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Botanical survey of Wildcat Hollow State Forest, Effingham County, Illinois.


Wildcat Hollow State Forest is a 283 ha tract that contains a number of plant communities including: dry-mesic upland forest, wet-mesic floodplain forest, cliff communities, a successional field, prairie reconstructions, and artificial ponds. We quantitatively sampled upland dry-mesic forest communities. The forest was dominated by oaks and hickories with Quercus alba (white oak), Q. velutina (black oak), Carya ovata (shagbark hickory), and C. tomentosa (mockernut hickory) the dominant species. The woody understory was dominated by shagbark hickory and Ulmus rubra (slippery elm), which accounted for nearly one-third of the 15,167 seedlings/ha. Other mesic tree species were common understory species, but were not important overstory components. A vouchered inventory included 518 species, of which 15 were ferns and fern-allies, 2 gymnosperms, 360 dicots, and 141 monocots. Exotic species were represented by 90 taxa, 17.3 % of the flora.

Key Words: dry-mesic upland forest, Illinois, Quercus, Carya, Ulmus.


Since the settlement of the Midwest in the early 1800's, most of the oak-hickory dominated forests of the region have been undergoing extensive changes in species composition and structure. Soon after settlement by Europeans, periodic fires all but ceased (McClain and Elzinga 1994). The reduction in fire frequency in these forests has completely altered the flora of many forests, woodlands, and savannas. Savanna and woodlands became closed-canopy forests, while the closed-canopy forests became more mesic. Overall, this resulted in an increase in shade-tolerant, fire-sensitive tree species, a decrease in oak regeneration, a subtle change in understory plant species, and a corresponding loss in the wildlife depending on these species (Abrams 1992, 2005, Anderson 1991, Ebinger 1986, 1997, Ebinger and McClain 1991).

In many Illinois forests, Acer saccharum (sugar maple) has increased in importance in the oak-hickory forests and savannas (Curtis 1959, Abrams 1992, 2005). These changes have been accelerating during the past 50 to 75 years. If this trend continues, many of the oak-hickory forests, their understories, and the wildlife that depends upon them will be in serious trouble. Many of the best quality oak-hickory communities are undergoing an irreversible change as sugar maple and other mesic, shade-tolerant, fire-sensitive species replace the original forest components.

Some dry to dry-mesic upland forests in Illinois, however, have maintained much of their original woody composition, with various species of oaks and hickories maintaining their dominance. Also, in some of these forests mesic species do not dominate the understory, and some oak regeneration occurs. Many of these oak-hickory forests, which still contain some of their pre-settlement character, are located on the Illinoian till plain in central Illinois. Some are barrens communities (Taft and Solecki 2002, Taft 2003, Edgin et al. 2004); others are flatwoods communities (Taft et al. 1995, Edgin et al. 2003), while others are upland dry to dry-mesic forests (Ebinger 1982, Ebinger and Newman 1984, Feist et al. 2004). The purpose of our study was to quantitatively sample the vegetation of the dry-mesic upland forest at Wildcat Hollow State Forest, and compare the results to other forest communities in east-central Illinois. Also a vouchered inventory of the vascular plant species was completed.


Wildcat Hollow State Forest is a 283 ha tract located in Effingham County, Illinois, about 3 miles north of Mason (S2, 3, 11 T6N, R5E; 38[degrees]59'10"N 88[degrees]36'30"W). An initial holding of 113 ha was transferred from the Illinois Department of Transportation to the Illinois Department of Natural Resources in 1972. Since that time, additional acquisitions have increased the extent of the state forest to its current size. Wildcat Hollow contains a number of natural and anthropogenic communities including dry-mesic upland forest, mesic upland forest, wet-mesic floodplain forest, successional old-fields, prairie reconstructions, sandstone cliffs and springs communities, a pine plantation, and artificial ponds.

Located at an elevation of about 180 m above sea level on Illinoian till, Wildcat Hollow is about 40 km S of the terminal moraine of Wisconsin glaciation, in the Effingham Section of the Southern Till Plain Natural Division (Schwegman 1973). The pre-settlement vegetation of most of the more level uplands of this division was dry to wet, tallgrass prairie, while in the dissected stream valleys and hilly morainal areas, the vegetation was dominated by savanna, woodland, and forest (Anderson 1991; Ebinger and McClain 1991).

The east/west oriented Fulfer Creek is near the northern edge of Wildcat Hollow. The north/south oriented ravines feed into Fulfer Creek with the largest being about 15 m deep and 65-75 m wide. These steep-sided ravines support a mesic forest of sugar maple, Fraxinus americana (white ash), and Platanus occidentalis (sycamore), the largest trees about 75 cm dbh. The steep slopes of these ravines support Polystichum acrostichoides (Christmas fern) in abundance, and the nearly vertical sandstone cliffs contain Asplenium rhizophyllum (walking fern) and Cystopteris bulbifera (bladder fern).

Most of the flat uplands of the preserve were cultivated in the past. Two small fields are now prairie reconstructions, each between 1 and 2 ha in size, the others successional old-fields. Based on soil characteristics, one of the old fields may have originally been a Quercus palustris (pin oak) flatwoods. Much of the remaining upland, particularly in areas where there is some topographic relief, mature second growth dry to mesic upland forest dominates.

The soils of the upland at Wildcat Hollow are classified as Bluford and Ava silt loam (Awalt 1991). These soils are highly eroded with little of the original A horizon present, are well drained, low in organic content, and slightly acid. The soils of the steep slopes are hickory silt loam, with extensive soil slumping and exposed clayey subsoil. Loess deposits originally covered these soils but have been eroded away (Leeper and Gotsch 1998).

Based on weather records from 1971-2000 at Effingham (Effingham County Memorial Airport, 14 km to the NNE). annual precipitation averaged 97.5 cm, with July having the highest rainfall (11.4 cm). Mean annual temperature was 11.6[degrees]C, the hottest month being July (average of 24.6[degrees]C), the coldest being January (average of -3.2[degrees] C). The average number of frost-free days was 186 (Midwestern Regional Climate Center 2005).

Few previous botanical studies have been completely in this state forest. Illinois Natural History Survey botanist, Dr. Robert Evers, visited the site and collected 90 species (6 June 1967). In 1979 members of the Illinois Natural Areas Inventory reported 74 vascular plant species with 64 being woody (White 1979). No quantitative data were collected and the survey apparently did not include the sandstone cliffs or ravines.


A list of vascular plant species occurring within the boundaries of the state forest was completed and voucher specimens collected (Appendix I). Specimens have been deposited in the Stover-Ebinger Herbarium at Eastern Illinois University (EIU) with numerous duplicates at the Illinois Natural History Survey (ILLS) and the Missouri Botanical Garden (MO). Nomenclature follows Mohlenbrock (2002). Bob Edgin collected on the site in 2000 and 2001, while during the 2003 through 2006 field seasons Gordon Tucker visited the area, sometimes in company with John Ebinger, students from Eastern Illinois University, and personnel from the Illinois Department of Natural Resources. Specimens were collected every 3-4 weeks throughout the growing season. The 1967 collections by Robert Evers (ILLS) were examined and included in the vouchered list.

In the summer of 2005 the overstory of the mature second growth dry-mesic upland forest was sampled using 0.03 ha circular plots established at 30 m intervals along two north/south transects (30 plots). In each plot all living individuals [greater than or equal to] 10.0 cm dbh were identified and their diameters recorded (Table 1). Living-stem density (stems/ha), basal area ([m.sup.2]/ha), relative density, relative dominance (basal area), importance value (IV), and average diameter (cm) were calculated for each species. Determination of IV follows McIntosh (1957) and is the sum of the relative density and relative dominance. The woody understory composition and density (stems/ha) were determined using nested circular plots 0.0001, 0.001, and 0.01 ha in size located at each center point of the overstory plot (Table 2). Four additional 0.0001 ha circular plots were located 7 m from the center points of each plot center along cardinal compass directions. In the 0.0001 ha plots, woody seedlings and shrubs ([less than or equal to] 50 cm tall) were counted; in the 0.001 ha circular plots small saplings and shrubs (>50 cm tall and <2.5 cm dbh) were recorded; and in the 0.01 ha circular plots large saplings and shrubs (2.5-9.9 cm dbh) were tallied.


A total of 518 species within 316 genera and 108 families was documented for Wildcat Hollow. Of these, 15 were ferns and fern-allies, 2 gymnosperms, 360 dicots in 239 genera and 85 families, and 141 monocots in 63 genera and 13 families (Appendix I). Exotic species were represented by 90 taxa, 17.3 % of the flora. No endangered or threatened species were encountered (Herkert and Ebinger 2002). The predominant plant families were Poaceae (69 species), Asteraceae (73), Cyperaceae (33), Fabaceae (33), and Rosaceae (27). Of the 90 species collected by Dr. Robert Evers, we located and re-collected 76.

In the forest survey of the dry-mesic upland forest 26 woody species were encountered in the overstory and understory plots, of which seven were understory trees and shrubs. Tree density averaged 291 stems/ha, while total basal area averaged 29.127 [m.sup.2]/ha (Table 1). Quercus alba (white oak) dominated the overstory with an IV of 88.8, accounted for nearly half of the total basal area, dominated the larger diameter classes, and averaged 37.8 cm dbh. Second in IV, Quercus velutina (black oak), accounted for one-third of the basal area (8.138 [m.sup.2]/ha), was common in the larger diameter classes, and averaged 44.2 cm dbh. Two species of hickory, Carya ovata (shagbark hickory), and C. tomentosa (mockernut hickory), were third and fourth in IV respectively (IV of 25.4 and 25.2). All other species encountered had IVs of 3 or lower, and were minor overstory components.

The woody understory seedling layer was dominated by various species of oaks and hickories, and along with Ulmus rubra (slippery elm) and Sassafras albidum (sassafras), accounted for more than one-third of the 15,166 seedlings/ha (Table 2). Though not recorded in the overstory, Ulmus rubra was second in seedlings and common in the sapling layers where it accounted for nearly 500 stems/ha, the majority being root-sprouts (Davis et al. 1997). Overall, oaks were common in the seedling layer (3416 stems/ha), but relatively few individuals were present in the sapling layers (215 stems/ha). Hickories, in contrast, were well represented in the seedling layer (3800 stems/ha), and relatively common in the sapling layers (1158 stems/ha). Mesic species, such as white ash and sugar maple, were found in the seedling and sapling layers but were absent, or poorly represented in the overstory (Table 1).


The dry-mesic upland forest at Wildcat Hollow is probably similar in species composition to forests of early settlement times. In the prairie peninsula (Transeau 1935) of the early 1800s, oak-hickory savanna, woodland, and forest covered about 40% of the land surface (Ebinger and McClain 1991, Anderson 1991). Topographic relief and the intensity and frequency of fires were important in controlling the pre-settlement distribution of these forests. Usually prairie vegetation was on flat to gently sloping ground; savanna, woodland, and forest were mostly in dissected area, or on the uplands to the east and south of dissected lands (Gleason 1913). This segregation occurred because dissected landscapes do not readily carry fire since well-developed drainage systems with permanent streams are excellent firebreaks. In addition, fires in hilly areas tend to move up slope relatively rapidly due to rising convection air currents, but convection currents work against fires when they move down hill, not uncommonly causing it to burn out (Anderson 1991).

With the cessation of fires most of the oak savannas, woodlands, and forests have become closed forests that are more mesic than in early settlement times (Curtis 1959, Anderson 1983, Ebinger and McClain 1991). Presently, this change has not occurred at Wildcat Hollow, and a few similar forests on the Illinoian till plain in east-central Illinois (Table 3). Though the canopies of these forests are probably more closed than their pre-settlement counterparts, the dominant species of the overstory of these present-day forests are still oaks and hickories and some oak and hickory reproduction is presently taking place.

Dry to dry-mesic upland forests at Wildcat Hollow, as well as at other forests on Illinoian till located near Wildcat Hollow in east-central Illinois have similar structures, and show similar successional trends. Toledo Woods (Ebinger and Newman 1984), Rock Cave Nature Preserve (Ebinger 1982), and Dean Hills Nature Preserve (Feist et al. 2004), all within 50 km of Wildcat Hollow, were dominated by oaks and hickories (Table 3). Also, oak and hickory seedlings were common in the understory, and sapling and smaller diameter oaks and hickories were common. In these woods more mesic species were entering the understory, and sometimes the canopy (Table 3). On very dry sites, like those in the uplands of Rock Cave Nature Preserve, mesic species were rare, and oaks and hickories were the only species present, dominating the smaller diameter classes (Ebinger 1982). More commonly, however, some mesic species (maples, elms, and ashes) were important understory species and were occasionally entering the overstory. With time, the overstories of these forests will be similar to the mesic upland forests presently found at Rock Cave and Dean Hills Nature Preserves, where sugar maple has become the dominant overstory species (Table 3). Only with proper management will the oak-hickory forest similar to those of pre-settlement times be maintained. This will mostly involve the regular use of management fires along with some cutting to maintain an open canopy so that oak reproduction will increase.

There is very little published data on the composition of prairie reconstructions on Illinoian till in east-central Illinois. Investigations by Kessler et al. (2001) at Prairie Ridge State Natural Area, some 50 km to the east in Jasper County, reported the dominant species as Solidago canadensis, Sorghastrum nutans (Indian grass), Andropogon gerardii (big bluestem), and Schizachyrium scoparium (little bluestem). This composition is similar to the successional old-field and prairie reconstructions at Wildcat Hollow. In the prairie reconstructions at Wildcat Hollow Solidago canadensis (Canada goldenrod) was the most obvious species in late summer. Indian grass and big bluestem, and little bluestem were the next most obvious taxa. Other common prairie species including Solidago nemoralis (gray goldenrod), Fragaria virginiana (wild strawberry), Desmanthus illinoensis (bundleflower), and Pycnanthemum tenuifolium (slender mountain mint). Along with Canada goldenrod, the Eurasian, cool-season grasses were important components of the successional old-field with Phleum pratense (timothy), Bromus inermis (awnless brome), and Poa pratensis (Kentucky bluegrass) being the most common.


Below is a vouchered list of the vascular flora of Wildcat Hollow State Forest, Effingham Co., Illinois from 2000 to 2006. Families, genera, and species are arranged alphabetically. Nomenclature and native status follows Mohlenbrock (2002). Authorship also follows Mohlenbrock (2002); in some cases, authorities given by him differ from those in other standard floras, e.g., Gleason & Cronquist (1991) and Flora of North America Editorial Committee (1993 onwards). Exotic taxa are preceded by an asterisk. Collection numbers follow each species. Collections made by Bob Edgin are preceded by E; those by Tucker are preceded by T. All specimens are deposited at EIU, with some duplicates at ILLS, MO, and ISM. Collections by Robert A. Evers, all made on 6 June 1967, are deposited at ILLS. Species that were observed, but not collected, are indicated by obs.



Asplenium platyneuron (L.) Oakes; E4011; Evers 90761

Asplenium rhizophyllum L.; T14768


Cystopteris bulbifera (L.) Bernh.; T14766

Cystopteris protrusa (Weatherby) Blasdell; E4182; Evers 90765

Deparia acrostichoides (Sw.) M. Kato; obs.

Dryopteris marginalis (L.) A. Gray; E4012

Polystichum acrostichoides (Michx.) Schott; E4013; Evers 90772

Woodsia obtusa (Spreng.) Torr.; E4713; Evers 90731


Equisetum arvense L.; E4887


Huperzia lucidula (Michx.) Trev.; E4148


Onoclea sensibilis L.; Evers 90757


Botrychium dissectum Spreng.; E4862

Botrychium dissectum Spreng. var. obliquum (Muhl. Clute; E4696

Botrychium virginianum (L.) Sw.; E4048; Evers 90740


Osmunda claytoniana L.; E4712


Adiantum pedatum L.; E3905; Evers 90771



Juniperus virginiana L.; E3946; Evers 90784


* Pinus strobus L.; E4909




Ruellia humilis Nutt. var. longiflora (A. Gray) Fern.; E4459


* Acer ginnala Maxim., T14193

Acer negundo L.; E4028; Evers 90733

Acer saccharinum L.; E4880

Acer saccharum Marsh.; E4899; Evers 90752


* Amaranthus hybridus L.; E4683

Amaranthus rudis J. Sauer; E4934


Rhus aromatica Ait.; E4470

Rhus glabra L.; E4709

Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze; T13693


Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal; E4900


Chaerophyllum procumbens (L.) Crantz.; E3903

* Conium maculatum L., T14587

Cryptotaenia canadensis (L.) DC; E4163; Evers 90736

* Daucus carota L.; E4461

Erigenia bulbosa (Michx.) Nutt.; T14610

Eryngium yuccifolium Michx.; E4457

Osmorhiza claytonii (Michx.) C.B. Clarke; E4055

Osmorhiza longistylis (Torr.) DC.; E3911

Sanicula canadensis L.; E4485

Sanicula odorata (Raf.) Pryer & Phillippe; T13687

* Torilis japonica (Houtt.) DC.; E4486

Zizia aurea (L.) K. Koch; E3900, T14556


Apocynum androsaemifolium L., T14195

Apocynum cannabinum L.; E4462


Panax quinquefolius L.; T14761


Aristolochia serpentaria L.; E4859

Asarum canadense L. var. reflexum (Bickn.) Robins; E3938


Ampelamus albidus (Nutt.) Britt.; E4676

Asclepias hirtella (Pennell) Woodson; E4464

Asclepias incarnata L.; E4669

Asclepias purpurascens L.; E4149

Asclepias syriaca L.; E4414

Asclepias tuberosa L.; obs.


* Achillea millefolium L.; E4501

Ageratina altissima (L.) R.M. King & H. Robins.; E4434

Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.; E4727

Ambrosia bidentata Michx.; E4706

Ambrosia trifida L.; E4881

Antennaria plantaginifolia (L.) Hook.; E3914

* Anthemis arvensis L.; T14745

Arnoglossum atriplicifolium (L.) H. Robins.; E4872

Aster cordifolius L.; E4710, E4864

Aster laevis L.; E4634

Aster lanceolatus Willd., E4925, T14601

Aster lateriflorus (L.) Britt.; E4917

Aster novae-angliae L.; E4657

Aster ontarionis Wieg.; E4874

Aster pilosus Willd.; E4905

Aster praealtus Poir.; E4852

Aster shortii Lindl.; E4868

Aster sagittifolius Willd., E4874

Aster turbinellus Lindl.; E4873

Bidens aristosa (Michx.) Britt.; obs.

Bidens bipinnata L.; E4497

Bidens comosa (A. Gray) Wieg.; E4935

Bidens discoidea (Torr. & A. Gray) Benth.; E4903

Bidens frondosa L.; E4865, E4908

Cirsium altissimum (Muhl.) Spreng.; E4870

* Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. var. horridum Wimm. & Grab.; E4654

Cirsium discolor (Muhl.) Spreng.; E4920

* Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Tenore; E4673

Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq.; E4689

Coreopsis lanceolata L.; E3989

Coreopsis tripteris L.; E4882

Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt.; T14752

Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench.; E4670

Eclipta prostrata (L.) L.; E4924

Erechtites hieracifolia (L.) Raf.; E4632

Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers.; E4022, E4041;

E4160; Evers 90792

Erigeron philadelphicus L.; E3958; Evers 90764

Erigeron strigosus Muhl.; Evers 90792

Eupatoriadelphus fistulosus (Barratt) R.M. King & H. Robins., obs.

Eupatorium perfoliatum L.; E4701

Eupatorium serotinum Michx.; E4919

Eupatorium sessilifolium L.; E4726, E4455

Euthamia graminifolia (L.) Nutt.; E4720

Helenium flexuosum Raf.; E4458

Helianthus divaricatus L.; E4420

Helianthus grosseserratus Martens; obs.

Helianthus mollis Lam.; E4630

Heliopsis helianthoides (L.) Sweet; E4894

Hieracium longipilum Torr.; E4853

Hieracium scabrum Michx.; E4722

Krigia biflora (Walt.) Blake; Evers 90705

Krigia dandelion (L.) Nutt.; obs.

Lactuca canadensis L.; E4416

Lactuca floridana (L.) Gaertn.; E4707

* Lactuca serriola L.; E4677

Liatris aspera Michx.; E4910

Liatris pycnostachya Michx.; E4718

* Matricaria discoidea DC.; E4498

Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium (L.) Hilliard & Burtt; E4855

Ratibida pinnata (Vent.) Barnh.; E4662

Rudbeckia hirta L.; E4147

Rudbeckia laciniata L.; E4698

Rudbeckia triloba L.; E4691

Senecio glabellus Poir.; E3947; Evers 90728

Silphium integrifolium Michx.; obs.

Silphium perfoliatum L.; E4679

Solidago canadensis L.; E4671

Solidago missouriensis Nutt., E4717

Solidago nemoralis Ait.; E4906

Solidago ulmifolia Muhl.; E4443, T14563

* Taraxacum officinale Weber; T13278

Verbesina alternifolia (L.) Britt.; E4675

Vernonia gigantea (Walt.) Trel.; E4703

Xanthium strumarium L., E4936


Impatiens capensis Meerb.; E4170

Impatiens pallida Nutt.; T14734


Podophyllum peltatum L.; E3930; Evers 90749


Betula nigra L., obs.


Campsis radicans (L.) Seem; E4463; Evers 90777

Catalpa speciosa Warder, obs.


Hackelia virginiana (L.) I. M. Johnson; E4476

Mertensia virginica (L.) Pers.; T14616

Myosotis verna Nutt.; E3997


* Alliaria petiolata (L.) Cavara &Grande, T14560

* Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.; E4068

Arabis canadensis L.; Evers 90775

Arabis laevigata (Willd) Poir.; T13280

Arabis shortii (Fern.) Gl.; E3960

* Barbarea vulgaris R. Br.; E3916

* Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic.; E3990

* Cardamine hirsuta L.; E3996

Cardamine parviflora L.; Evers 90706

Cardamine pensylvanica Willd.; E4046

Dentaria laciniata Muhl.; E3924

* Erophila verna (L.) Chev.; T13279

Iodanthus pinnatifidus (Michx.) Steud.; E4922

* Lepidium densiflorum Schrad.; E4033

Lepidium virginicum L.; E3992

Rorippa palustris (L.) Besser; T14554

* Thlaspi arvense L.; E3995


Cercis canadensis L.; E4886; Evers 90741

Chamaecrista fasciculata (Michx) Greene.; E4465

Gleditsia triacanthos L.; E4891; Evers 90743

Gymnocladus dioicus (L.) K. Koch; T14191


Callitriche terrestris Raf.; Evers 90806; T14758


Campanulastrum americanum (L.) Small; E4466

Lobelia inflata L.; T13586B

Lobelia siphilitica L.; E4655

Triodanis perfoliata (L.) Nieuwl.; E4056; Evers 90800


Humulus lupulus L.; E4892


* Lonicera japonica Thunb.; E4165

* Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Maxim.; T14739

Sambucus canadensis L.; E4682

Symphoricarpos orbiculatus Moench.; E4869; Evers 90788

Triosteum perfoliatum L.; E4155

Viburnum dentatum L., T14604; Evers 90711

Viburnum prunifolium L.; T14764

Viburnum recognitum Fern.; E4429


* Cerastium fontanum Baum.; E3921

Cerastium nutans Raf.; E3921A; Evers 90750

* Dianthus armeria L.; E4167; Evers 90782

Paronychia canadensis (L.) Wood, T14196

Paronychia fastigiata (Raf.) Fern.; E4446

Sagina decumbens (Ell.) Torr. & A. Gray; Evers 90778

Silene nivea (Nutt.) Otth.; T14733

Silene stellata (L.) Ait. f.; E4495

* Stellaria media (L.) Cyrillo; E3931


Celastrus scandens L.; E4451; Evers 90734

Euonymus atropurpureus Jacq.; E4912

* Euonymus europaeus L.; E4018


* Chenopodium album L.; E4449, T14585


Lechea tenuifolia Michx.; E4851


* Ipomea hederacea (L.) Jacq.; E4491

Ipomea pandurata (L.) G. F. W. Mey.; E4672


Cornus drummondii C. A. Mey.; E4150

Cornus florida L.; E3940; Evers 90714

Cornus racemosa Lam.; E4020


Carpinus caroliniana Walt.; E4915

Corylus americana Walt.; E4902; Evers 90737

Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch; E4914; Evers 90774


Sicyos angulatus L.; E4688


Cuscuta gronovii Willd., T14573


Diospyros virginiana L.; E4153


* Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb.; E3917


Acalypha deamii (Weatherby) Ahles; T14576

Acalypha gracilens A. Gray; E4507, E4884

Acalypha rhomboidea Raf.; E4928

Acalypha virginica L.; E4506

Chamaesyce maculata (L.) Small; T14569

Chamaesyce nutans (Lag.) Small, T14555

Euphorbia corollata L.; E4643

Phyllanthus carolinensis Walt.; T13679

Poinsettia dentata (Michx.) Kl. & Garcke; E4678


Amorpha fruticosa L.; E4037

Amphicarpaea bracteata (L.) Fern.; E4417

Baptisia alba (L.) Vent.; E4413

Desmodium glabellum (Michx.) DC., obs.

Desmodium glutinosum (Muhl.) A. Wood.; E4724

Desmodium illinoense A. Gray; E4668

Desmodium nudiflorum (L.) DC.; E4439

Desmodium paniculatum (L.) DC.; obs.

Desmodium rotundifolium DC.; Evers 90703

* Kummerowia stipulacea (Maxim.) Makino, T14189

* Kummerowia striata (Thunb.) Schind.; E4895

Lespedeza capitata Michx.; E4656

* Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours.) G. Don; E4896

Lespedeza procumbens Michx.; E4640

Lespedeza virginica (L.) Britt.; E4705

* Medicago lupulina L.; E4681

* Medicago sativa L.; T14753

* Melilotus albus Medic.; E4684

* Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pallas; T14731

Phaseolus polystachios (L.) BSP.; E4871

* Robinia pseudoacacia L.; T14759

Strophostyles helvula (L.) Ell., E4687

Strophostyles leiosperma (Torr. & A. Gray) Piper; E4641

* Trifolium campestre Schreb.; E4036

* Trifolium hybridum L.; E4040, T14567

* Trifolium pratense L.; E4027

* Trifolium repens L.; T14738


Quercus alba L.; E4005

Quercus bicolor Willd., obs.

Quercus imbricaria Michx.; E4898; Evers 90797

Quercus x leana Nutt., T14591

Quercus macrocarpa Michx., T14605

Quercus palustris Muench., T13685; Evers 90710

Quercus muhlenbergii Engelm. T14592

Quercus rubra L., T14590; Evers 90717

Quercus stellata Wangh.; E4918; Evers 90716

Quercus velutina Lam.; T13281


Dicentra cucullaria (L.) Bernh.; E3908


Frasera caroliniensis Walt.; T14615


Geranium carolinianum L.; E3993; Evers 90781

Geranium maculatum L.; E3928


Ribes missouriense Nutt.; E4693


Hydrangea arborescens L.; E4478; Evers 90773


Hydrophyllum appendiculatum Michx.; E3956

Hydrophyllum virginianum L.; T14614


Hypericum mutilum L.; E4883

Hypericum prolificum L.; E4460; Evers 90759

Hypericum punctatum Lam.; E4490

Hypericum sphaerocarpun Michx., T13686


Carya cordiformis (Wang.) K. Koch; E4054

Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet, obs.

Carya ovata (Mill.) K. Koch; T13690

Carya tomentosa (Poir) Nutt., T13684; Evers 90712

Juglans nigra L., T14558


Agastache nepetoides (L.) Ktze.; E4866

Blephilia hirsuta (Pursh.) Bernh.; E4177

Hedeoma pulegioides (L.) Pers.; E4440

* Lamium amplexicaule L.; T 3283

* Lamium purpureum L., T13282

Lycopus americanus Muhl., T14559

Lycopus uniflorus Michx., E4863

Monarda bradburiana Beck; E4044; Evers 90768

Monarda fistulosa L.; E4644

* Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt.; E4927, T14588

Physostegia virginiana (L.) Benth.; E4658

Prunella vulgaris L.; E4425

Pycnanthemum tenuifolium Schrad.; E4493

Pycnanthemum virginianum (L.) Dur. & B.D. Jacks., obs.

Scutellaria incana Biehler; E4453, T13691

Scutellaria nervosa Pursh; E4025, T13691

Scutellaria parvula Michx.; Evers 90701; T14765

Stachys tenuifolia Willd.; E4728

Teucrium canadense L.; E4448


Lindera benzoin (L.) Blume; E4475

Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees; E4058


Linum medium (Planch.) Britt.; E4702


Ammannia coccinea Rottb.; E4636

Rotala ramosior (L.) Koehne; T13676


Liriodendron tulipifera L., obs.


* Hibiscus trionum L.; E4685

* Sida spinosa L.; E4921


Menispermum canadense L.; E4901; Evers 90739


Desmanthus illinoensis (Michx.) MacM.; E4665


* Mollugo verticillata L. E4659


* Morus alba L., E4875

Morus rubra L.; E4049; Evers 90760


Fraxinus americana L.; E4711; Evers 90795

Fraxinus lanceolata Borkh., T13689

Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.; E4913


Circaea lutetiana L. spp. canadensis (L.) Aschers & Magnus; E4435

Ludwigia alternifolia L.; E4484

Ludwigia palustris (L.) Ell.; T14747

Ludwigia peploides (HBK) Raven var. glabrescens (Ktze.) Raven, E4035

Oenothera biennis L.; E4715


Oxalis stricta L.; T14190; Evers 90802

Oxalis violacea L.; E3918


Sanguinaria canadensis L.; T14613


Passiflora lutea L., T14194


Phryma leptostachya L.; E4436


Phytolacca americana L.; E4437


Plantago aristata Michx.; T13680

* Plantago lanceolata L.; E4032

Plantago rugelii Decne.; T14584

Plantago virginica L.; E3994; Evers 90793


Platanus occidentalis L.; E4038


Phlox divaricata L.; E3920

Phlox paniculata L.; E4686

Polemonium reptans L., T14589


Polygala sanguinea L.; E4721


Antenoron virginianum (L.) Roberty & Vautier; E4444

Fallopia scandens (L.) Holub; E4442

* Persicaria cespitosa (Blume) Nakai; E4933

* Persicaria hydropiper (L.) Opiz; E4431

Persicaria pensylvanica (L.) Small; E4635; Evers 90805

Persicaria punctata (Ell.) Small; E4496

* Persicaria vulgaris Webb. & Moq.; E4447; Evers 90730

* Polygonum aviculare L.; E4456

* Rumex acetosella L.; E4007; Evers 90799

* Rumex crispus L.; E3998

* Rumex obtusifolius L.; E4433


Claytonia virginica L.; E3945


Dodecatheon meadia L.; E3912; Evers 90723

Lysimachia hybrida Michx.; E4660

Lysimachia lanceolata Walt.; E4427

* Lysimachia nummularia L.; E3952

Samolus parviflorus Raf., T14571


Actaea pachypoda Ell.; E3909

Anemone virginiana L.; E4480

Anemonella thalictroides (L.) Spach; T13275

Aquilegia canadensis L., obs.

Delphinium tricorne Michx.; E3922

Enemion biternatum Raf.; T14611

Ranunculus abortivus L.; E3910

Ranunculus micranthus Torr. & A. Gray, E3942

Ranunculus septentrionalis Poir.; T13277

Thalictrum dasycarpum Fisch. & Lall., E4146


Ceanothus americanus L.; Evers 90708


Agrimonia parviflora Soland., T13677

Agrimonia pubescens Wallr., T13678

Agrimonia rostellata Wallr.; E4418

Amelanchier arborea (Michx. f.) Fern.; E4009; Evers 90719

Aruncus dioicus (Walt.) Fern.; E4469; Evers 90770

Fragaria virginiana Duchesne, obs.

Geum canadense Jacq.; E4510

Geum laciniatum Murr.; T14732

Geum vernum (Raf.) Torr. & A. Gray.; E3943; Evers 90766

Malus ioensis (Wood) Britt.; T14760

Porteranthus stipulatus (Muhl.) Britt.; E4175; Evers 90709

* Potentilla recta L.; E4158; T14763

Potentilla simplex Michx.; E3937; Evers 90758

Prunus americana Marsh.; E4148

* Prunus mahaleb L.; E4858

Prunus serotina Ehrh.; E4708; Evers 90794

Rosa carolina L.; E4172; Evers 90779

* Rosa multiflora Thunb.; E4006

Rosa setigera Michx.; T14762

Rubus allegheniensis Porter; E4157; Evers 90791

Rubus flagellaris Willd.; E3951

Rubus occidentalis L.; T13681


Cephalanthus occidentalis L., obs.

Diodia teres Walt.; E4482

Galium aparine L.; E3944

Galium circaezans Michx.; E4489; Evers 90767

Galium concinnum Torr. & A. Gray; E4057

Galium triflorum Michx.; E4723; Evers 90744

Houstonia purpurea L.; E4164; Evers 90725


Ptelea trifoliata L.; E4889


* Populus alba L.; E4653

Populus deltoides Marsh., T13683

Salix interior Rowlee; T14736

Salix nigra Marsh.; E4888


Heuchera americana L. var. hirsuticaulis (Wheelock) Rosend., Butt., & Lak.; E4060; Evers 90720

Penthorum sedoides L., obs.


Collinsia verna Nutt., obs.

Lindernia dubia (L.) Pennell, T13675

Mimulus alatus Soland.; E4729

Penstemon digitalis Nutt.; E4487; Evers 90789

Penstemon pallidus Small; E4725

Scrophularia marilandica L.; E4699

* Verbascum blattaria L.; T14749

* Verbascum thapsus L.; E4699

* Veronica arvensis L.; E3999

Veronica peregrina L.; E4045

Veronicastrum virginicum (L.) Farw., T14192


* Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle; Evers 90735


Physalis heterophylla Nees; E4154

Solanum caroliniense L.; E4159

Solanum ptychanthum Dunal; E4923


Staphylea trifolia L.; E4932; Evers 90738


Tilia americana L.; E4930; Evers 90724


Celtis occidentalis L.; E4878

Ulmus americana L., T14566A

Ulmus rubra Muhl.; T13273


Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Sw.; T14583

Laportea canadensis (L.) Wedd.; E4932

Parietaria pensylvanica Muhl.; E4047, E4505; Evers 90748

Pilea pumila (L.) A. Gray; E4695, T14594


Phyla lanceolata (Michx.) Greene; E4893

Verbena hastata L.; E4694

Verbena urticifolia L.; T14598


Viola palmata L.; E4173

Viola pratincola Greene, E4861

Viola pubescens Ait. var. eriocarpa (Schwein.) Russell; E3957

* Viola rafinesquii Greene; E3936

Viola sororia Willd.; E3939

Viola striata Ait.; E3902; Evers 90732


Parthenocissus quinquefolius (L.) Planch.; E4052; Evers 90790

Vitis aestivalis Michx.; E4876

Vitis cinerea (Engelm.) Engelm.; Evers 90704

Vitis riparia Michx., T13682

Vitis vulpina L., E4890; Evers 90756



Alisma subcordatum Raf.; T14750

Sagittaria latifolia Willd.; T14748


Hypoxis hirsuta (L.) Coville; E3949


Arisaema dracontium (L.) Schott; E4051; Evers 90747

Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott; E3927; Evers 90746


* Commelina communis L.; E4424

Commelina diffusa Burm. f., T14578

Tradescantia ohiensis Raf.; E3987

Tradescantia subaspera Ker; E4697

Tradescantia virginiana L.; E3932; Evers 90713


Carex albicans Willd., T13272

Carex amphibola Steud.; T14767

Carex blanda Dewey; E3933, E3941, E3953, E4062

Carex brachyglossa Mack.; Evers 90751

Carex bushii Mack; E4161

Carex cephalophora Muhl.; E4065, E4733, Evers 90753

Carex communis L.H. Bailey, T13274

Carex conoidea Schk.; E4059

Carex cristatella Britt.; T14742

Carex festucacea Schk., E4064; Evers 90754

Carex glaucodea Tuckerm.; E4003; Evers 90718

Carex grayi Carey; E4474

Carex grisea Wahl.; Evers 90762

Carex hirsutella Mack.; E3919, Evers 90786

Carex hirtifolia Mack., E4016

Carex jamesii Schwein.; E4029

Carex lupulina Willd.; T14730

Carex muhlenbergii Schk. var. enervis Boott; Evers 90702

Carex pensylvanica Lam.; E4019, E4008

Carex retroflexa Muhl.; E3934; Evers 90742

Carex rosea Schk.; E3950

Carex shortiana Dewey; E4001

Carex squarrosa L., T14599

Carex stipata Muhl.; T14741

Carex vulpinoidea Michx.; E4002, E4162, E4010

Cyperus acuminatus Torr. & Hook.; T14751

Cyperus escultentus L. var. leptostachyus Boeckl.; T14744

Cyperus odoratus L., T14561

Cyperus strigosus L.; T14562

Eleocharis elliptica Kunth.; E4042

Eleocharis ovata (Roth) Roem. & Schultes var. ovata; E4637; E4187, E4179

Scirpus georgianus Harper; E4419, E4674

Scirpus pendulus Muhl.; T14727


Dioscorea quaternata (Walt.) J. F. Gmel; E4053

Dioscorea villosa L.; Evers 90729


Juncus anthelatus (Wieg.) R.E. Brooks; E4000

Juncus brachycarpus Engelm.; E4152, E4734

Juncus dudleyi Wieg.; E4043

Juncus effusus L., obs.

Juncus tenuis Willd.; E4169

Juncus torreyi Coville; E4633


Lemna minor L.; T14577A

* Spirodela punctata (Mey.) C.H. Thompson; T14577


Allium canadense L.; E4168

* Allium vineale L.; T14740

Erythronium americanum Ker; T14608

* Ornithogalum umbellatum L., T14612

Polygonatum commutatum (Schult.) A. Dietr.; E4014

Smilacina racemosa (L.) Desf.; E4002a

Trillium flexipes Raf.; E3901

Trillium recurvatum Beck.; E3925

Uvularia grandiflora Sm.; T13276


Aplectrum hyemale (Willd.) Nutt.; E4015

Cypripedium pubescens Willd.; E4911

Galearis spectabilis (L.) Raf.; obs.

Liparis liliifolia (L.) Rich.; E4467

Spiranthes cernua (L.) Rich.; E4854, T13586A


Agrostis gigantea Roth; E4663

Agrostis hyemalis (Walt.) BSP.; Evers 90801

Agrostis perennans (Walt.) Tuckerm.; T14579A

Agrostis scabra Willd.; E4481

Andropogon gerardii Vitman; E4664

Andropogon virginicus L.; E4907

Aristida oligantha Michx.; E4645

Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr.; E4667

Brachyleytrum erectum (Roth) Beauv.; E4916

* Bromus commutatus Schrad.; E4184, E4511

* Bromus inermis Leyss.; T14754

Bromus pubescens Muhl.; E4428

* Bromus secalinus L.; Evers 90787, 90796

Chasmanthium latifolium (Michx.) Yates, T14553

Cinna arundinacea L.; E4719

* Dactylis glomerata L.; E4067

Danthonia spicata (L.) Roem. & Schultes; E4183; Evers 90715

Diarrhena obovata (Gl.) Brandenburg; T14597

Dichanthelium acuminatum (Sw.) Gould & Clark, T13692; E4180; Evers 90780

Dichanthelium clandestinum (L.) Gould; E4732

Dichanthelium depauperatum (Muhl.) Gould; Evers 90707

Dichanthelium dichotomum L. Gould var.

barbulatum (Michx.) Mohlenbr.; E4185

Dichanthelium microcarpon (Muhl.) Mohlenbr.; E4508

Dichanthelium polyanthes (Schult.) Mohlenbr., T14596

Dichanthelium praecocius (Hitchc. & Chase) Mohlenbr.; E4180

Digitaria filiformis (L.) Koel.; E4879

* Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb.) Schreb.; T14565

* Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.; E4649

* Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv.; E4488, E4639, E4650

Echinochloa muricata (Michx.) Fern.; E4450, T14581

* Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.; E4642

Elymus canadensis L.; T14755

Elymus x ebingeri G. C. Tucker, T14593

Elymus hystrix L.;E4471

Elymus villosus Muhl.; E4502

Elymus virginicus L.; E4171

Eragrostis cilianensis (All.) Vign.; E4867

Eragrostis frankii C.A. Meyer, T14579B

Eragrostis spectabilis (Pursh.) Steud.; E4647

* Festuca pratensis Huds.; E3935, E4651 Evers 90763; T14743

Festuca subverticillata (Pers.) E.B. Alexeev; E4017

Glyceria striata (Lam.) Hitchc.; E4178; Evers 90769

Hordeum pusillum Nutt.; E4031

Leersia oryzoides (L.) Swartz; E4860

Leersia virginica Willd.; T14586

Muhlenbergia frondosa (Poir.) Fern., T14574

Muhlenbergia schreberi J. F. Gmel; E4423

Panicum dichotomiflorum Michx.; E4929, T14580

Panicum virgatum L.; E4666

Paspalum setaceum Michx. var. ciliatifolium (Michx.) Vasey; E4494

Paspalum setaceum Michx. var. muhlenbergii (Nash) D.J. Banks; E4652

* Phalaris arundinacea L., T14582

* Phleum pratense L.; E3988

* Poa annua L.; E4024

* Poa compressa L.; E4034

Poa palustris L.; E3906, E4023

* Poa pratensis L. E3935, E4063

Poa sylvestris A. Gray; Evers 90726

Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv.; E4648

* Setaria faberi F. Herrm.; E4445

* Setaria viridis (L.) P. Beauv.; T14564

Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash; E4661

Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash; E4897

* Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.; E4680

* Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.; T14557

Sphenopholis obtusata (Michx.) Scribn.; Evers 90776

Tridens flavus (L.) Hitchc.; E4700

Tripsacum dactyloides (L.) L.; T14737

Vulpia octoflora (Walt.) Rydb.; Evers 90798


Smilax lasioneuron Hook., obs.

Smilax tamnoides L.; T13688; Evers 90745


Typha angustifolia L.; T14746

Typha latifolia L.; E4631


We thank Tony Reznicek (MICH) for checking identifications of Carex, the Illinois Department of Natural Resources for providing financial support through the Illinois Wildlife Preservation Fund, and Rick Phillippe, Illinois Natural History Survey, for providing the list of specimens collected by Robert Evers.

received 8/17/06

accepted 2/21/07


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Gordon C. Tucker (1), Bob Edgin (2), Nicholas L. Owens (3), and John E. Ebinger (1)

(1) Department of Biological Sciences, Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, IL 61920

(2) Illinois Nature Preserves Commission, 9940 E 500th Ave., Newton, IL 62448

(3) Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign, IL 61820

(3) present address: Huff and Huff, Inc., 915 Harger Rd., Suite 330, Oakbrook, IL 60523
Table 1. Densities by diameter classes (stems/ha), total
density (stems/ha), basal areas ([m.sup.2]/ha), relative
values, importance values and average diameters of woody
species in the upland forest at Wildcat Hollow State Forest,
Effingham County, Illinois.

 Diameter Classes (cm)

Species 10-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50+

Quercus alba 12.2 23.3 32.2 23.3 21.1
Quercus velutina -- 3.3 11.1 24.4 12.2
Carya ovata 14.4 14.4 10.0 6.7 --
Carya tomentosa 24.4 24.4 1.1 2.2 --
Quercus rubra -- 1.1 1.1 2.2 --
Prunus serotina 4.4 2.2 -- -- --
Cornus florida 6.7 -- -- -- --
Sassafras albidum 5.6 -- -- -- --
Acer saccharum 1.1 -- 2.2 -- --
Quercus stellata -- -- -- 1.1 --
Carya glabra -- 1.1 -- -- --
Morus rubra 1.1 -- -- -- --
Fraxinus lanceolata -- 1.1 -- -- --

 Totals 69.9 70.9 57.7 59.9 33.3

 Total [m.sup.2] Rel.
Species #/ha /ha Den.

Quercus alba 112.1 14.711 38.3
Quercus velutina 51.0 8.138 17.5
Carya ovata 45.5 2.864 15.6
Carya tomentosa 52.1 2.132 17.9
Quercus rubra 4.4 0.458 1.5
Prunus serotina 6.6 0.191 2.3
Cornus florida 6.7 0.072 2.3
Sassafras albidum 5.6 0.067 1.9
Acer saccharum 3.3 0.188 1.1
Quercus stellata 1.1 0.210 0.4
Carya glabra 1.1 0.038 0.4
Morus rubra 1.1 0.020 0.4
Fraxinus lanceolata 1.1 0.038 0.4

 Totals 291.7 29.127 100.0

 Rel. Diam
Species Dom. I.V. (cm)

Quercus alba 50.5 88.8 37.8
Quercus velutina 27.9 45.4 44.2
Carya ovata 9.8 25.4 25.2
Carya tomentosa 7.3 25.2 21.4
Quercus rubra 1.6 3.1 35.8
Prunus serotina 0.7 3.0 18.5
Cornus florida 0.3 2.6 11.8
Sassafras albidum 0.2 2.1 12.2
Acer saccharum 0.7 1.8 25.6
Quercus stellata 0.7 1.1 49.0
Carya glabra 0.1 0.5 20.9
Morus rubra 0.1 0.5 15.1
Fraxinus lanceolata 0.1 0.5 20.9

 Totals 100.0 200.0

Table 2. Density (stems/ha) of woody seedlings, small saplings,
and large saplings encountered in the upland forest at Wildcat
Hollow State Forest, Effingham County, Illinois.

Species Seedlings Small Saplings Large Saplings

Carya ovata 2166.7 258.3 26.6
Ulmus rubra 1583.3 475.0 23.3
Quercus alba 1583.3 100.0 23.3
Quercus velutina 1500.0 75.0 --
Sassafras albidum 1500.0 141.7 46.7
Fraxinus americana 1083.3 500.0 43.3
Carya tomentosa 916.7 800.0 40.0
Amelanchier arborea 916.7 50.0 10.0
Prunus serotina 666.7 50.0 33.3
Asimina triloba 500.0 516.7 40.0
Ostrya virginiana 500.0 91.7 30.0
Carya glabra 500.0 16.7 3.3
Celtis occidentalis 416.7 -- --
Acer saccharum 333.3 316.7 73.3
Cornus florida 333.3 75.0 450.0
Quercus imbricaria 333.3 16.7 --
Ulmus americana 166.7 58.3 40.0
Cercis canadensis 83.3 -- --
Diospyros virginiana 83.3 -- --
Morus rubra -- 16.7 --
Carya cordiformis -- 8.3 6.7
Acer ginnala -- 8.3 --
 Totals 15166.6 3575.1 889.8

Table 3. Comparison of the dry-mesic to mesic upland forest
community at Wildcat Hollow State Forest, Effingham County with
nearby forests in the Southern Till Plain Natural Division
using Important Values from, Toledo Woods Natural Area (Ebinger
and Newman 1984), Rock Cave Nature Preserve (Ebinger 1982), and
Dean Hills Nature Preserve (Feist et al. 2004). The importance
value determination was based on the sum of relative density
and relative dominance.

 Wildcat Toledo Rock Cave
Species Hollow Woods dry mesic

Quercus alba 88.8 129.1 122.8 46.2
Quercus velutina 45.4 13.4 52.1 --
Carya ovata 25.4 11.2 1.8 2.2
Carya tomentosa 25.2 9.5 16.1 --
Quercus rubra 3.1 7.6 7.2 9.9
Prunus serotina 3.0 -- -- --
Cornus florida 2.6 -- -- --
Sassafras albidum 2.1 -- -- 3.2
Acer saccharum 1.8 9.8 -- 53.5
Quercus stellata 1.1 -- -- --
Carya glabra 0.5 1.8 -- 2.2
Morus rubra 0.5 -- -- --
Fraxinus spp. 0.5 6.1 -- 11.5
Ostrya virginiana -- 1.9 -- --
Carya cordiformis -- 1.7 -- 22.1
Juglans nigra -- 1.4 -- --
Tilia americana -- -- -- 19.4
Platanus occidentalis -- -- -- 10.1
Quercus muhlenbergii -- -- -- 8.2
Ulmus spp. -- -- -- 4.7
Aesculus glabra -- -- -- --
Others -- 6.5 -- 6.8

 Totals 200.0 200.0 200.0 200.0

 Dean Hills
Species dry mesic

Quercus alba 98.9 24.2
Quercus velutina 20.1 2.9
Carya ovata 1.8 5.8
Carya tomentosa 3.8 --
Quercus rubra 23.9 40.4
Prunus serotina -- --
Cornus florida 2.0 1.4
Sassafras albidum 2.8 3.2
Acer saccharum 19.4 74.5
Quercus stellata -- --
Carya glabra 9.0 6.0
Morus rubra -- --
Fraxinus spp. 7.6 8.9
Ostrya virginiana 1.3 2.6
Carya cordiformis 0.4 3.1
Juglans nigra 1 --
Tilia americana 2 12.7
Platanus occidentalis -- --
Quercus muhlenbergii 5.1 --
Ulmus spp. 0.9 4.9
Aesculus glabra -- 3.5
Others -- 5.9

 Totals 200.0 200.0
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Article Details
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Author:Tucker, Gordon C.; Edgin, Bob; Owens, Nicholas L.; Ebinger, John E.
Publication:Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1U3IL
Date:Jul 1, 2008
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