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Bishops's solves the problem of the intricacies of chemical information retrieval.

Most professional chemists would agree that the priority objectives of an undergraduate chemistry education should be to train our students to think, to reason, and to predict; to provide them with adequate factual knowledge and expose them to the rigor to express it concisely; to teach them laboratory skills and dexterity; and to provide the opportunity to use modem instrumentation.

A rigorous training in chemical information retrieval and a relevant microcomputer literacy that enables the manipulation of chemical information, should also be an important component of an undergraduate's education so that tomorrow's chemist may have an adequate background upon which to base efficient literature searches; a means to locate all that which cannot form part of our chemistry curricula.

Some 20 years ago, a 1 -semester, 3-credit course in chemical information retrieval was introduced into the undergraduate chemistry curriculum at Bishop's University (CHE233-Introduction to the Chemical Literature; 3 lecture hours per week)[1a, 1c]. In the mid 1980's with the advent of microcomputers, the availability of economical online searching (DIALOG and STN), and the development of bibliographic database software (e.g. PROCITE, SCIMATE, REF11), reaction database software (e.g. CHEMBASE), and communications programs e.g., CROSSTALK, PROCOMM PLUS, STN EXPRESS, DIALOGLINK), a co-requisite 1-semester, 1-credit laboratory course (CHE280-Computer Applications to Literature Searching) was introduced and developed [1b, 1c ]. At Bishop's, these two courses are now compulsory in final year for all Chemistry Major students. The Chemistry Honours students must take the computer applications laboratory course (CHE280) and CHE460 (Chemical Literature and Project) which includes the course content of CHE233 but also involves literature searching that is relevant to their final year research project.

Beginning in 1991-92, a 1-credit, 1 -semester lecture cum lab course in microcomputer literacy (CHE180-Microcomputer Fundamentals; 1 afternoon per week), has paved the way for a more in-depth treatment of online searching and of bibliographic and reaction databases in final year. It is compulsory for all chemists and biochemists in the first year. CHE180 was introduced to ensure that all students have a solid background in such microcomputer fundamentals as hardware set-up, MSDOS, and hard-disk management, and in using microcomputer utilities and communications software. it is very much a course in response to a need, although it promises to change significantly over the next several years.

Surprisingly, even now, some students are entering university with negligible experience with microcomputers and in many other cases, their knowledge is dangerously superficial. As our student intake demonstrates a basic microcomputer and MSDOS literacy, the emphasis in this course will change to encompass a more thorough and advanced treatment of microcomputer use and management.

The aim is to provide the student with the knowledge and hands-on experience to set up, control, and maintain the microcomputer and its software rather than be controlled by it, or be left to the clutches and whims of the "local computer guru".

CHE233 was designed at the outset[1a] to provide comprehensive instruction on using major chemical literature works (e.g. Chemical Abstracts, Science Citation Index, Beilstein's Handbuch der Organischen Chemie, etc.), and to include the information that a practising chemist typically picks up as a result of many forays into chemistry libraries and bookstores, but more particularly from the frustration of protracted searching for what was ultimately straightforward information. In short, the course was designed to give undergraduates that all-important "feel" for the chemical literature-that almost instinctive knowledge, which is possessed by the skilled literature searcher, of where best to go for what one seeks.

Microcomputer fundamentals

Microcomputer Fundamentals includes a discussion of microcomputer hardware; the organizational aspects of MSDOS and hard disks; the use of the MSDOS commands version 3.3 and 5.0) and of alternative command interpreters (Symantec's NORTON UTILITIES version 6.0's NDOS); setting up batch files; using utility programs (NORTON UTILITIES, NORTON COMMANDER, BROOKLYN BRIDGE, and PCTOOLS); recovery from disasters and how to avoid them; memory types, configurations, uses, and management (Quarterdeck's QEMM-386, QRAM, and MANIFEST); caching; hard disk set-up, maintenance, and management (including the use of SPINRITE II, and DISK TECHNICIAN GOLD); virus protection; multi-tasking, program switching and windowing (Quarterdeck's DESQview, Microsoft's WINDOWS version 3.0); and the necessary background to set up and use a modem for file transfer (using CROSSTALK XVI or PROCOMM PLUS). Scientific word processing (using VUWRITER SCIENTIFIC), and molecular structure drawing (MPG and WIMP/WIMP2001) round out the course within the realm of direct relevance to literature searching.

CHE233 provides a feel for the literature

Introduction to the Chemical Literature begins with a discussion of major chemical libraries, subject classification, library acquisitions, practices for quoting bibliographic references, and the evolution of the chemical literature from the primary research journal, to the abstracting and alerting services, to reviews and serials, to monographs, and to compendia and treatises. The scope and use of important databooks (e.g. Solubility Data Series), formularies (e.g. Bennett's Chemical Formulary), various dictionaries and encyclopedia (e.g. "Kingzlett"), and the problems associated with using the foreign language literature, are also discussed fully.

Students acquire a "feel" for the wellknown chemistry journals and their abbreviations, and learn how to locate less common journals via union lists and CASSI. The chemistry "book literature" is approached in terms of developing a good balanced chemistry library (e.g. Books In Print, Choice, J. Chem. Educ., publishers' catalogues, "Ulrich"). The "review literature" is discussed under the headings of serials and journals devoted to reviews, of useful access points for locating review articles (e.g. Index of Scientific Reviews, "Annual Reports", Specialist Periodical Reports, major treatises), and of published lists and indexes of reviews.

The discussion of alerting services ranges from the specific (e.g. Index Chemicus), through the comprehensive (e.g. Current Contents), to the general (e.g. Applied Science and Technology Index, Biological and Agricultural Index, The Readers Guide to the Current Periodical Literature). The vagaries of indexing are not ignored. Substructure, Wiswesser Line Notation, rotaform, keyword, and reaction indexes are discussed fully, and students answer assignments that test their comprehension of using the Citation and Permuterm indexes of Science Citation Index; the complete range of Chemical Abstracts' indexes and related reference works (e.g. The Registry Number Handbook, CASSI, The Parent Compound Handbook) are covered likewise.

As a prelude to online searching within the CHE280 course, the STN Messenger[2a] and DIALOG Command languages[2b] are introduced. Students then work through several trial printed online literature searches, such as those from the ACS booklets on using DIALOG's CA SEARCH[3a] and STN's CAS ONLINE[3b], and they also survey printouts from DIALOG SCISEARCH literature searches[4]. In addition to this comprehensive discussion of using Chemical Abstracts and Science Citation Index, the use of Beilstein's Handbuch der Organischen Chemie is covered in sufficient depth that students can access data without recourse to the various indexes.

In future, this will be coupled to using SANDRA and also to the use of MOLKICK software for searching STN International's BEILSTEIN ONLINE via STN EXPRESS in CHE280. Wiswesser Chemical line Notation has been applied to the naming of acyclic and simple aromatic and heterocyclic compounds[5]; however, the time may well have come when this very useful "chemical shorthand" can be replaced by various aspects of online substructure searching.

The latter part of the lecture course familiarizes students with the major reference works in the various areas of chemistry and with giving them that all-important "feel" for the chemical literature. Just as the golfer may cringe when a novice speaks of golf sticks, so might the chemist when ignorance of "Heilbronn", of the "Rubber Book", of "Gmelin", of "Landolt-Bornstein", or of "Theilheimer" is expressed.

The descriptions of "important and useful works" include the type of co strengths, and weaknesses of such works as synthesis and reaction series (e.g. Inorganic Syntheses, Organic Reactions, Fieser & Fieser's Reagents for Organic Synthesis), important series titles (e.g. Advances in Chemistry Series, Chromatographic Science Series, Ellis Horwood Series, Topics in Current Chemistry), major treatises (e.g. Comprehensive ..... ; Rodd's Chemistry of Carbon Compounds), and well-known "named works" (e.g. "Bamford & Tipper", "Florkin & Stotz", "Manske's Alkaloids ", the various "Weissberger series").

The areas of chromatography, inorganic, organic and physical chemistry, and the various spectroscopies are documented in terms of important journals, review serials, treatises, major textbooks, and data sources. An evaluated compilation of sources of information on typical areas in which a practising chemist may need to seek information follows. These areas are described by such headings as "Concerning Named Reactions". A selection of areas covered in this way is listed in Table 1.
Table 1. Searching for Information
 Compounds - Physical data/ Properties
Commercial Sources of Chemical Substances
 Foreign Language Articles
 Laboratory Techniques
 Named Reactions/Effects/Laws
 Qualitative Analysis
 Reaction Mechanisms
 Reagents for Organic Synthesis
 Synthetic Transformations

The idea here is that once a query has been categorized, the student has a list of evaluated sources to consult that should lead directly and efficiently to the information being sought.

CHE280 has a new look

Computer Applications to Literature Searching is a laboratory course which is presently in the throes of major changes that have been occasioned initially by the introduction, during 1990-91, of an 18-hour "optional" mini-course that grew into the 1-credit course on Microcomputer Fundamentals (CHE180) for 1991-92. The time that has been freed by transferring essential DOS and communications applications from CHE280 into CHE180 now allows for a much more extensive coverage of the fundamentals of online searching, of using bibliographic databases, and of manipulating chemical structures in the context of information retrieval applications.

Previously, an extensive coverage of some aspects of these topics was only possible by independent study, or as individual student projects within CHE280. The course has consisted of afternoons devoted to online searching and to using software programs in chemical information retrieval applications. students have usually carried out a lengthy project. Such projects have typically involved the use of a software package that is not used by all course registrants. This gives students exposure to a variety of applications, and in-depth coverage of one. Alternatively, projects have involved more advanced aspects of online searching or of the use of software that students have used elsewhere in the laboratory program.

Online searching has been carried out using DIALOG and STN International databases. Students have learned how to set up command and script files using CROSSTALK and then to apply this knowledge to setting up DIALOGLINK to access DIALOG via the DIALOG Classmate Program[2b] and to setting up STN EXPRESS to access STN International via the ACS Academic Discount Program[2a].

DIALOG has been used predominantly to access the online version of Science Citation Index (SCISEARCH)[4]. STN has been used to access the online version of Chemical Abstracts (CA[6a], CAOLD[6a], CAPREVIEWS[6a], and REGISTRY[6b]) and, very recently, BEILSTEIN ONLINE[7]. with more time available in the future for online searching, as described above, we propose to link the use of MOLKICK for structure searching BEILSTEIN ONLINE in 1992-93 and to make our first forays into using Gmelin's Handbuch der Anorganichen Chemie with the recently introduced STN database, GMELIN ONLINE. One of the nice things about online searching is that the depth of coverage of the subject can be adjusted as time, interest and needs permit.

ISI's SCISEARCH documentation[4] provides all that one may need for online citation searching and The Complete Guide to searching DIALOG[2b] provides a thorough coverage of the DIALOG command language. Documentation from DIALOG and ISI training seminars is also invaluable[8]. More advanced aspects of Chemical Abstracts[6] and of Beilstein[7] searching online are well documented and also covered in-depth in CAS/STN training seminar documentation.

One useful aspect of having students learn the techniques of online searching is that their work can be used by faculty to keep up with the literature.

In addition to online searching, CHE280 has been used to introduce students to the use of bibliographic databases (SCIMATE, REF11, and Pro-Cite) and to some aspects of the preparation of scientific documents.

SCIMATE MANAGER and REF11 have been used as bibliographic databases for storing and manipulating bibliographic information from manual literature searches. Pro-Cite has been used in addition for storing the results of both DIALOG and STN online searches, by converting the files that have been downloaded and stored in either DIALOGLINK or in STN EXPRESS, into Pro-Cite format, through the use of the appropriate Biblio-Link programs that effect DIALOG-to-Pro-Cite or STN-to-Pro-Cite conversions.

On occasion, students have set up and used the SCIMATE-to-Pro-Cite Biblio-Link conversion program, which has been useful for converting faculty research databases from the now-defunct SCIMATE into Pro-Cite format. Time has not yet permitted the use of ISI's Current Contents on Diskette[8].

In the area of producing scientific papers, students have used molecular Presentation Graphics and WIMP to incorporate chemical structures into the Vuwriter Scientific word-processing program.

Good teaching materials abound

whilst a number of good texts on chemical information retrieval[9], or some aspects thereof[10], are available, the author has also produced his own teaching materials over the past 20 years. These materials include manuals (e.g. Microcomputer Fundamentals and Taking the Mystery out of MSDOS; Topics in Microcomputer Use; Using CROSSTALK; Using REF11; Using Vuwriter Scientific; etc.), study modules (e.g. using Science Citation Index, Using Beilstein's Handbuch der Organischen Chemie, Using Chemical Abstracts, Concerning Nomenclature, Concerning...etc.), STN and DIALOG training seminar material[8], various STN [2a], [3b], [3c], [6], [7] and DIALOG [2b], [3a], [4] teaching materials, major software and database vendor manuals or database descriptions[4], [6], [7], 35mm slides and audiotape presentations[11], and videotapes[12].

In connection with using the outstanding bibliographic database program, Pro-Cite and Biblio-Links, Personal Bibliographic Software, Inc. provide good training material that includes overhead transparencies and a training floppy diskette[13]. For illustrating and describing software use, the software program PIZAZZ PLUS has been invaluable for screen dumping from various software programs for incorporation into in-house manuals and teaching modules.

Up to now, it has not been possible to cover two important areas of the chemical literature in CHE233 because of the limited resources that are available to us. we have no specific library resources in the patents area and touch the subject lightly only in the context of using Chemical Abstracts[3c]. in the area of inorganic chemistry, we do not have access to Gmelin's Handbuch der Anorganischen Chemie. However, now that GMELIN ONLINE is available through STN, we propose to use it beginning in 1992-93.

Student assessment in CHE233 is based upon tests in specific areas (e.g. WLN, Beilstein, Chemical Abstracts), individual literature searching assignments (e.g. Chemical Abstracts, Science Citation Index, Beilstein), and an individual take home exam that consists of some 20 questions that are representative of information that is commonly sought in the practice of chemistry. The two laboratory courses are graded in a way that is typical of chemistry laboratory work laboratory reports, meeting behavioral objectives, and short tests).

What about costs?.

The Department of Chemistry at Bishop's University has a microcomputer laboratory that is equipped with 10 microcomputers, predominantly EVEREX STEP and EVEREX TEMPO 286 and 386 At's. When necessary, student labs may also be held in a much larger university microcomputer laboratory. Software is available either on hard disk, or on "for class use only" high-density floppy disks. Laboratory instruction is performed by faculty with the assistance of a demonstrator when warranted by enrolment. Since classes are small (total departmental enrolment in all program years has been 30 to 40 in recent years), software control can be closely supervised. Online searching costs have been minimized by using DIALOG's Classmate Program[2b], and STN's ACS Academic Discount Program[2a], and also by taking advantage of low-cost database learning files. In addition, some database vendors will grant temporary passwords for short-term free searching for instructional purposes. Some software vendors have given permission for a very limited and controlled multi-use of a single-user software licence for one-afternoon-a-year-instructional purposes. However, with regard to the latter, vendor policies vary widely and change, and may also include very attractive promotional pricing of software packages for course registrants.

How to Find the Software

BROOKLYN BRIDGE version 3.5 is available from Fifth Generation Systems Inc., 10049 N. Reiger Road, Baton Rouge, LA 70809-4559, USA, telephone (504)-291-7221, 800)-873-4384.

CROSSTALK is available from Digital Communications Associates, Inc.. 1000 Alderman Drive, Alpharetta, GA 30202, USA, telephone 404)-442-4000, (800)-348-3221.

DIALOGLINK version 1.26 is available in Canada from Micromedia Limited, 20 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON, M5C 2N8, telephone, 416)-362-5211, 800)-387-2689.

Disk Technician GOLD is available from Prime Solutions inc., 1940 Garnet Avenue, San Diego, CA 92109, USA, telephone 619)-274-5000.

Molecular Presentation Graphics version 4.2 is available from Hawk Scientific Systems, Inc., 170 Kinnelon Road, Suite 8, Kinnelon, NJ 07405, USA, telephone (201)-838-6292.

MOLKICK version 2.0 is available from Springer-Verlag New York Inc., Electronic Media, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010, USA, telephone (212)-460-1622.

MS WINDOWS version 3.0 is available in Canada from Microsoft Canada Inc., 320 Matheson Blvd. W., Mississauga, ON, L5R 3R1, telephone (416)-568-0434, 800)-563-9048.

The NORTON UTILITIES version 6.0 is available from Symantec Corporation, 10201 Torre Avenue, Cupertino, CA 95014-2132, USA, telephone (408)-253-9600, (800)-343-4714. NORTON COMMANDER version 3.02 is also available from Symantec.

PCTOOLS version 7.1 is available from Central Point Software, 15220 N.W. Greenbrier Parkway, #200, Beaverton, OR 97006-5798, USA, telephone (503)-690-8090, 800)-445-"8.

PIZAZZ PLUS version 3.0 is available from Application Techniques, Inc., 10 Lomar Park Drive, Pepperell, Massachusetts 01463, USA, telephone 508)-433-8464.

Pro-Cite version 1.41, Pro-Search version 1.08, and various Biblio-Links are available from Personal Bibliographic Software, Inc., P.O. Box 4250, Ann Arbor, MI 48106, USA, telephone (313)-996-1580.

PROCOMM PLUS version 2.0 is available from Datastorm Technologies, Inc., P.O. Box 1471, Columbia, MO 65205, USA, telephone 314)-443-3282, (800)-333-4559.

Quarterdeck's QEMM-386 version 6.02, QRAM version 2.0, MANIFEST version 1. 12, and DESQVIEW version 2.4 are available from Quarterdeck Office Systems, 150 Pico Boulevard, Santa Monica, CA 90405, USA, telephone 213)-392-9851, (800)-354-3222.

REF11 version 3.1 is available from DG Systems, 322 Prospect Avenue, Hartford, CT 06106, USA, telephone (203)-247-8500.

SANDRA version 2.0 is available from Springer-Verlag New York inc., Electronic Media, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010, USA, telephone 212)-460-1622.

SCIMATE MANAGER was available from ISI [8] but is no longer supported. ISI recommends that users upgrade to Pro-Cite, for which there is a SCIMATE-to-Pro-Cite bibliographic database conversion program (Biblio-Link).

SPINRITE II version 1.1 is available from Gibson Research Corp., 22991 La Cadena, Laguna Hills, CA 92653, USA, telephone 714)-830-2200.

STN EXPRESS version 3.02 for Windows is available from Chemical Abstracts Service, 2540 Olentangy River Road, P.O. Box 3012, Columbus, OH 43210, USA, telephone 614)-447-3600, (800)-848-6538. A useful microcomputer tutorial is also available - STN MENTOR: STN EXPRESS Overview (August 1989).

VUWRITER SCIENTIFIC version 5.3a is available from Vuman Computer Systems Ltd., Enterprise House, Manchester Science Park, Lloyd Street North, Manchester, M15 4EN, England, telephone (061)-226-831 1.

WIMP version 6.0 and WIMP2001 version 3.0 for Windows are available from Aldrich Chemical Co., Inc. P.O. Box 355, Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA, telephone (414)-273-3850, 800)-558-9160.


1) Some aspects of the teaching of chemical information retrieval at Bishop's University and of the teaching of related microcomputer applications have been described at three CIC Conferences as follows: a) R.B. Yeats, 58th CIC Conference, Toronto, 1975; "An introduction to the Chemical Literature - A One Semester Undergraduate Course". b) R.B. Yeats, 3rd North American Chemical Congress, Toronto, 1988; "Impact of the Microcomputer on Canadian University Chemical Research". c) R.B. Yeats, 73rd CIC Conference, Halifax, 1990; "Teaching Undergraduates the Skills of Chemical information Retrieval". 2a) Useful documentation on using the STN Messenger command language is: Getting Started on STN, December 1990, STN International; Getting Started in CAS ONLINE, February 1988, Chemical Abstracts Service; Finding and verifying CAS Registry Numbers on STN, January 1991, STN International; STN FaSTNotes, various titles, June 1990, STN International; Searching STN. The Basic, volumes 1,2,3,4a, and 4b, June 1990, STN International. Useful STN Microcomputer tutorial software is: STN MENTOR: STN OVERVIEW (August 1988); STN MENTOR: Introduction to CAS Online (August 1987); STN MENTOR Laboratory Series: CALab February 1992). This documentation and microcomputer programs are available from STN International, c/o Chemical Abstract Service, 2540 Olentangy River Road, P.O. Box 3012, Columbus, OH 43210, USA, telephone 614)-447-3600, 800)-848-6538; details of the ACS Academic Discount Program are also available. b) Useful documentation, published by Dialog information Services, Inc., on using the DIALOG command language is: Searching DIALOG: The Complete Guide, August 1991; Searching DIALOG: The Tutorial Guide, March 1988: DIALOG Basics - A Brief Introductory Guide to Searching, October 1988; Searching DIALOG: The Microcomputer Tutorial, June 1989; DIALOG Lab Workbook & Reference Manual, September 1988. DIALOG documentation is available in Canada from Micromedia Limited, 20 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON, M5C 2N8, telephone 416)-362-5211, 800)-387-2689; details of the DIALOG Classmate Program may also be obtained from Micromedia. 3a) An Introduction to Computer Searching, DIALOG version, Education Committee, Division of Chemical information, American Chemical Society, 1987. b) An Introduction to Computer Searching, STN International version, Education Committee, Division of Chemical information, American Chemical Society, 1986. c) An Introduction to Patent Searching, STN International version, Education Committee, Division of Chemical Information, American Chemical Society, 1989. See Reference[2a]. 4) SCISEARCH DIALOG User Guide, ISI Online Services, Institute for Scientific Information, Philadelphia, 1989; see reference 8. 5) E.G. Smith and P.A. Baker, The Wiswesser Line-Formula Chemical Notation (WLN), 3rd edition, Chemical Information Management, Inc., 1976. 6a) The CA/CA previews/CAOLD Files Database Description, July 1991. b) The Registry File Database Description, August 1991. c) STN International: A Guide to commands and Databases, Revised, April 1991. 7a) S.R. Heller and G.W.A. Milne, Online Searching on STN: Beilstein Reference Manual, Springer Verlag, 1989. b) Springer Verlag, Online Searching on STN; Beilstein Workshop manual, Springer Verlag, 1989. c) The Beilstein File Database Description, STN International, February 1989. d) S.R. Heller, The Beilstein Online Database: Implementation, Content and Retrieval, ACS Symposium Series No. 436, American Chemical Society, 1990. 8) DIALOG and ISI seminar documentation titles vary over the years, but have included: System Seminar I: The Basics, DIALOG, 1989; Beyond the Basics Seminar, DIALOG, 1987; Searching Chemistry on Dialog, DIALOG, 1986; Chemical Information Sources DIALOG, 1987; Chemical Information Seminar, DIALOG, 1991; Cited Reference Searching Online, ISI User Seminar, ISI, 1987. SciSearch, Social SciSearch, Arts & Humanities Search, and Current contents search on Dialog, ISI, 1991. Further information is available from Micromedia Limited[2b] (for DIALOG databases) and from Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), 3501 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA, telephone (215)-386-0100, 800)-523-1850 (for the SCISEARCH and CURRENT CONTENTS databases). Current Contents on Diskette with Abstracts is also available from ISI. 9) For example, Y. Wolman, Chemical Information: A Practical Guide to Utilization, 2nd edition, Wiley, 1988. 10a) H. Schulz, From CA to CAS ONLINE, VCH Publishers, 1988. b) O. Runquist, A Programmed Introduction to Beilstein's Handbuch, Burgess, 1966. 11 Some useful audiotapes or audiotape/35mm slide materials are: a) Institute for Scientific information, An Introduction to the Science Citation Index. b) O.B. Ramsay, The Use of Chemical Abstracts, American Chemical Society, 1973. c) Audio Learning Tool for the Norton Utilities 6.0; available from Symantec Learning Tools, 7200 Redwood Blvd., Novato, CA 94945, USA, telephone 800)-343-4707 ext. 717. 12) Some useful videotapes are: a) ISI User Services, Cited Reference Searching Online, Institute for Scientific Information, 1987[8]. b) DIALOG, Introduction to Searching - A DIALOG Training Video, May 1987; available in Canada from Micromedia limited[2b]. c) Beilstein Institute, The Beilstein Information System. d) Springer Verlag, GMELIN - video. e) Quick Results with PCTOOLS, available from VCA/Quick Results, 50 Leyland Drive, Leonia, NJ 07605, USA, telephone 201)-947-6450. f) Video Learning Tool for the Norton Utilities 6.0; available from Symantec Learning Tools, 7200 Redwood Blvd., Novato, CA 94945, USA, telephone 800)-343-4707 ext. 717. 13a) L. Williamson, Biblio-Link to DIALOG Training Guide for the IBM PC and Compatibles, Personal Bibliographic Software, Inc. 1991. b) L. Williamson, Pro-Cite Training Guide for the IBM PC and Compatibles, Personal Bibliographic Software, Inc., 1991. c) L. Williamson, Pro-Search Training Guide for the IBM PC and Compatibles, Personal Bibliographic Software, Inc., 1991. Ron Yeats is Professor of organic Chemistry and Chairman of the Department of Chemistry, Bishop's University, Lennoxville, Quebec, J1M 1Z7; he is an Honorary Professor of Chemistry at the University of Western Ontario. Educated at Durham University, England (B. Sc - 1962; Ph.D. - 1965), he has taught chemical information retrieval at Bishop's since 1973.
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Title Annotation:includes directory of software sources; Bishop's University
Author:Yeats, Ronald B.
Publication:Canadian Chemical News
Date:May 1, 1992
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