Boiling and Bacillus spores.
B. anthracis Sterne (Colorado Serum Co., Denver, CO) was grown on soil extract peptone beef extract medium (4). Spores were harvested from the agar plates and washed four times by centrifugation with sterile distilled water, treated with 50% (vol/vol) ethanol while being shaken at 100 rpm for 2 h, then washed an additional four times by centrifugation with sterile distilled water. Spores of one of the B. cereus strains were obtained from a commercial source (Raven Biological Laboratories, Omaha, NE). Spores were produced in broth cultures for the other Bacillus spp. The second B. cereus (ATCC 9592) was grown in a generic sporulation medium (5), and B. thuringiensis var. israelensis (ATCC 35646) was grown in Schaefer's medium (6). Spores were purified by gradient separation using RenoCal-76 (Bracco Diagnostics, Princeton, NJ) (6). Spore preparations were stored in 40% (vol/vol) ethanol at 5[degrees]C until used.
Duplicate experiments for each species were conducted in 1-L glass beakers containing 500 mL of municipal drinking water (21 [+ or -] 2[degrees]C, pH 8.2 [+ or -] 0.5, free available chlorine 0.5 [+ or -] 0.3 mg/L). The beakers were left uncovered or covered with a watch glass. Steam was allowed to escape from the covered beakers through the mouth of the pouring spout. Water samples were injected with the spore preparations, heated to boiling on a hot plate, and held at boiling temperature for various times. Measuring the boiling times began when the sample reached a rolling boil. A thermocouple thermometer (Cole-Parmer, Vernon Hills, IL) directly above the liquid-air interface determined the air temperature above the boiling water after 5 rain of exposure. At the conclusion of the various boiling times, the samples were removed from the heat source and allowed to cool at room temperature before analysis. These samples contained <0.2 mg/L of free available chlorine. Decimal dilutions of the water samples were analyzed in triplicate by the membrane filter procedure with nutrient agar (7).
Spores of all strains of the Bacillus spp. analyzed in this study were inactivated after boiling for 3-5 min in a covered vessel (Table). Spores still survived after 5 min of boiling in an open vessel for all of the Bacillus spp. Temperatures immediately above the surface of the boiling water in the covered vessels averaged 98.9[degrees]C, while the temperature immediately above the water level in the uncovered vessels averaged 77.3[degrees]C.
In a comprehensive literature review citing published reports dating back to 1882, Murray (8) noted that boiling times reported to destroy B. anthracis spores varied over a range of 1 to 12 min. In his own study of 17 strains of B. anthracis, Murray (8) found that boiling times of 5 to 10 min were required to achieve inactivation. Stein and Rogers (9) reported that vigorous boiling for 3 to 5 min destroyed spores from 43 strains of B. anthracis.
In our study, boiling water in a covered vessel for 3 to 5 min destroyed spores of the Bacillus spp. by greater than four orders of magnitude. Boiling for 5 rain in an uncovered vessel was not as effective as boiling in a covered vessel and allowed all Bacillus spp. spores to survive. On the basis of the initial levels of spores used in this study, holding water at a rolling boil for 1-3 min in an open container would not inactivate the spores. Boiling time refers to the total time the water is held at a rolling boil and should not be confused with the first sign of bubbles from dissolved gases in the water. Since water boils at lower temperatures at higher altitudes (approximately 90[degrees]C at 3 kin), boiling times must also compensate for decreased atmospheric pressure conditions (1,2).
Table. Inactivation of Bacillus spp. by boiling in tap water Boiling times (a) [log.sub.10] CFU/mL Initial [log.sub.10] CFU/mL 1 Min Organism Covered Uncovered Covered Uncovered B. anthracis Sterne 4.95 4.92 0.11 ND (b) B. cereus (commercial) 4.62 4.59 0.81 1.94 B. cereus, ATCC 9592 4.54 4.76 <0 (c) 0.78 B. thuringiensis ATCC 4.63 4.46 <0 (c) 1.76 35646 Boiling times (a) [log.sub.10] CFU/mL 3 Min 5 Min Organism Covered Uncovered Covered Uncovered B. anthracis Sterne <0 (c) 2.13 <0 (c) 2.01 B. cereus (commercial) <0 (c) 1.50 <0 (c) 1.46 B. cereus, ATCC 9592 <0 (c) 0.60 <0 (c) 0.48 B. thuringiensis ATCC <0 (c) 1.58 <0 (c) 1.47 35646 (a) Values are means of duplicate experiments [less than or equal to] 0.25 log units. (b) ND, not determined. (c) <0, a number reading below the detection level.
(1.) Assessment of inadequately filtered public drinking water--Washington, D.C., December, 1993. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1994;43:661-9.
(2.) Geldreich EE. Drinking water microbiology--new directions toward water quality enhancement. Int J Food Microbiol. 1989;9:295-312.
(3.) Fayer R. Effect of high temperature on infectivity of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in water. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1994;60:2732-5.
(4.) Atlas RM. Handbook of microbiological media. 2nd ed. New York: CRC Press; 1997.
(5.) Coroller L, Leguerinel I, Mafart R Effect of water activities on heating and recovery media on apparent heat resistance of Bacillus cereus spores. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2001;67:317-22.
(6.) Nicolson WL, Setlow R Sporulation, germination and outgrowth. In: Harwood CR, Cutting SM, editors. Molecular biology methods for Bacillus. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1990. p. 391-429.
(7.) Rice EW, Fox KR, Miltner R J, Lytle DA, Johnson CH. Evaluating plant performance using endospores. J Am Water Works Assoc. 1997;89:112-20.
(8.) Murray TJ. Thermal death point II. spores of Bacillus anthracis. J Infect Dis. 1931 ;48:457-67.
(9.) Stein CD, Rogers H. Observations on the resistance of anthrax spores to heat. Vet Med. 1945;50:406-10.
Address for correspondence: Eugene W. Rice, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 W. M.L. King Dr., Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA; fax: 513-487-2555; email: email@example.com
Eugene W. Rice, * Laura J. Rose, ([dagger]) Clifford H. Johnson, * Laura A. Boczek, * Matthew J. Arduino, ([dagger]) and Donald J. Reasoner *
* U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA; and ([dagger]) U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
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|Author:||Reasoner, Donald J.|
|Publication:||Emerging Infectious Diseases|
|Article Type:||Letter to the Editor|
|Date:||Oct 1, 2004|
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