campaigns. Advertising can focus on the clothing boutique having the latest fashions and high quality clothes. More materialistic consumers are interested in product selection and store image. Alternatively, advertising can focus on the personal service provided at boutiques. In addition to the assistance in the store, messages can be designed that show local boutiques know customers personally, by name, and can provide each with the perfect fashion in the appropriate size. A third advertising approach would be to focus on the connection between impulsiveness and materialism. The idea is immediate gratification and being the first in town to wear the newest fashion. This approach appears to work the best for younger consumers. Males tended to be slightly more materialistic than females, so ads featuring male models that are in their 20s may be a good approach for the male market. Similarly, females wearing the latest fashions that emulate famous celebrities, especially movie stars, in ads would certainly draw attention to the boutique.

CONCLUSION

This study indicates that two approaches are not effective: focusing on local shopping loyalty and focusing on price. Materialism has no relationship to an individual's desire to support local retailers. A materialistic individual is not willing to pay any more to support a local boutique. The emphasis should not be on supporting the local economy. Finally, local boutique clothing stores should target materialistic consumers. These consumers tend to spend more time shopping, spend more money per shopping trip, and have a positive attitude towards boutiques.

APPENDIX I

Survey Questionnaire

Q1. Listed below are a series of statements about shopping at locally-owned retail stores. Please use the scale of never, occasionally, frequently and always to respond to each statement regarding shopping at a locally-owned retail store.

[ ] Never [ ] Occasionally [ ] Frequently [ ] Always

I will pay slightly more for products if I can buy them locally

I shop at local stores because it is important to help my community.

I shop locally because it is convenient.

I shop locally to support the local merchants and business district.

Shopping at local stores is an enjoyable experience.

Because I am more familiar with the local stores, I prefer shopping locally than out of town.

I shop locally even when the selection/variety of goods is poor.

Q2. If you are comparing prices of small locally-owned retail stores to the prices of national chains, how much more are you willing to pay for merchandise at the small local retail store?

[ ] Not willing to pay anymore   [ ] Willing to pay 30% more
[ ] Willing to pay 10% more      [ ] Willing to pay 40% more
[ ] Willing to pay 20% more      [ ] Price is not important, I shop
                                      locally regardless of price


Q3. Please indicate your level of agreement or disagreement with each of the following statements. I often buy things spontaneously.

SD (Strongly disagree) D (Disagree) NO (No opinion) A (Agree) SA (Strongly Agree)

"Just do it" describes the
  way I buy things.                   [ ] SD [ ] D [ ] NO [ ] A [ ] SA
I often buy things without
  thinking.                           [ ] SD [ ] D [ ] NO [ ] A [ ] SA
"I see it, I buy it" describes
  me when I shop.                     [ ] SD [ ] D [ ] NO [ ] A [ ] SA
"Buy now, think about it later"
  describes me when I shop.           [ ] SD [ ] D [ ] NO [ ] A [ ] SA
Sometimes I feel like buying things
  on the spur of the moment.          [ ] SD [ ] D [ ] NO [ ] A [ ] SA
I buy things according to how I
  feel at the moment.                 [ ] SD [ ] D [ ] NO [ ] A [ ] SA


Q4. Listed below are a series of statements about shopping in general. Please indicate your level of agreement or disagreement to each statement.

SD (Strongly disagree) D (Disagree) NO (No opinion) A (Agree) SA (Strongly Agree)

It is really true that money can buy
  happiness.                          [ ] SD [ ] D [ ] NO [ ] A [ ] SA
My dream in life is to be able to
  own expensive things                [ ] SD [ ] D [ ] NO [ ] A [ ] SA
People judge others by the things
  they own.                           [ ] SD [ ] D [ ] NO [ ] A [ ] SA
I buy some things that I secretly
  hope will impress other people.     [ ] SD [ ] D [ ] NO [ ] A [ ] SA
Money is the most important thing
  to consider when choosing a job.    [ ] SD [ ] D [ ] NO [ ] A [ ] SA
I think others judge me as a person
  by the kinds of products and
  brands I use.                       [ ] SD [ ] D [ ] NO [ ] A [ ] SA


Q5. This question applies to shopping for clothes. How important are each of the following factors in your selection of a clothing store for personal shopping?

Product selection [ ] Very Unimportant [ ] Unimportant [ ] Neutral [ ] Important [ ] Very Important

Price [ ] Very Unimportant [ ] Unimportant [ ] Neutral [ ] Important [ ] Very Important

Convenience [ ] Very Unimportant [ ] Unimportant [ ] Neutral [ ] Important [ ] Very Important

Service [ ] Very Unimportant [ ] Unimportant [ ] Neutral [ ] Important [ ] Very Important

Store atmosphere [ ] Very Unimportant [ ] Unimportant [ ] Neutral [ ] Important [ ] Very Important

Location [ ] Very Unimportant [ ] Unimportant [ ] Neutral [ ] Important [ ] Very Important

Store image [ ] Very Unimportant [ ] Unimportant [ ] Neutral [ ] Important [ ] Very Important

Parking [ ] Very Unimportant [ ] Unimportant [ ] Neutral [ ] Important [ ] Very Important

Amenities (such as gift wrapping, alterations)

[ ] Very Unimportant [ ] Unimportant [ ] Neutral [ ] Important [ ] Very Important

Q6. This question applies to boutique clothing stores. For this survey a boutique is defined as a relatively small specialty clothing store.

SD (Strongly disagree) D (Disagree) NO (No opinion) A (Agree) SA (Strongly Agree)

I prefer specialty fashion products available in boutique clothing stores. [ ] SD [ ] D [ ] NO [ ] A [ ] SA

I shop at boutique clothing stores because they offer personalized service. [ ] SD [ ] D [ ] NO [ ] A [ ] SA

Boutique clothing stores help me find the perfect style of clothes. [ ] SD [ ] D [ ] NO [ ] A [ ] SA

I shop at boutique clothing stores because they offer high quality clothes. [ ] SD [ ] D [ ] NO [ ] A [ ] SA

Boutique clothing stores are good at contacting customers about the latest fashions and arrivals.

Employees of boutique clothing stores remember me personally. [ ] SD [ ] D [ ] NO [ ] A [ ] SA

Parking is an advantage of boutique clothing stores. [ ] SD [ ] D [ ] NO [ ] A [ ] SA

Boutique clothing stores help me find the perfect size. [ ] SD [ ] D [ ] NO [ ] A [ ] SA

I like the small store atmosphere of boutique clothing stores. [ ] SD [ ] D [ ] NO [ ] A [ ] SA

Convenience is an important reason I like shopping at boutique clothing stores. [ ] SD [ ] D [ ] NO [ ] A [ ] SA Based on the quality of clothes sold at boutique clothing stores, prices are reasonable.

Location is an important reason I like shopping at boutique clothing stores. [ ] SD [ ] D [ ] NO [ ] A [ ] SA

Q7. Age:

[ ] 18-29

[ ] 30-39

[ ] 40-49

[ ] 50-59

[ ] 60+

Q8. Gender:

[ ] Male

[ ] Female

Q9. Are you a student at ULM? [ ] Yes [ ] No

Q10. I consider my political viewpoint generally to be

[ ] Extremely liberal

[ ] Liberal

[ ] Moderate

[ ] Conservative

[ ] Extremely conservative

Q11. Race: [ ] African American [ ] Caucasian [ ] Hispanic [ ] Other

Q12. What is your family income?

[ ] $0-24,999 [ ] $50,000-74,999 [ ] $75,000-99,999 [ ] 100,000+

Q13. How many years have you lived in your current community?

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Kenneth E. Clow

Henry S. Cole

Tom DeNardin

University of Louisiana at Monroe

Kenneth E. Clow is Professor at the University of Louisiana at Monroe and holder of the Biedenharn Endowed Chair in Business. Dr. Clow earned his doctorate from the University of Arkansas. He has published over 200 articles in various fields of marketing and business and is co-author of textbooks in advertising, marketing research, and sports marketing.

Henry S. Cole is Professor and Chair of Marketing at the University of Louisiana at Monroe. He received his doctorate from Louisiana Tech University. A former small business owner, Dr. Cole has published over 40 articles in marketing and small business.

Tom DeNardin is a professor at the University of Louisiana at Monroe. Mr. DeNardin earned his master's degree from Nova Southeastern University and bachelor's degree from Michigan State University. Mr. DeNardin has over 30 years in marketing and management experience and was selected to the "Marketing 100" by Advertising Age as one of the top 100 marketing executives in America ...

Table 1

Demographic Profile of Sample

Demographic   Category           N     Sample Percent

Age           18-29              172   57.9
              30-39              45    15.2
              40-49              39    13.1
              50+                41    13.8
Gender        Male               109   37.2
              Female             184   62.8
Race          African American   69    23.5
              Caucasian          192   65.3
              Other              33    11.2
Income        $0-24,999          48    16.3
              $25,000-49,999     74    25.1
              $50,000-74,999     67    22.7
              $75,000-99,999     51    17.3
              $100,000+          55    18.6

Table 2

Breakdown of Materialism Groups

Materialism Group               N    Sample Percent

Low materialism                 71   28.7%
Medium or average materialism   94   38.1%
High materialism                82   33.2%

Table 3

Scale Results

Variable           Level of Materialism
                   Low    Medium   High   F-Value  P-Value
Local shopping
  loyalty          2.56   2.49     2.66   2.14     .120
Impulsiveness      2.25   2.74     3.26   26.21    .000
Willingness to
  pay more         1.88   2.03     1.98   0.67     .511
Attitude towards
  boutiques        2.81   3.09     3.25   5.96     .003

Table 4

Factors That Influence the Selection of a Clothing Store When
Shopping

Variable            Level of Materialism   F-Value   P-Value
                    Low    Medium   High
Product selection   3.66   4.01     3.99   3.09      .047
Price               4.04   4.14     4.15   0.30      .741
Convenience         3.59   3.84     3.77   1.37      .255
Service             3.68   3.80     3.90   0.85      .426
Store atmosphere    3.65   3.59     3.73   0.41      .658
Location            3.75   3.66     3.74   0.23      .794
Store image         3.30   3.59     3.76   3.79      .024
Parking             3.00   3.07     3.07   0.09      .907
Amenities           2.37   2.56     2.60   0.99      .372

Table 5

Opinions Concerning Boutique Clothing Stores

Variable                 Level of Materialism   F- Value   P- Value

                         Low    Medium   High

Prefer specialty         2.45   3.08     3.26   10.73      .000
fashions in boutiques

Shop at boutiques for    2.69   2.99     3.35   7.25       .001
personal service

Boutiques help find      2.66   2.99     3.31   7.51       .001
the perfect style

Shop at boutiques for    2.61   2.92     3.13   4.98       .008
high quality clothes

Boutiques contact        2.92   3.21     3.44   5.45       .005
customers on trends

Boutiques remember me    2.92   3.10     3.38   3.57       .029
personally

Parking is an            2.89   2.97     3.13   1.20       .300
advantage at boutiques

Boutiques help me find   2.77   3.11     3.26   4.55       .011
the perfect size

Like small store         3.20   3.30     3.43   1.01       .364
atmosphere of
boutiques

Convenience is an        2.87   3.16     3.23   2.64       .073
advantage at boutiques

Boutique prices are      2.85   2.97     3.24   2.93       .055
reasonable

Location is an           2.97   3.09     3.21   1.13       .324
important aspect

Table 6

LISREL Structural Model Results

Symbol             Path                       MLE Value   T-Value

[B.sub.12]         Local Loyalty > Attitude     0.14      2.57 **
                     Boutiques
[B.sub.13]         Impulsiveness > Attitude     0.36      5.90 **
                     Boutiques
[B.sub.23]         Impulsiveness > Local        0.13      1.88
                     Loyalty
[[gamma].sub.13]   Materialism > Attitude       0.05      0.83
                     Boutiques
[[gamma].sub.23]   Materialism > Local          0.02      0.34
                     Loyalty
[[gamma].sub.33]   Materialism >                0.42      7.60 **
                     Impulsiveness

** Significant at p < .01

Table 7

Demographic Characteristics and Materialism

Demographic   Category           Mean   F-Value   P-Value
Age           18-29              3.03   15.28     .000
              30-39              2.66
              40-49              2.48
              50+                2.26
Gender        Male               2.92   5.41      .021
              Female             2.70
Race          African American   2.67   4.94      .008
              Caucasian          2.77
              Other              3.29
Income        $0-24,999          3.02   1.61      .187
              $25,000-49,999     2.70
              $50,000-99,999     2.77
              $100,000+          2.75
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Author:Clow, Kenneth E.; Cole, Henry S.; DeNardin, Tom
Publication:International Journal of Business, Marketing, and Decision Sciences (IJBMDS)
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jun 22, 2014
Words:5704
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