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Blending of indigenous medicinal practices: a case of Chakma, Garo and Kush tribal practitioners practicing among Garo and Kush tribes in Sherpur district, Bangladesh.

INTRODUCTION

The Garo and the Kush tribes can be found inhabiting in the north-central region of Bangladesh, where the Garo tribe forms the predominant tribe of the area. Not much is known about the much smaller Kush tribe. The Chakma tribe is the largest tribe and can be found in the southeast corner of the country. In Bangladesh, most tribes have their own traditional or tribal medicinal practitioners (TMPs), and a practitioner of one tribe practicing among a different tribal community is usually not observed. This has been the case with our ethnomedicinal surveys, where we have conducted surveys among both tribal as well as mainstream folk medicinal practitioners, otherwise known as Kavirajes.

Sherpur district is to the north of Dhaka district and the capital city of Bangladesh, namely Dhaka. A number of tribes can be found in these northern regions to Dhaka district, including the Garos, Mandais, and Kush with the Garo tribe spread over Mymensingh, Tangail, Sherpur, Netrakona, and Jamalpur districts. Not much is known about the Kush tribe except that they are a small community residing in Sreepurdi in Sherpur district.

We had been conducting ethnomedicinal surveys among folk and tribal medicinal practitioners for several years [49,55,11,30,31,45,46,61,2,7,28,34,35,68,65,72,73,1 2,29,32,38,56,71,3,47]. During one of our visit to Sherpur district, we came across a community of Garos and a community of Kush, who though having their own TMPs have also been taking the services of three Chakma TMPs. Thus it was of interest to document the medicinal plants and formulations of these practitioners.

Materials and Methods

The survey was carried out at Bhagagara and Sreepurdi of Jhenaigati in Sherpur district, Bangladesh. The various TMPs with their original tribes but practicing among the Garo and Kush community are detailed below.

Uman Chakma, age 41 years, Bhagagara, Jhenaigati, practicing for 26 years. (TMP 1, Chakma)

Narendra Shongma, age 75 years, Bhagagara, Jhenaigati, Sherpur district. (TMP 2, Garo)

Paritosh Chakma, age 58 years, Bhagagara, Jhenaigati, Sherpur district, practicing for 20 years. (TMP 3, Chakma)

Kaviraj Chandrakush, age 62 years, Sreepurdi, Sherpur district. (TMP 4, Kush)

Sumon Chakma, age 32 years, Sreepurdi, Sherpur district. (TMP 5, Chakma)

Prior Informed Consent was first obtained from the TMPs. The practitioners were explained the full purpose of our visit and consent obtained to disseminate any information provided in both national and international venues. Actual interviews were conducted with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method of Martin [42] and Maundu [43]. In this method, the practitioners took the interviewers on guided field-walks through areas from where they collected their medicinal plants, pointed out the plants, and described their uses. Plant specimens were photographed and collected on the spot, pressed, dried and brought back to Dhaka to be identified at the Bangladesh National Herbarium. Detailed information was obtained from the practitioners in evening sessions when convenient with the help of the semi-structured questionnaire and open-ended interviews where the practitioners spoke at length on various medicinal plants and diseases treated. All information was noted down carefully. All TMPs could speak and understand Bengali fluently, which was the language of the interviewers and in which language interviews were conducted.

Results and Discussion

The five practitioners were observed to use a total of 56 plants distributed into 39 families in their treatments. Most of the formulations were complex and consisted of multiple plants and plant parts. Moreover, the plant formulations differed among the five practitioners, even while treating similar disease(s). The various formulations were used for treatment of fever, coughs, gall bladder stones, burning sensations during urination, burns, physical weakness, bone fracture, gastrointestinal disorders, tumor, diabetes, rheumatic problems, typhoid, skin diseases, jaundice, sexual weakness, and sprains. The results are shown in Table 1.

To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of Kush traditional medicinal practices. It can be seen from Table 1 that even though all practitioners (belonging to three tribes) practiced in the same area, there were major differences among them as to formulations used and diseases treated. For instance, TMP 1 (Chakma) treated gastrointestinal disorders (dysentery, blood dysentery, irritable bowel syndrome, gastric problems, and indigestion), diabetes, and sexual weakness. TMP 2 (Garo) treated physical weakness, dysentery, jaundice, asthma, rheumatic pain, and loss of appetite. TMP 3 (Chakma) treated burns, bone fracture, and dysentery. TMP 4 (Kush) treated fever, coughs, physical weakness, skin diseases, constipation, and sprain in hand or leg. TMP 5 (Chakma) treated dry coughs, fever, gall bladder stones, burning sensations during urination, physical weakness with loss of appetite, tumor, rheumatic problems, gastric problems, and typhoid. Even the three Chakma TMPs differed with respect to the diseases treated though some sort of gastrointestinal disorder treatment was a common feature among the Chakma TMPs as well as the Garo and the Kush TMP.

Medicinal plants and formulations of TMP 1:

TMP 1 seemed to have the most complex formulations. For instance, for treatment of diabetes, 10g each of dry powder of seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum, seeds of Tamarindus indica, bark of Melia azedarach, seeds of Mangifera indica, seeds of Syzygium cumini, leaves of Azadirachta indica, fruits of Ficus racemosa, and seeds of Mucuna pruriens were mixed together. / kg gum of Acacia nilotica was fried in / kg ghee (clarified butter) and then the gum was powdered and mixed with tal mishri (crystalline sugar obtained from sap of Borassus flabellifer) and 250 ml water. The mixture was boiled for 40 minutes and then the first mixture was added and boiled for another 20 minutes. Two teaspoons of the resulting decoction was advised to be taken orally by the patient in the morning and night daily for 3 months. The protective effect of aqueous extract of seeds of Trigonella foenumgraecum in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats has been described [4].Aqueous extract of tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds has been selectively shown to increase glucose transporter-2, glucose transporter-4, and islets' intracellular calcium levels and stimulated beta-cell proliferation resulting in improved glucose homeostasis in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus [77].

Aqueous extract of leaves of Mangifera indica has been shown to give antihyperglycemic effect in rats [1]. Islet regeneration in experimental diabetes has been reported for Syzygium cumini seeds [14]. The inhibitory effect of Azadirachta indicaleaf extract on the activities of alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase has been reported, which can have beneficial effects in diabetes [37]. Antidiabetic properties have also been observed with Mucuna pruriens seed extract [40]. Thus a number of the ingredients used by TMP 1 for treatment of diabetes have been shown scientifically to be beneficial for diabetic patients in ameliorating diabetes symptoms and effects.

For treatment of sexual weakness, one tola (local measure, 80 tolas approximate 1 kg) of whole plants of Withania somnifera was taken with 1 kg gum from Acacia nilotica, 1 tola of whole plants of Curculigo orchioides, 1 tola of whole plants of Chlorophytum borivilianum, 10 tolas of fruits of Prunus domestica, 2 tolas of fruits of Piper cubeba, 2 tolas of bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, 2 tolas of dried seed kernels of Myristica fragrans, 2 tolas of dried reticulated aril of fruits of Myristica fragrans, 3 tolas of dried floral buds of Eugenia caryophyllus, 3 tolas of fruits of Capsicum frutescens, 2 tolas of rhizomes of Alpinia nigra, and 2 tolas of dried rhizomes of Zingiber officinale. At first, the gum from Acacia nilotica was fried in 1/2 kg ghee mixed with 1/2 kg mustard oil. Then the fried mixture was added to 1 kg mishri (crystalline sugar), 1 kg sugar, and A kg water, and boiled for 1 hour. Then the rest of the dried and powdered ingredients were added to the boiling mixture and the mixture was further boiled for another 30 minutes. One teaspoon of the decoction was advised to be taken thrice daily before meals for 40 days. It is to be noted that with the exception of Withania somnifera and Acacia nilotica, the rest of the plant parts used by TMP 1 are considered in folk medicinal systems of Bangladesh as well as in common opinion to be stimulants. Withania somnifera has been shown to improve semen quality in stress-related male fertility [39].Traditionally, in Indian medicine, Acacia nilotica is considered to be a nerve stimulant [41]. Curculigo orchioides is also used in Indian traditional medicines as a nutritive tonic for strength, vigor and vitality [33]. The aphrodisiac activity of Chlorophytum borivilianum has been experimentally shown in male albino rats [79].

Medicinal plants and formulations of TMP 2:

TMP 2 used both simple and complex formulations in his treatment. For instance, to treat dysentery, a paste of leaf, flower and root of Hibiscus rosa sinensis (50g total) was advised to be orally taken twice daily for 2-3 days. For treatment of jaundice, 50g whole plant (Drynaria quercifolia) was mixed with 100g sugarcane molasses and blended. The mixture was advised to be orally taken in the morning and night for 3 days. The hepatoprotective effect of Drynaria quercifolia fronds hydroalcoholic extract against carbon tetrachloride has been described, and as such the plant may prove beneficial for treatment of jaundice [36]. However, for treatment of asthma, 50g whole plant of Withania somnifera was mixed with 20g leaves of Adhatoda vasica, 10g leaves of Achyranthes aspera, 20g leaves of Schima wallichii, 15g fruits of Vitis vinifera, and 15g roots of Abrus precatorius. The mixture was dried, powdered, blended and boiled in 300 ml water till the volume reached 200 ml. 4 teaspoons of the decoction was mixed with equal amount of cold water and advised to be taken after meals twice daily in the morning and evening. Adhatoda vasica has been shown to give bronchodilatory effects and so can prove useful in asthma treatment [50].

Medicinal plants and formulations of TMP 3:

TMP 3 also used both simple and complex formulations. For treatment of burns, paste of leaves of Ichnocarpus frutescens was prepared with egg white and applied to burnt area. However, for treatment of bone fracture, 100g bark of Crataeva nurvala was made into a paste along with 10g stems of Ichnocarpus frutescens, 10g roots of Achyranthes aspera, 10g roots of Sida rhombifolia, 3 heads of Anabas testudineusfish (Bengali: koi), 1 dried seed kernel of Myristica fragrans, and one spleen from a chicken. The paste was boiled for 30 minutes in 250 ml mustard oil. The mixture was massaged on the fractured area, and then the whole area was bandaged firmly with a clean cloth. An unusual feature of this treatment was use of a fish head, and spleen from chicken. On the other hand, the TMP showed his medical knowledge as manifested by the use of mustard oil. Oil in this case will not only serve as an emollient, but also allow ingredients of the mixture to be distributed evenly and help absorption by the skin, which can ultimately have a beneficial effect on healing. The use of this fish to heal bone fractures has been reported before for Garos in the Madhupur region of Bangladesh (Mia et al., 2009), which is close to Sherpur district. It is noteworthy that TMP 3 was a Chakma. Whether the Chakma TMP borrowed this procedure for bone healing from the Garos and adopted it with Chakma modifications remains a question to be researched upon. In this connection, it may be mentioned that the Garos of Madhupur used the fish along with the plant Cissus quadrangularis versus the Chakma TMP 3 formulation, which contained a number of other plants, but not Cissus quadrangularis. Certainly, this formulation opens up questions on cross-talk between different tribes of Bangladesh.

Medicinal plants and formulations of TMP 4:

TMP 4 used relatively simple formulations. For treatment of fever and coughs, 50g leaf juice of Adhatoda vasica was mixed with one teaspoon honey and advised to be taken for 3 days. For treatment of physical weakness, 100g roots of Asparagus racemosus and 25g bark of Ipomoea digitata were dried, powdered, mixed with A poa water and boiled. Two teaspoon was advised to be taken twice daily in the morning and at night for 2 months. For treatment of skin diseases, leaves of Azadirachta indica were boiled in water followed by advises to the patient to take a bath in the water. Bark paste of the plant was applied to affected areas of skin. A slightly more complex formulation by TMP 4 was for constipation. 50g of seed husk of Plantago ovata was advised to be taken in the morning with 50g each of dried fruits of Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia bellirica, and Terminalia chebula on an empty stomach and again in the evening. The formulations of TMP 4, who was a Kush TMP, reflected the formulations of small tribes of Bangladesh, who have possibly lost their formulations with the general decline in their formulations.

The antitussive action of Adhatoda vasica has been reported [13]; the plant was used by TMP 4 to treat coughs. Asparagus racemosus was used by the TMP to treat physical weakness. The plant is considered in Ayurveda as a rejuvenating tonic [81]. A polyherbal formulation containing Ipomoea digitata has been shown to give marked improvement over physical weakness [70] Azadirachta indica leaves were used by the TMP to treat skin diseases; the antibacterial activity of leaf extract of the plant has been shown against skin pathogens [26].

Medicinal plants and formulations of TMP 5:

The formulations of TMP 5 (Chakma) were again more complex, more so than TMP 4. For dry coughs, equal amounts of dried and powdered leaves and stems of Adhatoda vasica and leaves of Calotropis gigantea were mixed with warm water and advised to be taken. For fever treatment, 50g of leaves and stems of Andrographis paniculata was dried and powdered along with 20g leaves of Ocimum tenuiflorum. One spoon of the powder was added to 1 glass of water and the water advised to be taken after straining. For gall bladder stones or burning sensations during urination, equal amounts of leaves of Andrographis paniculata and Centella asiatica were dried and powdered. One spoonful of the powder was added to lukewarm water and advised to be taken twice daily in the morning and evening for 1 month. Burning sensations during urination was treated by TMP 5 with a second formulation. Dried stems of Calotropis gigantea, leaves of Aristolochia indica, flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis, and young leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata were dried, powdered, mixed with water and advised to be taken orally. An interesting feature of TMP 5 was that he also treated tumor. 100g whole plant of Euphorbia neriifolia was combined with 50g bark of Moringa oleifera and advised to be taken orally. It is interesting to note that an antitumor promoter has been reported from Moringa oleifera [27]. Roots of this plant reportedly inhibited epithelial ovarian cancer [9]. The suppressive effects of pods of the plant against mouse colon carcinogenesis induced by azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate have been described [10]. Extract of leaves of the plant reportedly gave antiproliferative effect and induced apoptosis in human cancer cells [78]. Leaf extract also increased cytotoxic effect of chemotherapy in pancreatic cancer cells [5]. It is also noteworthy that cancer prevention effects as well as anticancer effects have also been reported for Euphorbia neriifolia. Chemopreventive effect of hydroethanolic extract of Euphorbia neriifolia leaves has been reported against DENA-induced renal carcinogenesis in mice [51]. Cycloartane triterpenes and ingol diterpenes isolated from the plant reportedly enhanced death-receptor expression and so can be used to induce apoptosis in cancer cells [80]. Antihepatotoxic activity of Euphorbia neriifolia extract has been shown against N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice [75]. A flavonoid component isolated from the plant has been shown to inhibit N-nitrosodiethylamine -induced hepatic carcinogenesis in male mice [74]. The various scientific reports on the two plants regarding their anticancer activities suggest that the TMP possessed a remarkable knowledge on the antitumor properties of these two plants and used them together, probably to produce a synergistic effect against various forms of tumors.

Several things are of interest in the present survey. First, the use of plants against tumor could be a valuable contribution towards a cure for tumors and cancers. Second, a number of the plants have been seen to be scientifically validated in their uses. That suggests good knowledge among the TMPs on the medicinal value of the plants used and opens up further scientific studies on the remaining plants. Finally, possible cross-talks between various tribes need to be investigated.

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[51.] Pracheta, P., V. Sharma, L. Singh, R. Paliwal, S. Sharma, S. Yadav and S. Sharma, 2011. Chemopreventive effect of hydroethanolic extract of Euphorbia neriifolia leaves against DENA-induced renal carcinogenesis in mice. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 12: 677-683.

[52.] Rahmatullah, M., A. Hasan, W. Parvin, M. Moniruzzaman, A. Khatun, Z. Khatun, F.I. Jahan and R. Jahan, 2012b. Medicinal plants and formulations used by the Soren clan of the Santal tribe in Rajshahi district, Bangladesh for treatment of various ailments. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 9: 342-349.

[53.] Rahmatullah, M., A. Noman, M.S. Hossan, M.H. Rashid, T. Rahman, M.H. Chowdhury and R. Jahan, 2009b. A survey of medicinal plants in two areas of Dinajpur district, Bangladesh including plants which can be used as functional foods. American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3: 862-876.

[54.] Rahmatullah, M., A.A.B.T. Kabir, M.M. Rahman, M.S. Hossan, Z. Khatun, M.A. Khatun and R. Jahan, 2010e. Ethnomedicinal practices among a minority group of Christians residing in Mirzapur village of Dinajpur District, Bangladesh. Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, 4: 45-51.

[55.] Rahmatullah, M., A.K. Das, M.A.H. Mollik, R. Jahan, M. Khan, T. Rahman and M.H. Chowdhury, 2009c. An Ethnomedicinal Survey of Dhamrai Sub-district in Dhaka District, Bangladesh. American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3: 881-888.

[56.] Rahmatullah, M., K.R. Biswas, 2012a. Traditional medicinal practices of a Sardar healer of the Sardar (Dhangor) community of Bangladesh. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 18: 10-19.

[57.] Rahmatullah, M., D. Ferdausi, M.A.H. Mollik, M.N.K. Azam, M.T. Rahman and R. Jahan, 2009a. Ethnomedicinal Survey of Bheramara Area in Kushtia District, Bangladesh. American -Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3: 534-541.

[58.] Rahmatullah, M., D. Ferdausi, M.A.H. Mollik, R. Jahan, M.H. Chowdhury and W.M. Haque, 2010c. A Survey of Medicinal Plants used by Kavirajes of Chalna area, Khulna District, Bangladesh. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 7: 91-97.

[59.] Rahmatullah, M., M.A. Khatun, N. Morshed, P.K. Neogi, S.U.A. Khan, M.S. Hossan, M.J. Mahal and R. Jahan, 2010d. A randomized survey of medicinal plants used by folk medicinal healers of Sylhet Division, Bangladesh. Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, 4: 52-62.

[60.] Rahmatullah, M., M.A. Momen, M.M. Rahman, D. Nasrin, M.S. Hossain, Z. Khatun, F.I. Jahan, M.A. Khatun and R. Jahan, 2010f. A randomized survey of medicinal plants used by folk medicinal practitioners in Daudkandi subdistrict of Comilla district, Bangladesh. Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, 4: 99-104.

[61.] Rahmatullah, M., M.A.H. Mollik, A.K. Paul, R. Jahan, M.A. Khatun, S. Seraj, A.R. Chowdhury, A.B.M.A. Bashar, S.M.R. Wahab and M.T. Rahman, 2010a. A comparative analysis of medicinal plants used to treat gastrointestinal disorders in two sub-districts of Greater Khulna Division, Bangladesh. American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 4: 22-28.

[62.] Rahmatullah, M., M.A.H. Mollik, M. Harun -or-Rashid, R. Tanzin, K.C. Ghosh, H. Rahman, J. Alam, M.O. Faruque, M.M. Hasan, R. Jahan and M.A. Khatun, 2010b. A comparative analysis of medicinal plants used by folk medicinal healers in villages adjoining the Ghaghot, Bangali and Padma Rivers of Bangladesh. American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 4: 70-85.

[63.] Rahmatullah, M., M.A.H. Mollik, M.K. Islam, M.R. Islam, F.I. Jahan, Z. Khatun, S. Seraj, M.H. Chowdhury, F. Islam, Z.U.M. Miajee and R. Jahan, 2010h. A survey of medicinal and functional food plants used by the folk medicinal practitioners of three villages in Sreepur Upazilla, Magura district, Bangladesh. American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 4: 363-373.

[64.] Rahmatullah, M., M.A.H. Mollik, M.N. Ahmed, M.Z.A. Bhuiyan, M.M. Hossain, M.N.K. Azam, S. Seraj, M.H. Chowdhury, F. Jamal, S. Ahsan and R. Jahan, 2010g. A survey of medicinal plants used by folk medicinal practitioners in two villages of Tangail district, Bangladesh. American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 4: 357-362.

[65.] Rahmatullah, M., M.N.K. Azam, M.M. Rahman, S. Seraj, M.J. Mahal, S.M. Mou, D. Nasrin, Z. Khatun, F. Islam and M.H. Chowdhury, 2011b. A survey of medicinal plants used by Garo and non-Garo traditional medicinal practitioners in two villages of Tangail district, Bangladesh. American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 350-357.

[66.] Rahmatullah, M., M.N.K. Azam, Z. Khatun, S. Seraj, F. Islam, M.A. Rahman, S. Jahan, M.S. Aziz and R. Jahan, 2012d. Medicinal plants used for treatment of diabetes by the Marakh sect of the Garo tribe living in Mymensingh district, Bangladesh. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 9: 380-385.

[67.] Rahmatullah, M., R. Jahan, M.A. Khatun, F.I. Jahan, A.K. Azad, A.B.M.A. Bashar, Z.U.M. Miajee, S. Ahsan, N. Nahar, I. Ahmad and M.H. Chowdhury, 2010i. A pharmacological evaluation of medicinal plants used by folk medicinal practitioners of Station Purbo Para Village of Jamalpur Sadar Upazila in Jamalpur district, Bangladesh. American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 4: 170-195.

[68.] Rahmatullah, M., T. Ishika, M. Rahman, A. Swarna, T. Khan, M.N. Monalisa, S. Seraj, S.M. Mou, M.J. Mahal and K.R. Biswas, 2011a. Plants prescribed for both preventive and therapeutic purposes by the traditional healers of the Bede community residing by the Turag River, Dhaka district. American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 325-331.

[69.] Rahmatullah, M., Z. Khatun, A. Hasan, W. Parvin, M. Moniruzzaman, A. Khatun, M.J. Mahal, M.S.A. Bhuiyan, S.M. Mou and R. Jahan, 2012c. Survey and scientific evaluation of medicinal plants used by the Pahan and Teli tribal communities of Natore district, Bangladesh. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 9: 366-373.

[70.] Rani, P.U., M.U.R. Naidu, T.R. Kumar and J.C. Shobha, 1997. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety a new herbal revitalizer Revivin. Ancient Science of Life, 16: 190-195.

[71.] Sarker, B., F. Akther, U.A.R. Sifa, I. Jahan, M. Sarker, S.K. Chakma, P.K. Podder, Z. Khatun and M. Rahmatullah, 2012. Ethnomedicinal investigations among the Sigibe clan of the Khumi tribe of Thanchi sub-district in Bandarban district of Bangladesh. American -Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 6: 378-386.

[72.] Sarker, S., S. Seraj, M.M. Sattar, W.M. Haq, M.H. Chowdhury, I. Ahmad, R. Jahan, F. Jamal and M. Rahmatullah, 2011. Medicinal plants used by folk medicinal practitioners of six villages in Thakurgaon district, Bangladesh. American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 332-343.

[73.] Shaheen, Md.E.K., M.A. Syef, S.S. Saha, M.S. Islam, M.D.A. Hossain, M.A.I. Sujan and M. Rahmatullah, 2011. Medicinal plants used by the folk and tribal medicinal practitioners in two villages of Khakiachora and Khasia Palli in Sylhet district, Bangladesh. Advances in Applied and Natural Sciences, 5: 9-19.

[74.] Sharma, V., P. janmeda, 2014. Protective assessment of Euphorbia neriifolia and its isolated flavonoid against N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced hepatice carcinogenesis in male mice: a histopathological analysis. Toxicology International, 21: 37-43.

[75.] Sharma, V., P. Janmeda, R. Paliwal and S. Sharma, 2012. Antihepatoxic activity of Euphorbia neriifolia extract against N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao, 10: 1303-1309.

[76.] Sirousmehr, A., J. Arbabi and M.R. Asgharipour. 2014. Effect of drought stress levels and organic manures on yield, essential oil content and some morphological characteristics of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum). Adv. Environ. Biol., 8(4): 880-885.

[77.] Sole, S.S. and B.P. Srinivasan, 2012. Aqueous extract of tamarind seeds selectively increases glucose transporter-2, glucose transporter-4, and islets' intracellular calcium levels and stimulates [beta]-cell proliferation resulting in improved glucose homeostasis in rats with streptozotocin -induced diabetes mellitus. Nutrition Research, 32: 626-636.

[78.] Sreelatha, S., A. Jeyachitra and P.R. Padma, 2011. Antiproliferation and induction of apoptosis by Moringa oleifera leaf extract on human cancer cells. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 49: 1270-1275.

[79.] Thakur, M., N.S. Chauhan, S. Bhargava and V.K. Dixit, 2009. A comparative study on aphrodisiac activity of some Ayurvedic herbs in male albino rats. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38: 1009-1015.

[80.] Toume, K., T. nakazawa, T. Hoque, T. Ohtsuki, M.A. Arai, T. Koyano, T. Kowithayakorn, and M. Ishibashi, 2012. Cycloartane triterpenes and ingol diterpenes isolated from Euphorbia neriifolia in a screening program for deathreceptor expression-enhancing activity. Planta Medica, 78: 1370-1377.

[81.] Wani, J.A., R.N. Achur and R.K. Nema, 2011. Phytochemical screening and aphrodisiac activity of Asparagus racemosus. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, 3: 112-115.

Md. Rabiul Hasan Rifat, Muyeed Ahamed Prottoy, Md. Abu Hasan Siful Arabi, Rajeia Sultana, Sumon Chakrabortty, Khadijatul Eva, Ariful islam Khan, Md. Abdullah All Rakib, Mostafi Jumrut Mahal, Mohammed Rahmatullah

Faculty of Life Sciences University of Development Alternative Dhanmondi, Dhaka- 1209, Bangladesh

Received: 25 April 2014; Revised:: 20 May 2014; Accepted: 25 May 2014; Available online: 28 June 2014

Corresponding Author: Professor Dr. Mohammed Rahmatullah, Pro-Vice Chancellor, University of Development Alternative, House No. 78, Road No. 11A (new), Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh. Ph: 02-9136285 Fax: 02-8157339 E-mail: rahamatm@hotmail.com
Table 1: Medicinal plants and formulations of the TMPs of Sherpur
district, Bangladesh.

Serial      Scientific       Family Name      Local Name      Parts
Number         Name                                           used

1            Adhatoda        Acanthaceae        Bashok        Leaf,
              vasica                                          stem
               Nees

2          Andrographis      Acanthaceae       Kalomegh       Whole
            paniculata                                       plant,
            (Burm. f.)                                        leaf,
               Nees                                           stem

3          Achyranthes      Amaranthaceae    Upod langra      Leaf
            aspera L.

4           Mangifera       Anacardiaceae        Aam          Seed
            indica L.
5           Calotropis       Apocynaceae        Akondo        Leaf,
             gigantea                                         stem
              R. Br.

6          Ichnocarpus       Apocynaceae      Dudh newa       Stem,
            frutescens                                        leaf
              R. Br.

7            Borassus         Arecaceae          Taal          Sap
          flabellifer L.

8          Aristolochia       Aristoloc       Ishwarmul       Leaf
            indica L.          -hiaceae

9           Asparagus        Asparagaceae      Shotomul       Root
            racemosus
              Willd.

10           Opuntia          Cactaceae      Foni monsha      Leaf
             dillenii
         (Ker-Gawl) Haw.

11           Crataeva       Capparidaceae       Bonnya        Bark
             nurvala
             Buch-Ham

12          Terminalia       Combretaceae       Bohera        Fruit
            bellirica
         (Gaertn.) Roxb.

13          Terminalia       Combretaceae      Hortoki        Fruit
          chebula Retz.

14           Ipomoea        Convolvulaceae      Bhumi         Leaf
           digitata L.                         kushanda

15          Kalanchoe        Crassulaceae    Pathorkuchi      Leaf
             pinnata
           (Lam.) Pers.

16          Diospyros         Ebenaceae          Gab          Bark
            malabarica
             (De sr.)
             Kostel.

17          Euphorbia       Euphorbiaceae       Tejbol        Whole
          neriifolia L.                                       plant

18         Phyllanthus      Euphorbiaceae       Amloki        Fruit
            emblica L.

19            Abrus            Fabaceae         Josthi        Root
          precatorius L.                        modhu

20       Acacia nilotica       Fabaceae         Babla          Gum
           (L.) Willd.
            ex Delile.

21          Dalbergia          Fabaceae        Shishom        Bark
           sissoo Roxb.
              ex DC.

22            Mucuna           Fabaceae        Alkushi        Seed
           pruriens L.

23          Tamarindus         Fabaceae         Tetul         Seed
            indica L.

24          Trigonella         Fabaceae         Methi         Seed
              foenum
           -graecum L.

25          Curculigo        Hypoxidaceae     Shia musli      Whole
            orchioides                                        plant

26            Ocimum          Lamiaceae         Tulshi        Leaf
          tenuiflorum L.

27          Cinnamomum        Lauraceae       Daruchini       Bark
            zeylanicum
              Blume.

28             Leea            Leeaceae      Hosti korno      Stem,
           macrophylla                          polash        root
              Roxb.

29        Aloe vera (L.)      Liliaceae      Ghritokumari     Leaf
             Burm. f.

30         Chlorophytum       Liliaceae      Safek musli      Whole
         borivilianum L.                                      plant

31          Woodfordia        Lythraceae       Dhatoki        Leaf
            floribunda
             Salisb.

32            Bombax          Malvaceae         Shimul        Young
             ceiba L.                                         root

33        Hibiscus rosa       Malvaceae       Rokto joba      Leaf,
           sinensis L.                                      flower,
                                                              root

34             Sida           Malvaceae         Bairel        Root
          rhombifolia L.

35         Azadirachta        Meliaceae          Neem         Leaf,
            indica A.                                         bark
              Juss.

36            Melia           Meliaceae          Neem         Bark
           azedarach L.

37            Ficus            Moraceae       Jog dumur       Fruit
           racemosa L.

38           Moringa         Moringaceae        Sajna         Bark
             oleifera
               Lam.

39          Myristica       Myristicaceae       Jaifal       Fruit,
         fragrans Houtt.                     (dried seed      seed
                                               kernel),
                                               Javitri
                                             (dried fruit
                                                aril)

40           Eugenia          Myrtaceae          Long        Floral
           (S prengel)                                         bud
            Bullock &
             Harrison

41           Syzygium         Myrtaceae          Jaam         Seed
              cumini
           (L.) Skeels

42           Nymphaea        Nymphaeaceae       Shada         Whole
            pubescens                           shapla        plant
              Willd.

43         Piper cubeba       Piperaceae     Kabab chini      Fruit
                L.

44        Plantago ovata    Plantaginaceae     Ishobgul     Seed husk
             Forssk.

45           Drynaria       Polypodiaceae      Porgacha       Whole
           quercifolia                                        plant
               (L.)
              J. Sm.

46          Eichhornia      Pontederiaceae     Kan pana       Whole
            crassipes                                         plant
          (Mart.) Solms

47            Prunus           Rosaceae       Alubokhra       Fruit
           domestica L.

48           Capsicum         Solanaceae        Morich        Fruit
          frutescens L.

49           Withania         Solanaceae     Arshagandha      Whole
          somnifera (L.)                                      plant
              Dunal

50            Schima           Theaceae      Konok dustor     Leaf
            wallichii
              (DC.)
              Korth.

51           Centella        Umbelliferae      Thankuni       Leaf
          asiatica (L.)
              Urban

52            Cissus           Vitaceae        Har jora       Stem
          quadrangularis
                L.

53            Vitis            Vitaceae        Drakkha        Fruit
           vinifera L.

54        Alpinia nigra     Zingiberaceae      Kulonjon      Rhizome
            (gaertn.)
              Burtt.

55           Zingiber       Zingiberaceae        Ada         Rhizome
            officinale
              Roscoe

56           Tribulus       Zygophyllaceae   Gokhra kata      Whole
          terrestris L.                                       plant

Serial        Disease, Symptoms, Formulations, and
Number                   Administration

1               Fever, coughs. 50g leaf juice is
                 mixed with one teaspoon honey
                 and taken for 3 days. (TMP 4)
               Dry coughs. Equal amounts of dried
                 and powdered leaves and stems
                of Adhatoda vasica and leaves of
            Calotropis gigantea are mixed with warm
                    water and taken. (TMP 5)
                See Withania somnifera. (TMP 2)

2              Fever. 50g of leaves and stems of
                Andrographis paniculata is dried
                  and powdered along with 20g
               leaves of Ocimum tenuiflorum. One
            spoon of the powder is added to 1 glass
               of water and the water taken after
                       straining. (TMP 5)
             Gall bladder stone, burning sensations
               during urination. Equal amounts of
             leaves of Andrographis paniculata and
           Centella asiatica are dried and powdered.
             One spoonful of the powder is added to
              lukewarm water and taken twice daily
                in the morning and evening for 1
                         month. (TMP 5)
                See Withania somnifera. (TMP 2)
                See Ocimum tenuiflorum. (TMP 5)

3               See Withania somnifera. (TMP 2)
                 See Crataeva nurvala. (TMP 3)

4            See Trigonella foenum-graecum. (TMP 1)

5             Burning sensations during urination.
              Dried stems of Calotropis gigantea,
             leaves of Aristolochia indica, flowers
                 of Hibiscus rosa sinensis, and
             young leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata are
               dried, powdered, mixed with water
                       and taken. (TMP 5)
                  See Adhatoda vasica. (TMP 5)

6              Burns. Paste of leaves is prepared
                 with egg white and applied to
                      burnt area. (TMP 3)
                 See Crataeva nurvala. (TMP 3)

7            See Trigonella foenum-graecum. (TMP 1)

8               See Calotropis gigantea. (TMP 5)

9               Physical weakness. 100g roots of
              Asparagus racemosus and 25g bark of
             Ipomoea digitata are dried, powdered,
               mixed with % poa water and boiled.
              Two teaspoon is taken twice daily in
                 the morning and at night for 2
                        months. (TMP 4)
                 See Kalanchoe pinnata. (TMP 2)

10          Physical weakness with loss of appetite.
              Paste of 5 leaves (medium-sized) is
             taken with molasses prepared from date
               palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) sap.
                            (TMP 5)

11            Bone fracture. 100g bark of Crataeva
               nurvala is made into a paste along
                 with 10g stems of Ichnocarpus
              frutescens, 10g roots of Achyranthes
             aspera, 10g roots of Sida rhombifolia,
               3 heads of Anabas testudineus fish
              (Bengali: koi), 1 dried seed kernel
                   of Myristica fragrans, and
              one spleen from a chicken. The paste
               is boiled for 30 minutes in 250 ml
              mustard oil. The mixture is massaged
                   on the fractured area, and
                then the whole area is bandaged
               firmly with a clean cloth. (TMP 3)

12              See Phyllanthus emblica. (TMP 1)
                See Withania somnifera. (TMP 2)
                  See Plantago ovata. (TMP 4)

13              See Phyllanthus emblica. (TMP 1)
                See Withania somnifera. (TMP 2)
                  See Plantago ovata. (TMP 4)

14              See Withania somnifera. (TMP 2)
                See Asparagus racemosus. (TMP 4)

15              Physical weakness. 50g leaves of
             Kalanchoe pinnata is blended with 50g
                 roots of Asparagus racemosus,
                50g leaves of Aloe vera and 25g
              dried fruits of Phyllanthus emblica.
              One teaspoon of the mixture is taken
                in the morning after meal for 7
                         days. (TMP 2)
                 See Leea macrophylla. (TMP 5)
                See Calotropis gigantea. (TMP 5)

16          Dysentery. 100g bark is mixed with 100g
              sugarcane molasses and boiled in 200
            ml water. Two teaspoons of the decoction
           is taken thrice daily for 3 days. (TMP 3)

17            Tumor. 100g whole plant of Euphorbia
                neriifolia is combined with 50g
                  bark of Moringa oleifera and
                     taken orally. (TMP 5)

18          Dysentery, blood dysentery. 50g dry
            powder each of fruits of Phyllanthus
          emblica, fruits of Terminalia bellirica,
              and bark of Dalbergia sissoo is
            boiled in leaf juice of Aloe vera and
              50 ml water for 30 minutes. The
          decoction is orally taken (one teaspoon
                before meals for 7-10 days).
             Irritable bowel syndrome, gastric
           problems, indigestion. 50g of Triphala
             (containing equal amounts of dried
               powdered fruits of Phyllanthus
             emblica, Terminalia bellirica and
                Terminalia chebula) is mixed
                 with 10-15 pieces of dried
            floral buds of Eugenia caryophyllus
           and 250g dried powdered whole plant of
             Nymphaeapubescens, and the mixture
             is powdered and blended together.
            One teaspoon of the powder is taken
              with 1 teaspoon of honey thrice
                daily for 7-20 days. (TMP 1)
               See Kalanchoe pinnata. (TMP 2)
              See Withania somnifera. (TMP 2)
                See Plantago ovata. (TMP 4)

19            See Withania somnifera. (TMP 2)
              See Ocimum tenuiflorum. (TMP 5)

20         See Trigonella foenum-graecum. (TMP 1)
              See Withania somnifera. (TMP 1)

21            See Phyllanthus emblica. (TMP 1)

22         See Trigonella foenum-graecum. (TMP 1)

23         See Trigonella foenum-graecum. (TMP 1)

24          Diabetes. 10g each of dry powder of
            seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum,
            seeds of Tamarindus indica, bark of
            Melia azedarach, seeds of Mangifera
             indica, seeds of Syzygium cumini,
            leaves of Azadirachta indica, fruits
              of Ficus racemosa, and seeds of
            Mucuna pruriens are mixed together.
               % kg gum of Acacia nilotica is
               fried in % kg ghee (clarified
                butter) and then the gum is
             powdered and mixed with tal mishri
              (crystalline sugar obtained from
              sap of Borassus flabellifer) and
            250 ml water. The mixture is boiled
             for 40 minutes and then the first
              mixture is added and boiled for
             another 20 minutes. Two teaspoons
               of the resulting decoction is
              taken orally in the morning and
                 night daily for 3 months.
                          (TMP 1)

25            See Withania somnifera. (TMP 1)

26          Rheumatic problem, gastric problems.
            Paste of equal amounts of leaves of
              Ocimum tenuiflorum, Andrographis
              paniculata and Centella asiatica
             is mixed with root juice of Abrus
                precatoriusand taken daily.
                          (TMP 5)
            See Andrographis paniculata. (TMP 5)

27            See Withania somnifera. (TMP 1)

28            Typhoid. Stems and roots of Leea
             macrophylla are made into a paste
             with leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata.
            1A teaspoonful of the paste is taken
             with 1 teaspoon honey thrice daily
              for 7 days, and if not cured by
                  the, for another 7 days.
                          (TMP 5)

29            See Phyllanthus emblica. (TMP 1)
              See Kalanchoe pinnata. (TMP 2)

30            See Withania somnifera. (TMP 1)

31            See Withania somnifera. (TMP 2)

32           Physical weakness. 50g young root
           is taken with 1 teaspoon honey in the
             morning and at night before going
                         to sleep.

33          Dysentery. Paste of leaf, flower and
           root (50g total) is orally taken twice
                daily for 2-3 days. (TMP 2)
              See Calotropis gigantea. (TMP 5)

34            See Withania somnifera. (TMP 2)
               See Crataeva nurvala. (TMP 3)

35          Skin diseases. Leaves are boiled in
             water followed by taking a bath in
            the water. Bark paste is applied to
              affected areas of skin. (TMP 4)
           See Trigonella foenum-graecum. (TMP 1)

36         See Trigonella foenum-graecum. (TMP 1)

37         See Trigonella foenum-graecum. (TMP 1)

38            See Withania somnifera. (TMP 2)
             See Euphorbia neriifolia. (TMP 5)

39            See Withania somnifera. (TMP 1)
               See Crataeva nurvala. (TMP 3)

40            See Phyllanthus emblica. (TMP 1)
              See Withania somnifera. (TMP 1)

41         See Trigonella foenum-graecum. (TMP 1)

42            See Phyllanthus emblica. (TMP 1)

43            See Withania somnifera. (TMP 1)

44           Constipation. 50g of seed husk of
               Plantago ovata is taken in the
               morning with 50g each of dried
               fruits of Phyllanthus emblica,
            Terminalia bellirica, and Terminalia
           chebula on an empty stomach and again
                  in the evening. (TMP 4)

45           Jaundice. 50g whole plant is mixed
              with 100g sugarcane molasses and
            blended. The mixture is orally taken
                in the morning and night for
                      3 days. (TMP 2)

46            See Tribulus terrestris. (TMP 1)

47            See Withania somnifera. (TMP 1)

48            See Withania somnifera. (TMP 1)

49            Sexual weakness. One tola (local
           measure, 80 tolas approximate 1 kg) of
           whole plants of Withania somnifera is
         taken with 1 kg gum from Acacia nilotica,
            1 tola of whole plants of Curculigo
           orchioides, 1 tola of whole plants of
               Chlorophytum borivilianum, 10
           tolas of fruits of Prunus domestica, 2
          tolas of fruits of Piper cubeba, 2 tolas
         of bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, 2 tolas
            of dried seed kernels of Myristica
           fragrans, 2 tolas of dried reticulated
          aril of fruits of Myristica fragrans, 3
           tolas of dried floral buds of Eugenia
             caryophyllus, 3 tolas of fruits of
          Capsicum frutescens, 2 tolas of rhizomes
           of Alpinia nigra, and 2 tolas of dried
            rhizomes of Zingiber officinale. At
          first, the gum from Acacia nilotica is
             fried in % kg ghee mixed with % kg
           mustard oil. Then the fried mixture is
         added to 1 kg mishri (crystalline sugar),
           1 kg sugar, and % kg water, and boiled
              for 1 hour. Then the rest of the
            dried and powdered  ingredients are
            added to the boiling mixture and the
           mixture is further boiled for another
              30 minutes. One teaspoon of the
           decoction is taken thrice daily before
                 meals for 40 days. (TMP 1)
            Asthma. 50g whole plant of Withania
           somnifera is mixed with 20g leaves of
              Adhatoda vasica, 10g leaves of
             Achyranthes aspera, 20g leaves of
           Schima wallichii, 15g fruits of Vitis
             vinifera, and 15g roots of Abrus
             precatorius. The mixture is dried,
              powdered, blended and boiled in
            300 ml water till the volume reaches
            200 ml. 4 teaspoons of the decoction
             is mixed with equal amount of cold
             water and taken after meals twice
             daily in the morning and evening.
                          (TMP 2)
            Loss of appetite. 25g each of dried
             whole plant of Withania somnifera,
             roots of Sida rhombifolia, leaves
            of Woodfordia floribunda, and fruits
             of Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia
             bellirica, and Terminalia chebula
              are mixed thoroughly with 1 poa
             (local measure, 4 poas approximate
             1 kg). Two teaspoon of the mixture
              is taken twice daily after meals
                   for 5-7 days. (TMP 2)
             Rheumatic pain. 100g each of whole
               plant of Withania somnifera is
             gathered with fruit of Phyllanthus
             emblica, leaf of Ipomoea digitata,
            bark of Moringa oleifera, and whole
            plant of Andrographis paniculata. At
            first dried and powdered whole plant
            of Withania somnifera is mixed with
               300 ml water. The rest of the
             ingredients are blended and mixed
            with the above mixture. In cases of
             severe rheumatic pain, 4 teaspoons
              and in case of slight rheumatic
             pain, 2 teaspoons are taken twice
                       daily. (TMP 2)

50            See Withania somnifera. (TMP 2)

51            See Ocimum tenuiflorum. (TMP 5)

52            Sprain in hand or leg. Paste of
               stem is mixed with mustard oil
               and applied to aprained areas.
                          (TMP 4)

53            See Withania somnifera. (TMP 2)

54            See Withania somnifera. (TMP 1)

55            See Withania somnifera. (TMP 1)

56           Diabetes. Whole plants of Tribulus
            terrestris (30g) and whole plants of
            Eichhornia crassipes (30g) are mixed
           together, crushed, dried and powdered.
                 % teaspoon powder is taken
             in the morning and evening before
               meals for 10-15 days. (TMP 1)
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Title Annotation:Research Article
Author:Rifat, Rabiul Hasan; Prottoy, Muyeed Ahamed; Arabi, Abu Hasan Siful; Sultana, Rajeia; Chakrabortty,
Publication:American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9BANG
Date:Apr 1, 2014
Words:8388
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