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Bivalve mollusks from the Maxville Limestone (Mississippian) in Ohio.

ABSTRACT. Bivalve mollusks are a common component of the Chesterian Maxville Limestone in Ohio, although not as abundant as the brachiopods. A number of taxa were found preserved as internal molds making identification difficult. The new species Leptodesma (Leptodesma) rhysema, Limipecten lamellus, Astartella clinata, and Sanquinolites bekitoensis are among the 29 taxa now known from the formation. The shale unit near the top of the formation contains mytilaceans and abundant pectenaceans dominated by Aviculopecten winchelli Meek, 1875, the latter with inarticulate brachiopod epibionts.


Collections from eight localities have produced a significant increase in the known bivalve fauna of the Mississippian (Chesterian) Maxville Limestone (Fig. 1). Previous work by Whitfield (1882, 1891, 1893), Morse (1911) and Hoare and others (1988) described seven taxa. An additional 22 taxa are included herein. Corrections of previous taxonomic assignments are given in the discussion on previous work and in the systematic section. The location of Whitfield's bivalve specimens is unknown, presumably lost. Six specimens collected by Morse are in the collections of the Orton Geological Museum, The Ohio State University. The purpose of this study is to describe and illustrate the known bivalve fauna and to update the taxonomic assignment of previously described taxa.


Collections from the limestone and shale were obtained by the use of hammer and sledge in the field as well as finding weathered out specimens. Further preparation was done under a microscope using a vibratool and fine needles. In extracting specimens from the limestone the shell commonly adhered to the matrix and in chipping the matrix away from specimens the shell usually broke up as it was exposed. Samples of weathered limestone were boiled in a solution of water and Quaternary O which liberated numerous small specimens, mainly preserved as internal molds. Many of these were not well enough preserved to allow specific identification.

Specimens from the shale unit were all disarticulated valves. Shell material was preserved, although very thin and incomplete. These specimens were coated with a thin layer of Styrofoam dissolved in benzene to preserve the shell material and to protect the impression of the shell in the shale matrix.

All specimens were coated with a thin layer of magnesium oxide for photographic purposes to enhance the ornamentation. Photography was done with a Leica camera.

Collections made by the late M. T. Sturgeon and students, Ohio University, and the late A. S. Horowitz, Indiana University, were given to the author to supplement the collections at Bowling Green State University.


The four species of bivalves described by Whitfield (1882, 1891, 1893) include: Pinna maxvillensis Whitfield = Pinna (Sulcatopinna) missouriensis Swallow, 1863; Schizodus chesterensis Meek and Worthen, 1860 = Schizodus sp; Allorisma andrewsi Whitfield = Wilkingia andrewsi (Whitfield, 1882); and Allorisma maxvillensis Whitfield = Wilkingia maxvillensis (Whitfield, 1882). To this list Morse (1911) added one species: Cypricardella oblonga Hall, 1858a = Edon oblonga (Hall, 1858a). A short note by Hoare and others (1988) added two species in describing color patterns on Aviculopecten winchelli Meek, 1875, and Streblopteria sp. from the shale near the top of the Maxville.

Hyde (1953) described numerous Mississippian bivalves from Ohio but did not include the Maxvillle Limestone.


The lack of shell material on most bivalve specimens precludes the preservation of any epibionts that may have been attached. The brachiopods in the Maxville Limestone have a common and varied epibiont fauna present on the shells (Hoare, 2003). It is likely that specimens of bivalves also had attached epibionts.

In several instances pedicle valves of Orbiculoidea cf. O. keokuk (Gurley, 1884) were found preserved on the valves of Aviculopecten winchelli Meek, 1875, in the upper black shale unit (Fig. 2.1-2.3) It is possible that the larvae of these inarticulate brachiopods suvived by becoming attached to the firm substrate of the bivalve shell. A brachial valve of Oehlertella pleurites (Meek, 1875) was also found in the shale but not on a bivalve shell (Fig. 2.4). Several small fragments of brachial valves were also found in the shale.


The bivalve fauna of the Maxville Limestone is much more diverse than previously known. An additional 22 taxa are described herein including:

Nuculopsis aff. N. shumardana (Hall, 1858a)

Nuculopsis sp.

Polidevcia cf. P stevensiana (Girty, 1910)

Palaeoneilo sp.

Phestia cf. P pandoraeformis (Stevens, 1858)

?Solemya (Jania) sp.

Modiolus (Modiolus) fountainence Weller, 1916

M. (M.) waverliensis (Herrick, 1888)

?ambonychiid gen. and sp.

Myalinella sp.

Leptodesma (Leptodesma) rhysema n. sp.

L. (L.) cf. L. (L.) matheri Elias, 1957

Aviculopecten sp. A

Aviculopecten sp. B

Limipecten lamellus n. sp.

Limipecten sp.

Streblochondria sp.

Schizodus cf. S. chesterensis Meek and Worthen, 1860

Astartella clinata n. sp.

Edmondia sp.

Sanguinolites hekitoensis n. sp.

?Sedgwickia sp..

Two species of inarticulate brachiopods were found in the black shale unit, Orbiculoidea cf. O. keokuk (Gurley, 1884) and Oehlertella pleurites (Meek, 1875). These were presumably epibionts associated with pectenaceans. Further collecting will likely increase the number of bivalve taxa known in the Maxville Limestone.


The supergeneric classification of Newell (1969, p. N205) is followed and not reproduced herein. Specimens have been placed in the repository of the Orton Geological Museum, The Ohio State University (OSU).

Genus Nuculopsis Girty, 1911 Nuculopsis aff. N. shumardana (Hall, 1858a) (Fig. 3.1-3.4)

Nucula shumardana Hall, 1858a, p. 16; Whitfield, 1882, p. 57, pl. 7, figs. 2-6; Hall, 1883, p. 343, pl. 30, figs. 2-6; Beede, 1906, p. 1323, pl. 23, figs. 2-6.



Subtrigonal shell with beaks near anterior end; beaks prosogyrate extending above hingeline; hingeline slopes steeply to narrowly curved posterior margin; anterior margin truncate; surface with numerous closely-spaced, comarginal ridges; internal features not observed. Specimens range from 4.3 mm long, 3.8 mm high, 1.5 mm wide to 1.8 mm long, 1.4 mm high, 1.1 mm wide.


One of the specimens has the shell preserved (Fig. 3.3), the rest are internal molds that are distorted to varying degrees. Nucula shumardana was described from the Salem Limestone in Indiana. The specimens from the Maxville Limestone differ from those in the Salem Limestone by being thicker and less truncate anteriorly with the beaks not located as far anteriorly. Otherwise they closely resemble Hall's species.


Forty-nine specimens including OSU 52351-52353 from localities 2, 8.

Nuculopsis sp. (Fig. 3.5-3.9)


Several small internal molds have the basic shape of Nuculopsis. The beaks are prosogyrate. Muscle scars, pallial line, and dentition are not preserved. They differ from N. rectangular (McChesney, 1860) by being more attenuate posteriorly and from N. okawensis Schenk, 1939 by being more elongate. The better preserved specimens range in size from 7.6 mm long, 5.1 mm high, 4.1 mm wide to 4.8 mm long, 3.7 mm high, 2.0 mm wide.



Four internal molds including OSU 52354-52356 from localities 1, 2.

Genus Polidevcia Chernyshew, 1951 Polidevcia cf. P. stevensiana (Girty, 1910) (Fig. 3.10-3.14)

Leda stevensiana Girty, 1910, p. 226.

Phestia stevensiana (Girty). Pojeta, 1969, p. 19, pl. 3, figs. 24-29.

Polidevcia stevensiana (Girty). Hoare, 1993, p. 378, fig. 2.17-2.21.


Elongate, narrow, with nuculaniform shape; beaks anterior of midlength, low, incurred, prosogyrate; ornament and internal features not observed. Specimens range in size from 5.3 mm long, 2.8 mm high, 1.9 mm wide to 2.0 mm long, 1.1 mm high, 1.0 mm wide.


Most of the specimens are small juveniles preserved as distorted internal molds.


Over 100 specimens including OSU 52357-52359 from localities 1, 2.

Genus Palaeoneilo Hall and Whitfield, 1869 Palaeoneilo sp. (Fig. 3.15-3.17)


Fragments of two internal molds from the limestone and a compressed specimen from the shale unit, the latter showing the external ornamentation of fine comarginal lirae, are assigned to Palaeoneilo. They have the basic shape of the genus but the preservation does not allow specific assignment. Palaeoneilo sera Girty, 1910, from the Fayetteville Shale in Arkansas, is less produced posteriorly and the comarginal ornamentation is not as uniform as the specimens included here.


Three specimens including OSU 52360-52362, from locality 1.

Genus Phestia Chernyshew, 1951 Phestia pandoraeformis (Stevens, 1858) (Fig. 3.18, 3.19)

Leda pandoraeformis Stevens, 1858, p. 262.

Leda bellistriata Stevens. Winchell, 1862, p. 419; 1865, p. 128.

(non) Leda pandoraeformis Stevens. Hall, 1885, p. 332, pl. 47, figs. 49, 50; Girty, 1915, p. 84, pl. 8, figs. 15, 16.

Polidevcia pandoraeformis (Stevens). Driscoll, 1965, p. 79, pl. 10, figs. 16-34.

Phestia sp. Gordon and Henry, 1981, pl. 4, figs. 15, 16,.

Phestia pandoraeformis (Stevens). Hoare, 1993, p. 378, fig. 2.22-2.26.


Small internal molds; beaks tightly incurved, anterior to midlength; strongly sloping posterodorsal margin; ventral margin convex becoming concave posteriorly; anterior margin broadly convex; internal features not observed. Specimens range in size from 4.3 mm long, 2.8 mm high, 2.0 mm wide to 2.0 mm long, 2.0 mm high, 1.4 mm wide.


All of the specimens found are small internal molds and appear to be juveniles. They appear to be most similar to P. pandoraeformis. Phestia nasata (Hall, 1858) is somewhat similar but the beaks are located further posteriorly and the shell is less attenuate posteriorly.


Sixteen specimens including OSU 52363 from localities 1, 2. Genus Solemya Lamarck, 1818 Subgenus Jania King, 1850 Solemya (Jania) sp. (Fig. 3.20)


A single partial shell of a left valve shows characteristics distinguishing it from known Mississippian bivalves. The specimen was apparently elongate with a straight hingeline, with prosogyrate beaks close to the anterior extremity. The umbonal area is smooth but the ventral and posterior portions of the valve bear relatively coarse, closely-spaced costae radiating from the direction of the beak. One major comarginal growth line is present. The shell is partially distorted. Exact measurements cannot be made but the specimen is 12.6 mm long, 9.0 mm high, and 2.9 mm wide. It looks somewhat similar to S. (J.)Drimaeva Phillips, 1836, from the Carboniferous of England, although the costae are coarser and do not extend as far into the umbonal region.


One incomplete left valve, OSU 52364, from locality 5. Genus Modiolus Lamarck, 1799 Subgenus Modiolus Lamarck, 1799 Modiolus (Modiolus) fountainensis Weller, 1916 (Fig. 3.21-3.23)



Small, thin shelled, narrowly elongately spatulate in form; beaks near anterior margin, not prominent; dorsal margin straight before curving with broad convexity into narrowly convex posterior margin; ventral margin nearly straight; anterior margin short, convex; surface with only faint comarginal growth lines; interior features not observed. Specimens range in size from 14.3 mm long, 6.2 mm high to 7.3 mm long, 3.7 mm high.


The narrow, elongate shape and less prominent comarginal ornamentation distinguish M. (M.)fountainensis from other species of the subgenus.


Three valves, OSU 52365-52367, from localities 1, 5.

Modiolus (Modiolus) waverliensis (Herrick, 1888) (Fig. 3.24, 3.25)

Modiola waverliensis Herrick, 1888, p. 63, pl. 1, fig. 9, pl. 4, fig. 10 (not pl. 7, fig. 29); 1893, pl. 24, fig. 21,

Modiolus (Modiolus) waverliensis Herrick, Busanus and Hoare, 1991, p. 467, fig. 3, 15, 3.16; Hoare, 1993, p. 379, fig. 3.3-3.7.


Small, thin-shelled, slightly inflated myalinid; beaks near anterior margin; hingeline straight; closely-spaced, comarginal growth lines present; hinge and internal features not observed. Better preserved specimen is approximately 20 mm long and 11 mm high.


The specimens are from the shale unit preserved as internal molds with some shell material attached.


Two right valves, OSU 52368, 52369, from locality 1. Genus Pinna Linne, 1758 Subgenus Sulcatopinna Hyatt, 1892 Pinna (Subcatopinna) missouriensis Swallow, 1863 (Fig. 3.26, 3.27)

Pinna missouriensis Swallow, 1863, p. 97; Keyes, 1894, p. 116.

Pinna maxvillensis Whitfield, 1882, p. 221; 1891, p. 586, pl. 14, fig. 5; 1893, p. 474, pl. 10, fig. 5; Morse, 1911, p. 391, fig. 17.

Pinna arkansana Weller, 1897, p. 260, pl. 20, figs. 1, 2.

Sulcatopinna arkansana (Weller). Girty, 1915, p. 87, pl. 7, fig. 1.

Sulcatopinna missouriensis (Swallow). Weller, 1921, p. 375, pl. 11, fig. 1; 1931, p. 264, pl. 44, fig. 1; Busanus and Hoare, 1991, p. 468, fig. 3.24, 3.25; Hoare, 1993, p. 379, fig. 3.12.

Sulcatopinna sp. Gordon and Henry, 1981, pl. 4, fig. 20. ?pinnid Brezinski, 1989, pl. 3, fig. A.


Elongate, narrowly triangular shell, subelliptical in cross section; beaks at anterior end; edentulous; ligament linear, subinternal, bordered by ridge externally along entire length; 25 or more elongate plicae radiating from beak area, some bifurcating; several growth lines in posterior half of length; no evidence of s smooth ventral portion, muscle scars, or nacre lobes. The largest fragmentary specimen is 10.5 cm long.


Pinna arkansana and P. maxvillensis are believed to be synonyms of P. (S.) missouriensis based upon published descriptions and illustrations. Pinna (S.) inexpectens (Walcott, 1884) differs in having spine bases on the valves and P. (S.) ludlovi (Whitfield, 1876) has a smaller apical angle and grooved radial ribs.


Three blocks of matrix of which two have several partial valves preserved, OSU 12199, 22911, 52370, from localities 1, 7, and one unknown locality.

?ambonychiid gen. and sp. (Fig. 4.1-4.5)


Internal mold with incurved, prosogyrate, gibbous beaks at anterior extremity; dorsal margin nearly straight curving sharply into posterior margin; ventral margin convex curving evenly into both anterior and posterior margins; anterior margin nearly vertical; faint impressions of comarginal growth lamellae; surface ornament and internal features not observed. The largest mold is 21.9 mm long, 19.0 mm high, 15.3 mm wide.


The Ambonychiidae questionably range into the Mississippian (Newell and others, 1969, p. N285). The specimens described above have the general shape of the family and like Gosseletia Barrois, 1882, and Mytilarca Hall and Whitfield, 1869, lack indication of radial ornamentation on the internal molds. Some very small (2.0-4.0 mm long) internal molds may also represent the species. They do not add anything to the above descriptions.


Two slightly distorted internal molds, OSU 52371, 52372, from locality 1.

Genus Myalinella Newell, 1942 Myalinella sp, (Fig. 4.6, 4.7)


Small, subrectangular, strongly prosocline shell; thin-shelled; beaks at anterodorsal margin; posterodorsal angle obtuse; faint comarginalgrowth lines; hinge and muscle scars not observed. Shells approximately 16 mm high.


The specimens are from the black shale unit. They are incomplete and poorly preserved as internal molds with fragments of shell material present. Shell shape is similar to Myalina monroensis Weller, 1916, from the St. Genevieve Limestone in Illinois.


Three valves, OSU 52373-52375, from locality 1. Genus Leptodesma Hall, 1883 Subgenus Leptadesma Hall, 1883

Leptadesma (Leptadesma) rhysema n. sp. (Fig. 4.8-4.12)


Leptodesma with rounded ridge or fold within sulcus extending from umbonal area; surface ornament of narrow, comarginal, erect lamellae with wider interspaces.



Hingeline straight; posterior margin strongly convex; anterior margin short, concave ventral to beaks becoming flatly convex before curving into broadly convex ventral margin; distinct, fairly deep sulcus radiating from umbonal area having a rounded fold within it in most specimens; surface ornament of numerous narrow, comarginal, erect lamellae which continue across sulcus and fold; hinge and internal features not observed. Specimens range in size from 10.6 mm long, 5.3 mm high to 19.3 mm long, 12.6 mm high.


Greek, rhysema, wrinkle.


The posterior wing in L. (L.) rhysema does not appear to be as extended posteriorly as in many other species of the genus (e.g. L. (L.) matheri Elias, 1957; L. (L.) occidentalis Girty, 1927). This may be a result of preservation or of preparation in uncovering the specimen in the limestone matrix. The sulcus may be deep or shallow and the ridge distinct to indistinct. The presence of the distinct ridge in the sulcus and the comarginal lamellae readily distinguish the species.


Five valves, holotype OSU 52376, paratypes 52377-52380, from localities 1, 2.

Leptodesma (Leptodesma) cf. L. (L.) matheri Elias, 1957 (Fig. 4.13-4.15)

Monopteria? sp. Mather, 1915, p. 217, pl. 15, fig. 9.

Leptodesma (Springeri) matheri Elias, 1957, p. 761, pl. 92, figs. 1-8, pl. 93, figs 4, 5, text-figs. 1, 3-6.

Leptodesma sp. Gordon and Henry, 1981, pl. 4, fig. 23.

Leptodesma (Leptodesma) matheri Elias. Busanus and Hoare, 1991, p. 468, fig. 4.1, 4.2.

Leptodesma (Leptodesma) cf. L. (L.) matheri Elias. Hoare, 1993, p. 380, fig. 3.16.


Hingeline straight; umbo extends above hingeline; beaks approximately one-fourth length from anterior margin; anterior margin short, convex, leading to concave area of posterior wing; surface ornament of numerous, closely-spacedlirae; internal features not observed. Specimens range in size from 10.0 mm long, 5.0 mm high to 11.5 mm long, 5.5 mm high.


Although the specimens show some degree of distortion caused by compaction of the shale unit there is no indication of a sulcus and ridge in the anterior portion of the valve as in L. (L.) rhysema n. sp. The specimens described and illustrated by Elias (1957) are better preserved than those in the Maxville and the ornamentation is more sharply distinct.


Numerous nearly complete to fragmentary valves including OSU 52381-52383 from locality 1.

Genus Aviculopecten McCoy, 1851

Aviculopecten winchelli Meek, 1875 (Fig. 4.16-4.21, 5.1, 5.2)

Aviculopecten winchelli Meek, 1875, p. 296, pl. 15, figs. 5a, b; Hoare, Hansen, Merrill and Hook, 1988, p. 653, fig. 1.1-1.4.


Medium-sized, slightly prosocline suborbicular Aviculopecten; auricular sinuses moderately deep; body costae on left valve narrow, varying in size with one to three smaller costae between larger ones, increasing by intercalation; interfaces narrow; anterior auricle with 20-22 fine costae, posterior auricle with 15 fine costae; 62 body costae at distance of 25 mm from hinge line; numerous closely-spaced, comarginal growth lamellae; right valve with nearly equal-sized body costae separated by equal or narrower interspaces; anterior auricle with eight costae, posterior auricle with 19-20 finer costae; 87 body costae at a distance of 20 mm from hinge line; umbonal angle of 55 degrees; fine comarginal growth lines. Specimens measure up to 26 mm high and 26 mm wide.


Hoare and others (1988) described specimens of this species from the black shale unit showing remnants of a color pattern. Examination of numerous other specimens has confirmed this assignment although they are slightly smaller than those described from the Waverly Group in Ohio and the costae are more prominent on the body of the right valve. In all other respects the specimens agree closely with the description by Meek (1875, p. 296).


Nineteen specimens including OSU 37059-37062, 52387-52391 from locality 1.

Aviculopecten sp. A (fig. 5.3)


Left valve small, suborbicular; 31 rounded body costae of unequal size, increasing by intercalation; costae crossed by fine, comarginal lamellae on posterior portion of valve; seven fine costae on left auricle with moderately deep sinus; umbonal angle of 97 degrees; other features not preserved. Specimens are 12.5 mm high, 11.0 mm wide.


The specimens are immature and incomplete but retained shell material when extracted from the limestone matrix.


Two left valves, OSU 52392, 52393, from locality 1. Aviculopecten sp. B (Fig. 5.4)


Small, auricles set-off by deep sulci; 47 narrow body costae increasing by intercalation; interspaces narrow; nine fine costae on posterior auricle, 11 costae on anterior auricle; umbonal angle 88 degrees; numerous fine comarginal growth lines which become beaded crossing costae on anterior auricle; other features not observed. Specimen measures 6.6 mm high, 6.0 mm wide.


The shell, a left valve, is nearly complete with the exception of portions of the auricles. It differs from A. winchelli Meek and Aviculopecten sp. A by having less distinct comarginal ornamentation, more closely-spaced body costae, and the umbonal area extends further above the hinge line.


One left valve, OSU 52394, from locality 1. Genus Limipecten Girty, 1904 Limipecten lamellus n. sp. (Fig. 5.5, 5.6)


Small Limipecten with nearly equal-sized, broadly rounded costae crossed by low, imbricate lamellae on the anterior portion of the valve.


Small, valve convex, nearly orthocline; auricles incomplete, set-off from body by deep sulci; anterior auricle with eight flatly rounded costae, posterior auricle with nine to 10 smaller, flatly rounded costae; body with 40 broadly rounded, nearly equal-sized costae separated by narrower interfaces; costae increase by intercalation; costae crossed by numerous low, imbricate lamellae on anterior portion of valve; umbonal angle 98 degrees; right valve and interior features not observed. Specimens are 12-13 mm high, 11.5 mm wide.


Latin, lamina, thin plate.


Limipecten lamellus diffes from L. docens (McCoy, 1855), from the Lower Carboniferous of the United Kingdom, by having uniform-sized costae, coarser, more widely-spaced lamellae, and lack of lamellae on the umbonal area. The nature of the costae and imbricate lamellae distinguish this species.



Two left valves, holotype OSU 52395, paratype 52396, from locality 1.

Limipecten sp. (Fig. 5.7, 5.8)


Two small, incomplete, left valves from the limestone show characteristics of Limipecten. They differ from L. lamellus by having comarginal, imbricate lamellae from the umbo to the anterior margin. A specimen from the black shale unit may represent the same species. The largest specimen is 6.6 mm high, 7.5 mm wide.


Three left valves, OSU 52397-52399, from locality 1.

Genus Streblochondria Newell, 1937 Streblochandria sp. (Fig. 5.9, 5.10)


Poorly preserved, somewhat distorted valves. Numerous ridges radiate from the umbonal area and are crossed by fainter comarginal ridges on the right valve. What may be a left valve (Fig. 5.9) lies in juxtaposition to a right valve, hinge line to hinge line, and is unornamented. The specimens may represent S. tiltoni Busanus and Hoare, 1991, but the preservation is too incomplete for a positive identification.


Two partial specimens from the black shale unit, OSU 52400, 52401, from locality 1.

Genus Streblopteria McCoy, 1851 Streblopteria sp. (Fig. 5.11-5.13)

Streblopteria sp. Hoare, Hansen, Merrill and Hook, 1988, p. 653, fig. 1.5-1.7.


The fragmental nature of the specimens prevents a specific assignment. The smooth, orbicular-shaped shell and the obtuse angle of the posterior auricle places them in Streblopteria. Traces of a color pattern were found on some specimens. The most complete specimen is 9.0 mm long, 8.5 mm wide.


Two partial left valves, OSU 52402, 52403, from locality 1.

Genus Schizodus de Verneuil and Murchson, 1844 Schizodus sp. (Fig. 5.14, 5.15)

Schizodus chesterensis Meek and Worthen. Whitfield, 1891, p. 587, pl. 14, fig. 4; 1893, p. 474, pl. 10, fig. 4; Morse, 1911, p. 390, fig. 16.


As noted by Elias (1957, p. 767) and Hoare and others (1989, p. 593) this specimen as described by Whitfield and Morse probably represents a new species. The lack of well preserved specimens precludes such an assignment. The illustration by Whitfield, repeated by Morse, and the present internal mold shows a significant difference in shape from S. chesterensis Meek and Worthen, 1860. The dorsoposterior region is more extended dorsally and the anterior margin is more strongly curved and produced further anteriorly in these limestone specimens. The composite mold from the black shale unit has a much stronger convexity of the ventral margin, a less produced anterior margin, and less strongly sloping umbonal ridge than the limestone mold or in S. chesterensis. It may represent a different species.


Two specimens, OSU 52405, 52406, from localities 1, 4. Schizodus cf. S. chesterensis Meek and Worthen, 1860 (Fig. 5.16)

Schizodus chesterensis Meek and Worthen, 1860, p, 451; 1866, p. 301, pl. 23, figs. 6a, b; ?Easton, 1942, p. 85, pl. 9, fig. 4; Elias, 1957, p. 767, pl. 96, fig. 10, text-figs/ 1.9, 1.10; Hoare, Heaney and Mapes, 1989, p. 593, fig. 5.19-5.22.

(non) Schizodus chesterensis Meek and Worthen. Whitfield, 1891, p. 587, pl. 14, fig. 4; 1893, p. 474, pl. 10, fig. 4; Morse, 1911, p. 390, fig. 16.


A mold of the right valve appears to have the general shape of S. chesterensis. It is small, 11.6 mm long, 9.0 mm high, with a relatively strong posterior umbonal ridge extending towards the posteroventral margin. The posterior hingeline slopes strongly ventrally from the beak. A second specimen, collected by Morse (OSU 12198), is poorly preserved and may also represent this species.


One specimen, OSU 52407, from locality 1. Genus Edon Hall in Miller, 1877 Edon oblonga (Hall, 1858a) (Fig. 5.17-5.22)

Cypricardella oblonga Hall, 1858a, p. 18; 1883, p. 340, pl. 30, figs. 30-34; Morse, 1911, p. 394, fig. 20.

Cypricardella nucleata Hall, 1858a, p. 17; 1883, p. 339, pl. 30, figs. 35, 36; Beede, 1906, p. 1331.

Microdon (Cypricardella) oblonga (Hall). Whitfield, 1882, p. 65, pl. 7, figs. 30-34.

Microdon oblonga (Hall). Beede, 1906, p. 1330, pl. 23, figs. 30-36.


Shell elongate with straight dorsal margin sloping posteriorly; anterior margin concave below beaks then rounding sharply before curving convexly into ventral margin; posterior margin straight dorsally, curving convexly into ventral margin; beaks located anterior of midlength, tightly incurved, prosogyrate; valve angulated from umbo to ventroposterior margin; surface with comarginal growth lamellae; anterior muscle scar well developed, hinge not observed. Specimens range from 7.0 mm long, 4.3 mm high, 3.1 mm wide to 5.1 mm long, 4.1 mm high, 2.5 mm wide.


As the name implies, Edon oblonga differs from other species of the genus by its elongate shape and by the posterior angulation of the valves. Smaller specimens are nearly equal in length and height as indicated by Whitfield (1882, p. 65) and Beede (1906, p. 1331).


Twelve slightly distorted specimens including OSU 12202, 52408-52412, from localities 1, 6.

Genus Astartella Hall 1858b Astartella clinata n. sp. (Fig. 6.1-6.3)


Small Astartella with convex posterodorsal margin sloping ventrally; short, convex, posterior margin; comarginal ridges and interspaces of equal size.


Shell with strongly sloping dorsoposterior margin meeting short posterior margin with an obtuse angle; anterior margin convex; ventral margin flatly convex; valves angulated from umbonal area to ventroposterior margin; area dorsal to angulation concave; beaks tightly incurved near anterior margin, prosogyrate; lunule and escutcheon not deeply impressed; comarginal ridges become coarser during growth with equal-sized interspaces, eight in 2 mm near ventral margin; internal features not observed. The holotype is 9.6 mm long, 7.8 mm high, 4.4 mm wide.


Latin, clino, slope, slant.



Astartella clinata is most similar to the Pennsylvanian species A. compacta Girty, 1915, in terms of surface ornament but differs in the sloping dorsoposterior margin and shorter, less truncate, posterior margin. Other described species of Astartella have coarser comarginal ridges and do not have a sloping dorsoposterior margin.


Two specimens, holotype OSU 52413, paratype 52414, from locality 1.

Genus Edmondia de Koninck, 1843 Edmondia sp. (Fig. 6.10)


A small internal mold of a left valve has a shape typical of the genus. The comarginal growth ridges are faintly preserved. Edmondia? subplana Hall, 1858a, differs by being more narrowly elongate with a less produced umbonal region and E. equilateralis Girty, 1910, has a much shorter shell. The specimen is 13.9 mm long, 9.5 mm high, 3.6 mm wide.


One specimen, OSU 52415, from locality 1. Genus Sanguinolites McCoy, 1844 Sanguinolites hekitoensis n. sp. (Fig. 6.4-6.9)


Small Sanguinolites with nearly parallel dorsal and ventral margins; umbonal shoulder rounded; ornamentation of strap-like, comarginal ridges.


Small, narrow, elongate, subtrapezoidal shell; anterior margin narrowly convex, extended; dorsal and ventral margins nearly parallel; posterior margin truncate, flatly convex; beaks near anterior end, tightly incurved, prosogyrate; lunule and escutcheon present; umbonal ridge rounded, extending to ventoposterior margin; anterior and ventral area below umbonal ridge with numerous strap-like, comarginal growth ridges having steep edge dorsally; other features not preserved. Specimens range in size from 16.0 mm long, 7.2 mm high, 6.1 mm wide to 11.9 mm long, 6.4 mm high, 4.2 mm wide.


Greek, hekitos, least.


Sanguinolites hekitoensis differs from S. uniformis and S. naidiformis, both by Winchell, 1870, by having more uniform ornamentation and a rounded umbonal ridge. Sanguinolites monroensis (Worthen, 1884) has diverging ventral and dorsal margins and finer comarginal growth lines.


Four specimens, holotype OSU 52419, paratypes 52416-52418, from localities 2, 5.

Genus Wilkingia Wilson, 1959 Wilkingia andrewsi (Whitfield, 1882) (Fig. 6.11-6.16, 6.18)

Allorisma andrewsi Whitfield, 1882, p. 122; 1891, p. 588, pl. 14, fig. 6; 1893, p. 473, pl. 10, fig. 6; Morse, 1911, p. 392. fig. 18.

(non) Allorisma andrewsi Whitfield. Herrick, 1888, pl. 11, figs. 12a, b.


Shell elongate, equivalved, dorsal and ventral margins subparallel; beaks rise above dorsal margin, tightly incurved, prosogyrate; posterior margin more broadly curved than anterior margin; greatest length below midheight, greatest width anterior of midlength; lunule and escutcheon present; valve surface with numerous broad, comarginal, rounded plicae commonly becoming coarser ventrally; some plicae bifurcate posteriorly; muscle scars and hinge not observed. Specimens range in size from 37.0 mm long, 17.4 mm high, 13.5 mm wide to 18.5 mm long, 9.2 mm high, 8.0 mm wide.


The location of Whitfield's specimens is unknown and apparently lost. Two specimens collected by Morse are in the collections of the Orton Geological Museum. Wilkingia andrewsi is the most common bivalve found in the Maxville Limestone.


Seventy complete and partial internal molds including OSU 12200, 12201, 52420-52422, from localities 1, 2, 5, 7, 8. Wilkingia maxvillensis (Whitfield, 1882) (Fig. 6.17)

Allorisma maxvillensis Whitfield, 1882, p. 82; 1891, p. 588, pl. 14, figs. 7, 8; 1893, p. 475, pl. 10, figs. 7, 8; Morse, 1911, p. 393, fig. 19.


Elongate, equivalved shell; dorsal and ventral margins subparallel; anterior and posterior margins nearly equally convex; beaks extend above dorsal margin, located approximately one-fourth length from anterior margin; surface with numerous comarginal plicae with finer growth lines between plicae. Undistorted valve is 20.0 mm long and 12.0 mm high.


Wilkingia maxvillensis differs from W. andrewsi in having less pronounced and less regularly distributed comarginal plicae, the beaks are located further from the anterior margin, and the posterior umbonal shoulder is weaker. The species is rare in the formation.


One right valve with shell, OSU 22908, locality unknown. Genus Sedgwickia McCoy, 1844 ?Sedgwickia sp. (Fig. 6.19)


Medium-sized, gibbous shell; dorsal and ventral margins subparallel; ventral margin broadly convex; anterior and posterior margins subequally convex; beaks located one-third length posterior to anterior margin, incurred, prosogyrate; lunule and escutcheon not visible; broad, shallow sulcus extending from umbonal area to ventral margin posterior to midlength; surface with numerous closely-spaced, comarginal ridges with two to four finer ridges between coarser ridges; internal features not observed. Most complete valve is 19.0 mm long, 12.4 mm high.


The shape and sulcus is somewhat similar to Ectogrammysia Hoare, Heaney and Mapes, 1989, but the comarginal ridges are much finer, of unequal size, and there is no evidence of bifurcation at or anterior to the sulcus. Sphenotus aeolus var. curtus Hyde, 1953, from the Logan Formation, which probably is a Sedgwickia, is similar in terms of the comarginal ornamentation, general shape, and size to the Maxville specimen.


Internal mold of incomplete, partially spread valves, OSU 52423, from locality 3.


1. Abandoned Somerset Cut Limestone quarry on east side of County Road 96, 2.1 km north of Ohio Rte. 13, Hopewell Twp., Perry Co., NW1/4SW1/4, sec. 32, T17N, R16W, Somerset 7.5 minute quadrangle.

2. Maxville Stone Co. quarry on west side of Ohio Rte. 668, approx. 1.1 km north of Maxville, Monday Creek Twp., Perry Co., SW1/4, sec. 9, T14N, R16W, Junction City 7.5 minute quadrangle.

3. Exposure in tributary to Little Monday Creek near Ohio Rte. 668, 0.8 km north of Maxville, Monday Creek Twp., Perry Co., SE1/4SW1/4, sec. 9, T14N, R16W, Gore 7.5 minute quadrangle.

4. Exposure in gully at Mt. Perry Iron Bridge across Jonathon Creek, Madison Twp., Perry Co., SW1/4SW1/4, sec. 16, T17N, R15W, Fultonham 7.5 minute quadrangle.

5. Exposure in railroad cut near Wortman Iron Bridge across Jonathon Creek, Newton Twp., Muskingum Co., SE1/4 sec. 14, T17N, R15W, Fultonham 7.5 minute quadrangle.

6. Exposure in railroad cut along Jonathon Creek, Madison Twp., Perry Co., sec. 15, T17N, R15W, Fultonham 7.5 minute quadrangle.

7. Exposure below Kroft Bridge at White Cottage, Newton Twp., Muskingum Co., NE 1/4, sec. 17, T 15 N, R14W, Crooksville 7.5 minute quadrangle.

8. Abandoned quarry east of Poverty Run, Hopewell Twp., Muskingum Co., north of north line of sec. 12, T1N, R9W, Gratiot 7.5 minute quadrangle.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. Collections at Ohio University, Indiana University, and The Ohio State University were made available for study by R. H. Mapes, the late A. S. Horowitz, and D. Gnidovec which were very helpful. M. C. Hansen, Ohio Geological Survey helped collect specimens from the black shale unit. Members of the author's family helped collect specimens from several localities. The continued support of the Department of Geology, Bowling Green State University is much appreciated.


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Richard D. Hoare (1), Department of Geology, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403

(1) Corresponding author: Richard D. Hoare, Professor Emeritus, Department of Geology, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43402. Email:
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