Birds of the Danau Sentarum National Park.
The Danau Sentarum National Park (DSNP) is a wetland conservation area of high priority (Scott, 1989; Giesen and Aglionby, 2000, this volume; Jeanes and Meijaard, 2000b, this volume). Under pressure of the present rapid development of Borneo's natural resources, its lake system and associated swamp forest habitats constitute an increasingly scarce ecosystem. DSNP is especially important for a number of birds dependent on the swamp forest habitats provided by this unique reserve. However, threats come from habitat destruction, excessive egg collecting, hunting for meat, collecting for the pet trade and other disturbances (Giesen, 1987; van Balen, 1996; Dennis et at., 1997).
This paper evaluates the importance of the area and its immediate surroundings for the conservation of birds, in particular those that are dependent on the DSNP wetlands and associated forest habitats, and the hills in the peripheries of the area.
Review of reports
The following reports have been scrutinized: Giesen (1987): 1986; Hood (1993): 1-24 Dec. 1992; 23 Feb.-8 Mar. 1993; Sebastian (1993): 8-18 Aug. 1993; van Balen (1996): 28 Jul.-2 Aug. 1993; 30 Mar.-9 Apr. 1994; Dennis (1994): 26 Nov.-3 Dec. 1994 ; Dennis et at. 1997: 30 Jan.-11 Feb. 1996; R. Jensen (unpublished data): Nov. 1993-Jul. 1994 (RJ). Additional records are from Enthoven (1903), Dunselman (1937), L. Jembu (KSDA, Sintang): reported in Giesen (1987); R. Wadley (1992-93); H. Noveriawan (HN): 1992-1993; R. (Rona) Dennis (RoD): 1995-96); R (Roddy) Dennis: 1996; E. Meijaard (EM): 1996; B. Suriansyah (BS): 1993-1994; A. Jumhur (AJ): Project I-UKTFMP field staff, 1996).
In January-February 1996 Dennis et at. (1997) set up mist-nets during three days at two sites.
A Marantz CP430 cassette deck and Audiotechnic unidirectional microphone were used in the field to record bird voices for identification and documentation purposes. Videotape recordings were made of various birds by BS in June-August 1993.
In 1994 counts were carried out in a number of habitats, from the low, stunted swamp forests in the central parts of DSNP to the tall dipterocarp hill forests in the peripheries. For each habitat type, four sample counts were made along transects that were walked or boated along slowly, during each of which 45-49 encounters of birds were tallied (cf Thiollay, 1995); in the early morning these counts would last 30-40 minutes, later in the morning and afternoon up to 1.5-2 hours. Waterbirds, raptors, swifts (an exception has been made for Silver-rumped Swift Rhaphidura leucopygialis and tree-swifts) were excepted from the sampling.
During most surveys semi-structured interviews were conducted with local hunters and fishermen in the DSNP. Valuable information on occurrence and abundance was obtained on a variety of species, but records of rare or "displaced" species were treated by us with caution.
Bird Species Diversity
The Shannon-Weaver formula (MacArthur and MacArthur, 1961) is used for calculating the values for the Bird Species Diversity index (H):
H = - [SIGMA] [p.sub.i]/ln[p.sub.i]
in which [p.sub.i] is the number of individuals of species i divided by total number of individuals.
The diversity index is determined by species number and evenness (or equitability, J; see Pielou 1966). As shifting relative densities of species within a community could influence the dynamics (stability, productivity) of an ecosystem, evenness in particular is an important measure of community structure.
J = D/[D.sub.max] (with [D.sub.max] = - [log.sub.e] 1/n; a = number of species in the sample).
The similarity index (S) of Jaccard (1901) was used to show to change in species composition of the different communities going from the low, disturbed swamp forest through tall swamp forest and complex dipterocarp hill forest.
S = c / a + b + c
in which a and b are the numbers of species unique to communities 1 and 2 respectively, and c species common to both.
Birds and habitat
The DSNP consists of extensive seasonally inundated stunted forest, surrounded by taller swamp forest and dry land forest on levees and hills. This offers a scale of different vegetation types, which have been extensively surveyed during a number of wildlife surveys. Detailed descriptions of their structure, floristic composition, and relevance for wildlife can be found in Giesen (1987, 1996, 2000, this volume) and Jeanes and Meijaard (2000b, this volume).
Dwarf Swamp Forest (sample locality: Tekenang)
This habitat is dominated by 5-8 m tall trees, flooded up to ten months a year, and at times is almost entirely submerged. Bird species found were mostly those typical of secondary habitat, and Figure la-b shows clearly how these are abundant in number of individuals, but low in species number.
Sebastian (1993) pointed out the common characteristics between mangrove forest and Melaleuca forest in Malaysia, and the similarly simple structured dwarf swamp forest of DSNP. The list of species exclusively or extensively dependent on mangroves in Borneo contains 21 species (Wells 1985), which includes five species, doubtfully assigned to the Bornean mangrove avifauna. These may elsewhere be confined to mangrove, but in Borneo they are found in other habitats as well (Purple Heron Ardea purpurea, Ashy Tailorbird Orthotomus ruficeps, Rufous-tailed Tailorbird O. sericeus, Pied Fantail Rhipidura javanica, and Olive-backed Sunbird Nectarinia jugularis). To Wells' list the Greater Goldenback Chrysocolaptes lucidus can also be added considering its apparent preference for mangroves in Kalimantan (cf Eve and Guigue 1989). Of Borneo's 17 mangrove species, the following nine were found in DSNP:
Oriental Darter Anhinga melanogaster Great-billed Heron Ardea sumatrana Striated Heron Butorides striatus Black-crowned Night-heron Nycticorax nycticorax Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus Brahminy Kite Haliastur indus Brown-capped woodpecker Dendropos moluccensis Greater Goldenback Chrysocolaptes lucidus Mangrove Whistler Pachycephala grisola
Stunted Swamp Forest (sample locality: Gernis)
This habitat is dominated by small to medium sized, 8-15 m tall trees, flooded 5-8 months annually with 3-4 m water depth. Despite its rather low canopy, this forest is relatively rich in bird species, partly because of the inclusion of riparian forest.
Tall swamp forest (Sample localities: Empaik, Pemera)
This habitat is dominated by 25-30 m straight-stemmed trees, and inundated for 3-6 months annually with 3 m water depth. This forest was the richest of the swamp forest types, not only because of a more complex structure but also its proximity to the adjacent dry forest on hills.
The following terrestrial species associated with swamp forest and riverine habitat were found throughout the swamp forests (with the exception of the bulbul, which has become extremely rare in recent years):
Lesser Fish-eagle Ichthyophaga humilis Greyhaded Fish-eagle Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus Blue-eared Kingfisher Alcedo meninting Straw-headed Bulbul Pycnonotus zeylanicus Stork-billed Kingfisher Pelargopsis capensis White-chested Babbler Trichastoma rostratum Malaysian Blue flycatcher Cyornis turcosus
Hill dipterocarp forest (Sample localities: Semujan, Menyukung)
This habitat is dominated by dipterocarp trees, a tall to very tall forest with emergents up to 35-45 m, on hills of 370 m (Semujan) and 630 m (Menyukung). This is rich forest, with potentially a near-complete representation of the lowland Bornean avifauna. Hunting practices and disturbance of forests has reduced the numbers of certain bird groups (notably pheasants).
Bird species diversity
Rigorous scrutinizing of the existing ornithological reports rendered the total number of confirmed species to 237 (see Appendix 1). An additional 45 species were recorded, but their overall scarcity on Borneo, or otherwise unexpected presence in DSNP, urges confirmation and/or proper documentation.
Figure 2 shows the cumulative species numbers for the five sampling localities (each sampled by four times ca 50 individuals, and extrapolated to 100 samples). The Tekenang curve has nearly reached its maximum, i.e., more sampling would yield only few species. For Menyukung more surveys would have been needed to cover its complete species spectrum. The three swamp forest curves (Empaik, Gemis and Pemera) are intermediate. The curves show that Menyukung would potentially contain at least 160 spp, each of the three swamp forest at least 120, and Tekenang c. 45 spp.
The five sample areas are readily classified into three groups with similar diversity values, species richness, and evenness (see Tables 1 and 2). The Tekenang area is much impoverished in terms of species diversity, and a large proportion of its avifauna consists of secondary growth species (Figure 1a and 1b). The three more complex swamp forest localities (Gernis, Pemera, Empaik) are much richer with an increasing proportion of primary forest species. The hill forest (Menyukung) scores highest in terms of diversity, and the majority of its birds are primary forest inhabitants.
Seasonality in habitat use
Field observations suggest that the peat swamp and hill forests constitute important refuges for a variety of wildlife during the seasonal flooding (9-10 months/year) of the lake basin (Jeanes and Meijaard, 2000b, this volume). Other changes in species composition are under influence of the phenology of flowering and fruiting trees, which is linked to flooding (Giesen, 2000, this volume). In August very few pigeons and barbets were seen by Sebastian (1993), few to none in November-December (Dennis 1993; Dennis et a!. 1997; RJ). These birds were found to be far more numerous in both individuals and species in April, especially Cinnamon-headed Green Pigeon T fulvicollis) (van Balen 1997), and this coincided the fruiting of figs (W. Giesen pers. comm.).
Scarce information in DSNP (Dennis et al 1997; SvB, pers. obs.) suggests that there is increased breeding activity of raptors and insectivorous birds during April (high water levels), and less activity in August (low water levels), November and December.
The DSNP offers wintering habitat for a relatively small number of birds. Twenty confirmed species of northern migrant have been recorded, constituting less than 10% of the total and numbers of the species are low. The number of recorded species of migratory waders is very low compared to other comparable areas, such as the Middle Mahakam Area. This may be partly caused by the distance to coastal areas and flooding of potential feeding grounds during the birds' wintering season. Furthermore, the lake bottom consist of a very hard and cracking clay soil (W. Giesen, pers. comm.), which may be a less suitable substrate for the invertebrate prey the waders feed on.
The following is a systematic account of the birds in DSNP. See Appendix 1 for complete lists of the species and families mentioned. The following categories of birds receive special attention as their presence in DSNP is of major conservation importance.
Globally threatened bird species
This category follows the BirdLife International Red List of birds (Collar et at. 1994). Nine threatened and 22 near-threatened species (including eight which presence has yet to be confirmed) have been found in the area.
Water birds (according to Sonobe and Usui 1993) of the following orders: Pelecaniformes, Ciconiiformes, Anseriformes, Gruiformes and Charadriiformes. Herons are especially well represented, but waders, rails and ducks are much scarcer.
Only five (including two species yet to be confirmed) of the 36 to 44' Bornean endemics have been recorded from DSNP.
PHALACROCORACIDAE (Darters/Cormorants) Borneo: 3 [+ 1] spp. Recorded in DSNP: 1. The globally near-threatened Oriental darter Anhinga melanogaster is a scarce bird in the area, but reportedly more common and found breeding in the area in the past (Dennis et al. 1997).
ARDEIDAE (Herons) Borneo: 17 [+ 3] spp. Recorded in DSNP: 12 [+2].
Unconfirmed record of Rufous Night-heron Nycticorax caledonicus (BS) would be the first documented for Kalimantan; Chinese Pond-heron Ardeola bachus is a very rare visitor to Borneo and its records (LJ; AJ) should be confirmed. There is a record of the globally endangered Chinese Egret Egretta eulophotes (Dennis et at. 1997) (2). Several active nests of the near-threatened Great-billed Heron Ardea sumatrana have been observed (RJ). At Pejerin there is a breeding colony of Purple Heron Ardea purpurea (Dennis et at. 1997), but this under extreme pressure because of the collection of eggs and young birds.
CICONIIDAE (Storks) Borneo: 2 spp. Recorded in DSNP: 2
There are a fair number of sightings of the globally endangered Storm's Stork Ciconia stormi in the area (Hood 1993; Sebastian 1993; Dennis 1993; van Balen 1996).
One capture specimen was released by park staff at Tekenang in August 1994. Nesting has been reported by locals from several places in the area, but nest site description (at 1 m in floating grass/reed vegetation) does not fit the description for documented nesting in literature. Surprisingly the vulnerable Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus was unknown from DSNP until breeding was reported in 1995 (8+ nests) and 1996 from the Nung forest, where they had not been breeding for the last thirty years (Dennis et at. 1997).
PANDIONIDAE (Osprey) Borneo: 1 sp. Recorded in DSNP: I
ACCIPITRIDAE (Hawks/Eagles) Borneo: 22 [+4] spp. Recorded in DRWR: 11 [+6].
There are unconfirmed records of Bat Hawk Macheiramphus alcinus (BS), Besra Accipiter virgatus, Grey-faced Buzzard Butastur indicus (Dennis 1994 (3); H. Noveriawan unpublished data 1992-93). The buzzard is known from northern Borneo only, whereas the Bat Hawk and Besra are generally rare in Kalimantan and no records are known from West Kalimantan; documentation of the records is needed. The globally near-threatened Lesser Fish-eagle Ichthyophaga humilis is a riverine forest specialist and found in very small numbers in DSNP; Grey-headed Fish-eagle I. ichthyaetus is more widespread in the more open swamp forests. The globally near-threatened Jerdon's Baza Aviceda jerdoni was seen on several occasions (Dennis 1994; van Balen 1996). There are a number of records of the vulnerable Wallace's Hawk-eagle Spizaetus nanus (Dennis 1994; van Balen 1996; RJ); observations of the hill species Blyth's Hawk-eagle Spizaetus alboniger (Giesen, 1987; Hood, 1993; Dennis 1994) need confirmation. In the villages numerous captive Brahminy Kites Haliastur indus were seen; the very high proportion of juveniles suggests a high turnover through death or sale (Sebastian 1993; Dennis 1994; van Balen 1996).
FALCONIDAE (Falcons) Borneo: 4 [+2] spp. Recorded in DSNP: 1 [+1].
The record of a Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus (BS) needs confirmation, and would be the first for the province.
ANATIDAE (Ducks) Borneo: 6 [+6] spp. Recorded in DSNP: 1.
PHASIANIDAE (Pheasants) Borneo: 12 [+1] spp. Recorded in DSNP: 4 [+3].
Most records of the species have been obtained through interviews with local hunters (Hood 1993; Dennis 1997) and the presence in the reserve of Black Partridge Melanoperdix nigra, Crestless Fireback Lophura erythrophthalma and Bulwer's Pheasant L. bulweri has to be confirmed in due time. An old, unconfirmed record of Polyplectron schleiermacheri has been omitted as the bird appeared to be unknown with local hunters; however, in 1998-99 the species' presence was confirmed from Sungai Badak, near the Sarawak border, immediately NNW of DSNP (R. Sozer, pers. comm.). The vulnerable Crested Fireback Lophura ignita is widespread in the dryland forest in the peripheries of the area; although not seen by us in the wild, captive birds, feathers etc shown to us of birds killed were evidence.
RALLIDAE (Rails) Borneo: 11 [+2] spp. Recorded in DSNP: 2 [+2].
The records of Red-legged Crake Rallina fasciata and Watercock Gallicrex cinerea (BS) need confirmation due to possible confusion with other rails.
CHARADRIIDAE (Plovers) Borneo: 8 [+4] spp. Recorded in DSNP: 1.
Plovers are scarce in the interior and accordingly only few reach DSNP. An early arrival of eight Little Ringed Plover Charadrius dubius was observed on 10 August 1993 (Sebastian 1993), and the only recent one for West Kalimantan.
SCOLOPACIDAE (Sandpipers) Borneo: 25 [+10] spp. Recorded in DSNP: 2.
Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos and Wood Sandpiper Tringa glareola are widespread migrants from the northern hemisphere occurring in small numbers.
LARIDAE (Gulls/Terns) Borneo: 13 [+3] spp. Recorded in DSNP: 1.
Little Terns Sterna albifrons are reportedly breeding on the DSNP lake shores, as was already observed in September 1934 by Dunselman (1937).
COLUMBIDAE (Pigeons/doves) Borneo: 19 [+1] spp.: Recorded in DSNP: 8 [+4].
The following species need confirmation: the predominantly montane Mountain Imperial Pigeon Ducula badia, (BS), the feral Zebra Dove Geopelia striata (BS), Jambu Fruit Dove Ptilinopus jambu (BS) and globally near-threatened Large Green Pigeon Treron capellei (Giesen 1987; BS).
PSITTACIDAE (Parrots) Borneo: 4 spp. Recorded in DSNP: 3.
CUCULIDAE (Cuckoos) Borneo: 24 spp. Recorded in DSNP: 17 [+2].
Records of the globally near-threatened Short-toed Coucal Centropus rectunguis (BS) and Bornean Ground-cuckoo (4) Carpococcyx radiceus (BS) need confirmation. A Chestwinged Cuckoo Clamator coromandus was seen on 5 February 1996 (Dennis et al. 1997).
TYTONIDAE (Barn-owls) Borneo: 1 sp. Recorded in DSNP: 1.
STRIGIDAE Borneo: 8 [+3] spp. Recorded in DSNP: 6.
A large number of owls have been recorded in the area, comprising all lowland owls known from Kalimantan.
PODARGIDAE (Frogmouths) Borneo: 6 spp. Recorded in DSNP: .
Three species of frogmouth are listed for DSNP, but no records have been adequately documented. A call resembling that of the montane (!) Bornean Frogmouth Batrachostomus mixtus (D. Yong in litt. 1995) was recorded by SvB in July 1993.
CAPRIMULGIDAE (nightjars). Borneo: 5 spp. Recorded in DSNP: 2 [+1]
The globally near-threatened Bonaparte's Nightjar Caprimulgus concretus was taperecorded in April 1994 (van Balen 1996). Two specimens of the Grey Nightjar Caprimulgus indicus were seen hawking over the river on Tawang on 1 December 1994 (Dennis 1994).
APODIDAE (Swiftlets) Borneo: 9 [+3] spp. Recorded in DSNP: 5 [+3].
The records of Silver-backed Needletail Hirundapus cochinchinensis (Dennis 1994; would be the first record for Borneo) (5), White-throated Needletail H. caudacutus (R. Jensen, unpubl. data; would be the first for Kalimantan) and Edible-nest Swiftlet Aerodramus fuciphagus (van Balen 1996) need confirmation and more detailed documentation.
HEMIPROCNIDAE (Tree-swifts) Borneo: 2 spp. Recorded in DSNP: 2.
TROGONIDAE (Trogons) Borneo: 6 spp. Recorded in DSNP: 3
ALCEDINIDAE (kingfishers0 Borneo: 11 spp. Recorded in DSNP: 6.
MEROPIDAE (Bee-eaters) Borneo: 3 spp. Recorded in DSNP: 2.
CORACIIDAE (Rollers) Borneo: 1 sp. Recorded in DSNP: 1.
BUCEROTIDAE (Hornbills) Borneo: 8 sp. Recorded in DSNP: 8.
For hornbills the DSNP seems to be suitable as all species known for Borneo have been recorded. The vulnerable Wrinkled Hornbill Rhyticeros corrugatus was seen in small numbers (RW; Dennis et al. 1997); globally near-threatened Black Hornbill Anthracoceros malayanus was recorded from taller swamp forest whereas Helmeted Hornbill Rhinoplax vigil is only known from the hill forests.
CAPITONIDAE (Barbets) Borneo: 9 spp. Recorded in DSNP: 6.
The globally near-threatened Red-crowned Barbet Megalaima rafflesii is found in the reserve.
INDICATORIDAE Borneo: 1 sp. Recorded in DSNP: 1
The globally near-threatened Malaysian Honeyguide Indicator archipelagicus was mistnetted on 10 Feb 1996 (Dennis et al. 1997). Also reported by BS.
PICIDAE (Woodpeckers) Borneo: 17 [+1] spp. Recorded in DSNP: 15.
A video recording made by B. Syariansah showed a rather distant Greater Goldenback Chrysocolaptes lucidus. This and the Common Goldenback Dinopium javanense are very locally distributed to rare on Borneo, with the former only know from the far NE of the island (Smythies 1981) and Mahakam mangroves (Holmes 1997). There is a record of the coastal Brown-capped Woodpecker Dendrocopus moluccensis in October 2000 (EM).
EURYLAIMIDAE (Broadbills) Borneo: 8 spp. Recorded in DSNP: 5.
PITTIDAE (Pittas) Borneo: 8 [+1] spp. Recorded in DSNP: 2.
HIRUNDINIDAE (Swallows) Borneo: 4 [+1] spp. Recorded in DSNP: 3 [+2].
The occurrence on Borneo of Red-rumped Hirundo daurica is yet to be confirmed, but the similar (and likely to be confused) Striated Swallow Hirundo striolata is known from northern Borneo. Birds belonging to either species are reported from Kalimantan (Holmes 1997); because their identification in the field is problematic, their records in DSNP (Dennis 1994 (6); EM (7)) need confirmation. The record of Asian House Martin Delichon dasypus (HN, BS) needs confirmation, considering the rareness of this species on Borneo.
CAMPEPHAGIDAE (Cuckoo-shrikes) Borneo: 14 spp. Recorded in DSNP: 5 [+2].
The records of Bar-bellied Cuckoo-shrike Coracina striata and the hill dwelling Barwinged Hemipus Hemipus picatus (BS) should be confirmed because their overall scarcity on Borneo and the lack of suitable habitat in DSNP.
PYCNONOTIDAE (Bulbuls) Borneo: 23 spp. Recorded in DSNP: 15 [+4].
Black-crested Bulbul Pycnonotus melanicterus, Grey-cheeked Bulbul Criniger bres and Ochraceous Bulbul C. ochraceus are hill birds or scarce on Borneo and their records (BS; RW) need confirmation. On Borneo the globally near-threatened Hook-billed Bulbul Setornis criniger is a scarce swamp forest bird on Borneo, and its record (RW) needs proper documentation. The vulnerable Straw-headed Bulbul Pycnonotus zeylanicus was already rare in 1986 (Giesen 1987); the only records thereafter are from along the Batang Ketam river, where calls were heard in August 1993 (Sebastian 1993), and a bird flying across the river in November 1994 (Dennis 1994).
IRENIDAE (Leafbirds) Borneo: 6 spp. Recorded in DSNP: 5.
LANIIDAE (Shrikes) Borneo: 4 spp. Recorded in DSNP 3.
The Bornean endemic, and globally near-threatened Bornean Bristlehead Pityriasis gymnocephala has been recorded in small numbers in the peatswamp forest (RnD, EM).
TURDIDAE (Thrushes) Borneo: 12 [+10] spp. Recorded in DSNP: 5 [+1].
There is an unconfirmed record of chats Saxicola sp. (HN), two species of which have been recorded from northern Borneo (Common Stone-chat S. torquata and Pied Bushchat S. caprata.
ORTHONICHIDAE (Rail Babblers) Borneo: 1 sp. Recorded in DSNP: .
The record of the Rail Babbler Eupetes macrocerus (van Balen 1996) needs confirmation.
TIMALIIDAE Borneo: 34 [+1] spp. Recorded in DSNP: 15 [+2].
The records of Abbott's Babbler Trichastoma abbotti and the Bornean endemic Black-throated Wren-babbler Napothera atrigularis (van Balen 1996) need confirmation. The globally near-threatened White-chested Babbler Trichastoma rostratum is a widespread inhabitant of riverine forest; the globally near-threatened Ferruginous Babbler Trichastoma bicolor was only found in the higher and dry parts of the area. A scimitar-babbler very similar to chestnut-backed, but with a white crown patch and collar was video-taped on 11 August 1993 by BS, but the recording was unfortunately erased by accident.
SYLVIIDAE (Old World Babblers) Borneo: 15 [+3] spp. Recorded in DSNP: 5 [+1].
The record of Black-Browed Reed-Warbler Acrocephalus bistrigiceps (Dennis et al. 1997) would be the first for Borneo but needs confirmation.
MUSCICAPIDAE (Old World Flycatchers) Borneo: 26 [+3] spp. Recorded in DSNP: 5 [+4]. The records of Rufous-tailed Rhinomyias Rhinomyias ruficauda (Dennis et al. 1997), Blue-and-white Flycatcher Cyanoptila cyanomelana, Hill Blue Flycatcher Cyornis banyumas (HN, BS) and Bornean Blue Flycatcher C. superbus (Hood 1993) need confirmation and proper documentation, considering the aberrant habitat they were found in and/or their rareness on Borneo.
MONARCHIDAE (Monarchs/Fantails) Borneo: 7 spp. Recorded in DSNP: 6.
PACHYCEPHALIDAE (Whistlers) Borneo: 2 spp. Recorded in DSNP: 1.
PARIDAE (Tits) Borneo: 1 sp. Recorded in DSNP: 
The records of the Great Tit Parus major (HN, BS) needs confirmation as this mystery bird is only locally known from the mangroves and man-made habitats in C and S Kalimantan (Holmes and Burton 1987), north of Kuching and in Sabah (Smythies 1981)
SITTIDAE (Nuthatches) Borneo: 1 sp. Recorded in DSNP: 1.
DICAEIDAE (Flowerpeckers) Borneo: 11 spp. Recorded in DSNP: 8 [+1].
The record of Brown-backed Flowerpecker Dicaeum everetti (HN, BS) needs confirmation. There are several records of the elsewhere widespread Bornean endemic Yellow-rumped Flowerpecker Prionochilus xanthopygius (e.g., Dennis et al. 1997), suggesting sympatry with the in DSNP far more commonly occurring Crimson-breasted Flowerpecker P. percussus.
NECTARINIIDAE (Sunbirds) Borneo: 17 spp. Recorded in DSNP: 13 [+3].
The records of Copper-throated Sunbird Nectarinia calcostetha and Red-throated Sunbird Anthreptes rhodolaema (Dennis 1994), both isolated records from atypical habitat, and those of Yellow-eared Spiderhunter Arachnothera chrysogenys need confirmation.
ESTRILDIDAE (Finches) Borneo: 6 spp. Recorded in DSNP: 3.
The endemic Dusky Munia Lonchura fuscans occurs in small numbers on the foothills of Menyukung and Semujan.
PLOCEIDAE (Weavers) Borneo: 1 sp. Recorded in DSNP: 1.
STURNIDAE (Starlings) Borneo: 3 [+4] spp. Recorded in DSNP: 2.
ORIOLIDAE (Orioles) Borneo: 4 [+1] spp. Recorded in DSNP: 1.
DICRURIDAE (Drongos) Borneo: 5 spp. Recorded in DSNP: 1 [+2]
The Bronzed Drongo Dicrurus aeneus (WG, BS) and Crow-billed Drongo D. annectans (BS) need confirmation.
CORVIDAE (Crows) Borneo: 7 [+1] spp. Recorded in DSNP: 4.
Large-billed Crow Corvus macrorhynchos is a mystery bird on Borneo, with only four specimens collected in the past (Smythies 1981); a more rowing flight, larger bill, more open habitat and calls differing from Slender-billed Crow have been found in a fair number birds throughout DSNP (Sebastian 1993; Dennis et al. 1997; SvB pers. obs.); about its presence appears to be little doubt. Of the globally near-threatened Black Magpie Platysmurus leucopterus three were seen near the Tekenang field station (Dennis 1994).
The minimal sample sizes fell short of covering even a near-complete spectrum of DSNP species: together they contained only 130 species. The cumulative curves confirm that the sample counts conducted are far from adequate to calculate species diversity, and only give a preliminary judgement. However, the counts suggest a trend of increasing higher diversity and expected total species number with habitat complexity. The three swamp forest plots appear extremely similar, and differences in diversity are only determined by slight differences in evenness. Despite its taller forest habitat, Empaik has lower diversity and evenness values, but has a similar extrapolated total number of species. The higher species richness of its swamp/dry hill forest ecotone apparently compensates for a lower evenness value. The cumulative curves in Figure 2ab do not tell us much about the biodiversity of entire DSNP, but the number thus far found, 237 [to 282] is likely to be close the actual number of bird species present in DSNP.
Bird families especially well represented are the herons, and a number of families which members may increase in numbers only seasonally (see van Balen 1996), dependent on fruiting resources (pigeons, hornbills), nectar resources (sunbirds), seasonal presence and breeding seasons of host species (cuckoos). The abundance and relative intactness completeness of the woodpecker guild, which are believed to be indicators of good forest (cf Lambert 1992), is rather surprising considering the disturbances that take place in the area. The (temporary) abundance of decaying wood after slashing and logging (see van Balen 1996) can only be one explanation.
Excessive trapping has almost certainly already extirpated the Straw-headed Bulbul in DSNP, as it has in most areas in the Greater Sundas (van Balen 1997). The Brahminy Kites and Purple Herons are other species under possibly excessive hunting pressure. Old reports (Enthoven 1903), topographic names referring to former bird colonies (Danau Peranak Burung; Danau Sarang Burung, Danau Pulau Burung), and the widespread water quality and prolific fish populations suggest that the flood plains might be of major importance to waterbirds such as herons and storks (Dennis et al. 1997). Especially the sudden "arrival" of a breeding colony of the globally threatened Lesser Adjutant, and apparently regular (though yet to be documented) breeding of Storm's Stork, make the area one of the last refuges of these species.
Another important category of birds in DSNP are the extreme lowland specialists (Wells 1985), many of which are globally (near)threatened, and 33 species (67% of Borneo's total; excludes 7 unconfirmed species) occur in the DNSP. These species generally do not occur at altitudes above the hill-foot boundary and are especially vulnerable to the proceeding destruction of lowland forest in Borneo.
It is not always clear what the impact is of the seasonal inundation and human disturbance. Jeanes and Meijaard (2000b, this volume) suggest that the high incidence of human activity during the dry season (= peak fishing season) has an impact on the presence of wildlife in the lake basin. Also disturbances through swidden cultivation, burning and logging (Giesen, 1987; Giesen and Aglionby, 2000, this volume), have clearly impact on bird diversity. Especially birds of the lower forest levels appear to have very low representation (pittas, most flycatchers, ground-babblers), which can be explained by the regular flooding events, but remains enigmatic as this is also the case in the dry forest. It may indicate disturbance as a decrease in species richness of these bird groups has been found in disturbed (e.g., selectively logged) forests elsewhere (cf. Lambert, 1992). A good to excellent representation is found in monarchs, sunbirds and flowerpeckers, most of which are higher canopy species, and apparently less sensitive to both logging and inundation.
The DSNP swamps and lakes are a unique ecosystem, and with 237+ bird species it is richer than any other comparable (and intensively surveyed) wetland conservation area in Kalimantan: the Middle Mahakam Area with 207 spp. (Gonner in press), but which is very much disturbed (Giesen, 2000, this volume); Tanjung Puting with 218 spp. (Nash and Nash 1988; Negara and Barito river basins with 140+ spp, which, however, lost most of their conservation value (van Balen and Prentice 1997); Gunung Palung NP with 203 spp (Laman et al. 1996).
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
1. The DSNP area is important for a number of globally threatened, notably Storm's Stork, Lesser Adjutant, Wallace's Hawk-eagle, Crested Fireback and Wrinkled Hornbill, Straw-headed Bulbul (if still surviving), and offers unique opportunities for in-depth studies of their ecology and biology.
2. The number of yet to be confirmed species indicates the urgency to do more surveys, in which mist-netting and trapping in the hill and swamp forests, as well as scrub and reed marshes would be productive, especially for the more secretive species.
3. Storks, herons and darters appeared to have been far more common in the past, and are now occurring scattered in small numbers across the area. Aerial surveys are needed to locate breeding colonies of waterbirds and census numbers of these, especially on the least accessible, and thus relatively secure, lakes and marshes.
4. The detailed study of the impact of the seasonal inundation on tree phenology and breeding activity in DSNP will give insight into the ecological processes that take place and determine the shifts in distribution of birds.
1. The high potential of the swamp and hill forests in the peripheries of DSNP have great ornithological importance and should be included into DSNP as far as they have not been.
2. Law enforcement should be improved to allow the recovery of the populations of both globally and locally threatened birds, the majority of which is protected by Indonesian law (cf Abdullah et al. 1978). Special sanctuary zones should be established.
3. Awareness programmes should be designed to encourage to the local people to protect the waterbirds and other birds presently under high hunting pressure.
APPENDIX 1. LIST OF BIRD SPECIES IN DSNP AND THEIR NUMBERS IN SIX CENSUS LOCALITIES. RECORDS (X, S, V) HAVE BEEN PUBLISHED IN VAN BALEN (1996) AND DENNIS ET AL. (1997) UNLESS INDICATED OTHERWISE.
Nomenclature: 1) Egretta alba; 2) =Dupetor flavicollis; 3) =Tringa hypoleucos; 4) The genera Rhopodytes, Rhinortha and Rhamphococcyx are often combined in Phaenicophaeus; 5) Aerodramus is often lumped with Collocalia; 6) Berenicornis and Rhyticeros are often combined in Aceros; 7) =Buceros vigil; 8) Criniger = Alophoixus; 9) =Iole charlottae; 10) =Tricholextes criniger; 11) Ixos malaccensis; 12) =Malacocincla malaccense; 13) =Malacocincla abbotti
Status: m: migrant from the palearctic; m/r: migrant and resident populations on Borneo; v: vagrant; f: feral.
Habitats: I: forest interior; II: forest-edge species; III: woodlands/cultivated areas; W: wetlands; * extreme lowland specialist.
Localities: T: Tekenang; P: Pemera; E: Empaik; G: Gernis; S: Semujan; M: Menyukung.
Documentation: s: sighting; v: only voice record; t: tape recording; vt: videotape recording; m: mist-netted and ringed; text: see "Systematic List"; unpublished records by em: E. Meijaard (in litt.); rj: R Jensen (unpublished data); wg: Giesen (1987); ih: Hood (1993); rd: Dennis et al. (1997); rw: R. Wadley (unpublished data); rdd: R. (Roddy) Dennis.
Appendix 1 Oriental Darter Anhinga melanogaster Great-billed Heron Ardea sumatrana Purple Heron Ardea purpurea Great Egret Casmeroditus albus(1) Intermediate Egret Egretta intermedia Little Egret Egrena garzetta Chinese Egret Egretta eulophotes Cattle Egret Bubuculus ibis ? Chinese Pond-heron Ardeala bacchus Striated Heron Butorides striarus Black-crowned Night-heron Nycticarax nycacorax ? Rufous Night-heron Nycticorax caledonicus Yellow Bittern Ixobrychus sinensis Cinnamon Bittern Ixobrychus cinnamomeus Black Bittern Ixobrychus flavicollzs(2) Storm's Stork Ciconia storing Lesser Adjutant Leproptilos javanicus Osprey Pandion haliactus Jerdon's Baza Aviceda jerdon: Oriental Honey-buzzard Pernis ptilorhyncus ? Bat Hawk Macheiramphus alcinus Brahminy Kite Haliastur indus White-bellied Sea-eagle Haliaaetus leucogaster Lesser Fish-eagle Ichthyophaga humilis Grey-headed Fish-eagle Ichthyophoga ichthyaetus Crested Serpent-eagle Spilornis cheela ? Buzzard Buteo spp. ? Grey-faced Buzzard Butastur indicus Crested Goshawk Accipiter trivirgatus ? Japanese Sparrow-hawk Accipiter gularis ? Besra Accipiter virgatus Black Eagle Ictinaetus malayensis Changeable Hawk-eagle Spizaetus cirrhatus ? Blyth's Hawk-eagle Spizaetus alboniger Wallace's Hawk-eagle Spizactus nanus Black-thighed Falconet Mrcrohierax fringillarius ? Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus Wandering Whistling Duck Dendrocygna arcuata ? Black Partridge Melanoperdix nigra Blue-breasted Quail Coturnix chinensis Crested Partridge Rollulus rouloul ? Crestless Fireback Lophura erythrophthalma Crested Fireback Lophura ignita ? Bulwer's Pheasant Lophura bulweri Great Argus Argusianus argus Slaty-breated Rail Gallirallus striatus ? Red-Legged Crake Rallina fasciata White-breasted Waterhen Amaurornis phoenicurus ? Watercock Gallicrex cinerea Little Ringed Plowr Charadrius dubius Wood Sandpiper Tringa glareola Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos(3) Little Tern Sterna albifrans ? Large Green Pigeon Treron capellei Thick-billed Green Pigeon Treron curvirostra Cinnamon-headed Green Pigeon Treron fulvicollis Little Green Pigeon Treron olax Pink-necked Green Pigeon Treron vernans ? Jambu Fruit-dove Ptilinopus jambu Green Imperial Pigeon Ducula aenea ? Mountain Imperial Pigeon Ducula badia Ruddy Cuckoo-dove Macropygia emiliana Spotted Dove Streptopelia chinensis ? Zebra Dove Geopelia striata Emerald Dove Chalcophaps indica Long-tailed Parakeet Psittacula longicauda Blue-rumped Parrot Psittinus cyanurus Blue-crowned Hanging-parrot Loriculus galgulus Chestnut-winged Cuckoo Clamator coromandus Moustached Hawk-cuckoo Cuculus vagans Hodgson's Hawk-cuckoo Cuculus fugax Indian Cuckoo Cuculus micropterus Banded Bay Cuckoo Cacomantis sonneratii Plaintive Cuckoo Cacomantis merulinus Rusty-breasted Cuckoo Cacomantis sepulcralis Violet Cuckoo Chrysococcyx xanthorhynchus Little Bronze Cuckoo Chrysococcyx minutillus Drongo Cuckoo Surniculus lugubris Asian Koel Eudynamys scolopacea Black-bellied Malkoha Rhopodytes diardi (4) Chestnut-bellied Malkoha Rhopodytes sumatranus (4) Raffles's Malkoha Rhinortha chlorophaea (4) Chestnut-breasted Malkoha Rhamphococcyx curvirostris (4) ? Sunda Ground-Cuckoo Carpococcyx radiceus ? Short-toed Coucal Centropus rectunguis Greater Coucal Centropus sinensis Lesser Coucal Centropus bengalensis Oriental Bay Owl Phodilus badius Reddish Scops-owl Otus rufescens Collared Scops-owl Otus lempiji Barred Eagle-owl Bubo sumatranus Buffy Fish-owl Ketupa ketupu Brown Boobook Ninox scutulata Brown Wood-owl Strix leptogrammica Frogmouth Batrachostomus spec. Malaysian Eared Nightjar Eurostopodus temminckii Grey Nightjar Caprimulgus indicus Bonaparte's Nightjar Caprimulgus concretus ? Edible-nest Swiftlet Aerodramus fuciphagus Black-nest Swiftlet Aerodramus maximus Glossy Swiftlet Collocalia esculenta ? White-throated Needletail Hirundapus caudacutus ? Silver-backed Needletail Hirundapus cochinchinensis Brown-backed Needletail Hirundapus giganteus Silver-rumped Swift Rhaphidura leucopygialis Little Swift Apus affinis Grey-rumped Tree-swift Hemiprocne longipennis WhiskeredTree-swift Hemiprocne comata Red-naped Trogon Harpactes kasumba Diard's Trogon Harpactes diardii Scarlet-rumped Trogon Harpactes duvaucelii Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis Blue-eared Kingfisher Alcedo meninting Oriental Dwarf Kingfisher Ceyx erithacus Stork-billed Kingfisher Pelargopsis capensis Banded Kingfisher Lacedo pulchella Black-capped Kingfisher Halcyon pileata Blue-throated Bee-eater Merops viridis Red-bearded Bee-eater Nyctyornis amictus Common Dollarbird Eurystomus orientalis White-crowned Hornbill Berenicornis comatus (6) Bushy-crested Hornbill Anorrhinus galeritus Wrinkled Hornbill Rhtyiceros corrugatus (6) Wreathed Hornbill Rhyhiceros undulatus (6) Black Hornbill Anthracoceros malayanus Asian Pied Hornbill Anthracoceros albirostris Rhinoceros Hornbill Buceros rhinoceros Helmeted Hornbill Rhinoplax vigil (7) Gold-whiskered Barbet Megalaima chrysopogan Red-crowned Barbet Megalaima rafflesii Red-throated Barbet Megalaima mystacophanos Yellow-crowned Barbet Megalaima henricii Blue-eared Barbet Megalaima australis Brown Barbet Calorhamphus fuliginosus Malaysian Honeyguide Indicator archipelagicus Rufous Piculet Sasia abnormis Rufous Woodpecker Celeus brachyurus Crimson-winged Woodpecker Picus puniceus Banded Woodpecker Picus miniaceus Common Goldenback Dinopium javanense Buff-rumped Woodpecker Meiglyptes tristis Buff-necked Woodpecker Meiglyptes tukki Great Slaty Woodpecker Mulleripicus pulverulentus White-bellied Woodpecker Dryocopus javensis Grey-capped Woodpecker Dendrocopos canicapillus Brown-capped Woodpecker Dendrocopos moluccensis Grey-and-buff Woodpecker Hemicircus concretus Maroon Woodpecker Blythipicus rubiginosus Orange-backed Woodpecker Reinwardtipicus validus Greater Goldenback Chrysocolaptes lucidus Dusky Broadbill Corydon sumatranus Black-and-red Broadbill Cymbirhynchus macrorhynchos Banded Broadbill Eurylaimus javanicus Black-and-yellow Broadbill Eurylaimus ochromalus Green Broadbill Calyptomena viridis Hooded Pitta Pitta sordida Blue-winged Pitta Pitta moluccensis Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica Pacific Swallow Hirundo tahitica ? Red-rumped Swallow Hirundo daurica ? Asian House-martin Delichon dasypus ? Bar-bellied Cuckoo-shrike Coracina striata Lesser Cuckoo-shrike Coracina fimbriata Fiery Minivet Pericrocotus igneus Scarlet Minivet Pericrocofus flammeus ? Bar-winged Hemipus Hemipus picatus Black-winged Hemipus] Hemipus hirundinaceus Large Wood-shrike Tephrodornis gularis Straw-headed Bulbul Pycnonotus eylanicus Black-and-white Bulbul Pycnonotus melanoleucos Black-headed Bulbul Pycnonotus atriceps ? Black-crested Bulbul Pycnonwus melanicterus Grey-bellied Bulbul Pycnonotus cyaniventris Puff-backed Bulbul Pycnonoeus eutilotus Yellow-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus goiavier Olive-winged Bulbul Pycnonotus plumosus Cream-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus simplex Red-eyed Bulbul Pycnonotus brunneus Spectacled Bulbul Pycnonotus erythropthalmos Finsch's Bulbul Criniger finschii (8) ? Ochraceous Bulbul Criniger ochraceous (8) ? Grey-cheeked Bulbul Criniger bres (8) Yellow-bellied Bulbul Criniger phacacephalus (8) ? Hook-billed Bulbul Setornis criniger Buff-vented Bulbul Hypsipetes charlottae ((9) Hairy-backed Bulbul Hypsipetes criniger (10) Common Streaked Bulbul Hypsipetes malaccensis (11) Common Iora Aeglihina tiphia Green Iora Aegithina viridissima Greater Green Leatbird Chloropsis sonnerati Lesser Green Leafbird Chloropsis cyanopogon Asian Fairy Bluebird Irena puella Tiger Shrike Lanius tigrinus Brown Shrike Lanius cristatus Bornean Btistlehead Pityriasis gymnocephala Oriental Magpie-robin Copsychus saularis White-rumped Shama Copsychus malabaricus Rufous-tailed Shama Copsychus pyrropygus Cheatnut-naped Forktail Enicurus ruficapillus White-crowned Forktail Enicurus leschenaulti Chats Saxicola spp. Rail Babbler Eupetes macrocerus Short-tailed Babbler Trichastoma malaccense (12) White-cheated Babbler Trichastoma rostratum Ferruginous Babbler Trichastoma bicolor ? Abbott's Babbler Trichastoma abbotti (13) Moustached Babbler Malacopteron magnirostre Sooty-capped Babbler Malacopteron affine Scaly-crowned Babbler Malacopteron cinereum Rufous-crowned Babbler Malacopteran magnum Chestnut-backed Scimitar-babble Pomatorhinus montanus Striped wren-babbler Kenopia striata ? Black-throated Wren-babbler Napothera atrigularis Chestnut-rumped Babbler Stachyris maculata Black-throated Babbler Stachyris nigricollis Chestnut-winged Babbler Stachyris erythroptera Striped Tit-babbler Macronous gularis Fluffy-backed Tit-babbler Macronous ptilosus Brown Fulvetta Alcippe brunneicauda ? Black-Browed Reed-Warbler Acrocephalus bistrigiceps Yellow-bellied Prinia Prinia flaviventris Dark-necked Tailorbird Orthotomus atrogularis Rufous-tailed Tailorbird Orthotomus sericeus Ashy Tailorbird Orthotomus ruficeps Arctic Leaf-warbler Phylloscopus borealis Grey-chested Rhinomyias Rhinomyias umbratilis ? Rufous-tailed Rhinomyias Rhinomyias ruficauda Asian Brown Flycatcher Muscicapa dauurica Mugimaki Flycatcher Ficedula mugimaki ? Blue-and-white Flycatcher Cyanoptila cyanomelana Pale Blue Flycatcher Cyornis unicolor ? Hill Blue Flycatcher Cyornis banyumas ? Bornean Blue Flycatcher Cyornis superbus Malaysian Blue Flycatcher Cyornis turcosus Rufous-winged Philentoma Philentoma pyrhopterum Maroon-breasted Flycatcher Philentoma velatum Black-naped Monarch Hypothymis azurea Asian Paradise-flycatcher Terpsiphone paradisi Pied Fantail Rhipidura javanica Spotted Fantail Rhipidura perlata Mangrove Whistler Pachycephala grisola ? Great Tit Parus major Velvet-fronted Nuthatch Sitta frontalis Yellow-breasted Flowerpecker Prionochilus maculatus Crimson-breasted Flowerpecker Prionochilus percussus Yellow-rumped Flowerpecker Prionochilus xanthopygius Scarlet-breasted Flowerpecker Prionichilus thoracicus ? Brown-backed Flowerpecker Dicaeum everetti Yellow-vented Flowerpecker Dicaeum chrysorrheum Orange-bellied Flowerpecker Dicaeum trigonostigma Plain Flowerpecker Dicaeum concolor Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker Dicaeum cruentatum Plain Sunbird Anthreptes simplex Plain-throated Sunbird Anthreptes malacensis ? Red-throated Sunbird Anthreptes rhodolaema Ruby-checked Sunbird Anthreptes singalensis Purple-naped Sunbird Hypagramma hypogrammicum Purple-throated Sunbird Nectarinia sperata ? Copper-throated Sunbird Nectarinia calcostetha Olive-backed Sunbird Nectarinia jugularis Crimson Sunbird Aethopyga siparaja Scarlet Sunbird Aethopyga temminckii Little Spiderhunter Arachnothera longirostra Thick-billed Spiderhunter Arachnothera crassirostris Long-billed Spiderhunter Arachnothera robusta Spectacled Spiderhunter Arachnothera flavigaster ? Yellow-eared Spiderhunter Arachnothera chrysogenys Grey-breasted Spiderhunter Arachnothera affinis Dusky Munia Lonchurafuscans White-bellied Munia Lonchura leucogastra Chestnut Munia Lonchura malacca Tree Sparrow Passer montanus Asian Glossy Starling Aplonis panayensis Hill Myna Gracula religiosa Dark-throated Oriole Oriolus xanthonotus ? Crow-billed Drongo Dicrurus annectans ? Bronzed Drongo Dicrurus aeneus Greater Racquet-tailed Drongo Dicrurus paradiseus Crested Jay Platylophus galericulatus Black Magpie Platysmurus leucopterus Slender-billed Crow Covus enca Large-billed Crow Covus macrorhynchus Status Habitat T P E G S Oriental Darter W - - - - - Great-billed Heron W - - - - - Purple Heron W - - - - - Great Egret m W x - - - - Intermediate Egret m W - - - - - Little Egret iii W - - - - - Chinese Egret m W - - - - - Cattle Egret m W - - - - - ? Chinese Pond-heron m W - - - - - Striated Heron m/r W x - - - - Black-crowned Night-heron W rd - - - - ? Rufous Night-heron v W - - - - - Yellow Bittern m W - - - - - Cinnamon Bittern m/r W - - - - - Black Bittern m W - - x - - Storm's Stork * W - - - - - Lesser Adjutant W - - - - - Osprey W - - - - - Jerdon's Baza I - x - - - Oriental Honey-buzzard I rd - - - - ? Bat Hawk I - - - - - Brahminy Kite III x x x - - White-bellied Sea-eagle * W - - - - - Lesser Fish-eagle W - x x - - Grey-headed Fish-eagle * W - - - - x Crested Serpent-eagle II x x - - x ? Buzzard m Ill - - - - - ? Grey-faced Buzzard m Ill - - - - - Crested Goshawk I x x - - x ? Japanese Sparrow-hawk m II - - - - - ? Besra - - - - - Black Eagle II - - - - - Changeable Hawk-eagle Ill - - - - rd ? Blyth's Hawk-eagle I - - - - - Wallace's Hawk-eagle I x - - - - Black-thighed Falconet II - x x - - ? Peregrine Falcon m III - - - - - Wandering Whistling Duck W - - - - - ? Black Partridge * I - - - - - Blue-breasted Quail III - - - - - Crested Partridge II - - - - - ? Crestless Fireback * I - - - - - Crested Fireback * I - - - - x ? Bulwer's Pheasant I - - - - - Great Argus I - - - - x Slaty-breated Rail W - - - - - ? Red-Legged Crake W - - - - - White-breasted Waterhen W ts - - - - ? Watercock m W - - - - - Little Ringed Plowr m W - - - - - Wood Sandpiper m W - - - - - Common Sandpiper m W - - - - x Little Tern W - - - - - ? Large Green Pigeon * I - - - - - Thick-billed Green Pigeon I - - - x - Cinnamon-headed Green Pigeon * I - - 1 3 - Little Green Pigeon * II - - - - - Pink-necked Green Pigeon II - - - x - ? Jambu Fruit-dove I - - - - - Green Imperial Pigeon * II 1 - - 1 x ? Mountain Imperial Pigeon I - - - - - Ruddy Cuckoo-dove II - x x x - Spotted Dove III - - - - - ? Zebra Dove f III - - - - - Emerald Dove I - x - x x Long-tailed Parakeet * II - x 1 12 - Blue-rumped Parrot * I - - - 3 - Blue-crowned Hanging-parrot II x 2 3 5 - Chestnut-winged Cuckoo m III - - - - - Moustached Hawk-cuckoo I - - - - - Hodgson's Hawk-cuckoo m/r I - - - - x Indian Cuckoo m/r I - 1 - 2 x Banded Bay Cuckoo II - - - x x Plaintive Cuckoo III 4 x x x x Rusty-breasted Cuckoo II - - - - - Violet Cuckoo II 3 - x x x Little Bronze Cuckoo II x - - - - Drongo Cuckoo II 7 x - - - Asian Koel m I - - - - - Black-bellied Malkoha II - - - 1 - Chestnut-bellied Malkoha I 3 - - - - Raffles's Malkoha II 2 4 - - x Chestnut-breasted Malkoha II - - - - - ? Sunda Ground-Cuckoo * I - - - - - ? Short-toed Coucal * I - - - - - Greater Coucal II 8 4 3 4 x Lesser Coucal III rd - - - - Oriental Bay Owl * II - - - - - Reddish Scops-owl I - - - - - Collared Scops-owl III - - - - - Barred Eagle-owl I - - - - - Buffy Fish-owl * W ts - - - - Brown Boobook m/r II - - - - - Brown Wood-owl I - - - - x Frogmouth I - - - - - Malaysian Eared Nightjar II - - - - - Grey Nightjar m III - - - - - Bonaparte's Nightjar * II - - - - - ? Edible-nest Swiftlet III - - - - - Black-nest Swiftlet III x - - - x Glossy Swiftlet III - - - - - ? White-throated Needletail m III rj - - - - ? Silver-backed Needletail m III rd - - - - Brown-backed Needletail m/r II x - - - - Silver-rumped Swift I x 10 4 1 - Little Swift III x - - - - Grey-rumped Tree-swift * II - - - - - WhiskeredTree-swift II rd 4 - - - Red-naped Trogon I - - - - x Diard's Trogon I x Scarlet-rumped Trogon I - - - - x Common Kingfisher m W - - - - - Blue-eared Kingfisher I rd 3 3 -- x Oriental Dwarf Kingfisher I - - 1 - x Stork-billed Kingfisher W 1 4 2 2 x Banded Kingfisher I - - - - x Black-capped Kingfisher m W - - - - - Blue-throated Bee-eater III - - - - - Red-bearded Bee-eater I - - - - - Common Dollarbird m/r II - - - - - White-crowned Hornbill I - - - - x Bushy-crested Hornbill I - - - - x Wrinkled Hornbill * I - - - - rd Wreathed Hornbill I x - x - x Black Hornbill * II - - 2 - x Asian Pied Hornbill * II 1 2 - - x Rhinoceros Hornbill I - - - - x Helmeted Hornbill I - - - - - Gold-whiskered Barbet I - - - - x Red-crowned Barbet * I - 3 x 1 x Red-throated Barbet I - - - 1 x Yellow-crowned Barbet I - - - - Blue-eared Barbet II x 3 4 - - Brown Barbet II - - - - rd Malaysian Honeyguide I rd - - - - Rufous Piculet II - - 1 - x Rufous Woodpecker II - - - - x Crimson-winged Woodpecker I 1 1 x 1 - Banded Woodpecker II 3 1 x 1 rd Common Goldenback II - - - - - Buff-rumped Woodpecker I - - - - x Buff-necked Woodpecker I - - - 1 Great Slaty Woodpecker * I - 1 - - x White-bellied Woodpecker * I - - 1 - x Grey-capped Woodpecker II - x x - x Brown-capped Woodpecker III - - - - - Grey-and-buff Woodpecker II - - 1 1 - Maroon Woodpecker I - 1 - x Orange-backed Woodpecker I x - x - - Greater Goldenback II - - - - - Dusky Broadbill I - - - - - Black-and-red Broadbill I x - - x - Banded Broadbill I - - 2 - x Black-and-yellow Broadbill II - 2 4 1 x Green Broadbill I - 1 - - x Hooded Pitta m/r * II - - - - - Blue-winged Pitta m II - - - - - Barn Swallow m III z - - - - Pacific Swallow III - - - - - ? Red-rumped Swallow m III - - - - - ? Asian House-martin m III - - - - - ? Bar-bellied Cuckoo-shrike * II - - - - - Lesser Cuckoo-shrike I - I - - - Fiery Minivet * II - 3 - 4 - Scarlet Minivet I - - - - x ? Bar-winged Hemipus I - - - - - Black-winged Hemipus] II x 5 - 2 x Large Wood-shrike I - - - - - Straw-headed Bulbul II - - - - - Black-and-white Bulbul I - - - - rd Black-headed Bulbul II x 6 x - x ? Black-crested Bulbul I - - - - - Grey-bellied Bulbul I - - - - x Puff-backed Bulbul I - - x - - Yellow-vented Bulbul III - - - - - Olive-winged Bulbul Ill rd - - - x Cream-vented Bulbul II 6 4 5 74 rd Red-eyed Bulbul I rd 2 I ?1 x Spectacled Bulbul II - - - - x Finsch's Bulbul I - - - - x ? Ochraceous Bulbul I - - - - - ? Grey-cheeked Bulbul I - - - - - Yellow-bellied Bulbul I - - - - - ? Hook-billed Bulbul * I - - - - - Buff-vented Bulbul I - - - - - Hairy-backed Bulbul I - - - - x Common Streaked Bulbul I - - - - x Common Iora III 20 7 x 7 x Green Iora I x 3 2 5 x Greater Green Leatbird I - 2 2 1 - Lesser Green Leafbird II - - ?x ?x - Asian Fairy Bluebird I - - - - x Tiger Shrike m II - - - - - Brown Shrike m III rd - - - - Bornean Btistlehead * I - - - - - Oriental Magpie-robin III 20 3 2 3 x White-rumped Shama I - 4 1 x x Rufous-tailed Shama I - - - - - Cheatnut-naped Forktail I - - - - - White-crowned Forktail II - - - - - Chats v III - - - - - Rail Babbler I - - - - - Short-tailed Babbler I - - I - - White-cheated Babbler * II 7 10 21 13 x Ferruginous Babbler * I - - - - x ? Abbott's Babbler II - - - - - Moustached Babbler I - - - - x Sooty-capped Babbler II 5 1 2 2 x Scaly-crowned Babbler I - - 4 - - Rufous-crowned Babbler I - - - - x Chestnut-backed Scimitar-babble I - - - - x Striped wren-babbler I - - - - - ? Black-throated Wren-babbler I - - - - - Chestnut-rumped Babbler I - - 3 - x Black-throated Babbler * I - - - - x Chestnut-winged Babbler I x 8 20 11 x Striped Tit-babbler III 38 12 7 21 x Fluffy-backed Tit-babbler II - 2 - - x Brown Fulvetta I - - - - x ? Black-Browed Reed-Warbler m III - - - - - Yellow-bellied Prinia III - - x - x Dark-necked Tailorbird III x - - - x Rufous-tailed Tailorbird III x - x 4 x Ashy Tailorbird II 12 4 10 8 x Arctic Leaf-warbler m II 4 3 1 3 x Grey-chested Rhinomyias I - - - - x ? Rufous-tailed Rhinomyias I - - - - - Asian Brown Flycatcher m II x - - - rd Mugimaki Flycatcher m II - - - - - ? Blue-and-white Flycatcher m II - - - - - Pale Blue Flycatcher I - - - - - ? Hill Blue Flycatcher II - - - - - ? Bornean Blue Flycatcher I - - - - - Malaysian Blue Flycatcher * II x - 6 4 - Rufous-winged Philentoma I - - - - x Maroon-breasted Flycatcher I - - - - x Black-naped Monarch I 3 5 7 6 x Asian Paradise-flycatcher I - 3 - 3 x Pied Fantail III - - x x x Spotted Fantail I - - - - x Mangrove Whistler II - 5 7 6 - ? Great Tit II - - - - - Velvet-fronted Nuthatch I - 4 2 2 x Yellow-breasted Flowerpecker I - - - - x Crimson-breasted Flowerpecker II 1 - - 1 x Yellow-rumped Flowerpecker I - - - - - Scarlet-breasted Flowerpecker II - - - - - ? Brown-backed Flowerpecker I - - - - - Yellow-vented Flowerpecker II - - - - - Orange-bellied Flowerpecker II 8 17 20 13 x Plain Flowerpecker II - - - - x Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker III 8 3 3 3 x Plain Sunbird I - - - - x Plain-throated Sunbird III 15 6 x 3 x ? Red-throated Sunbird I - - - - - Ruby-checked Sunbird II x - 1 ?1 - Purple-naped Sunbird I - - - - - Purple-throated Sunbird * II rd 5 7 3 - ? Copper-throated Sunbird II - - - - - Olive-backed Sunbird III 12 6 x 3 - Crimson Sunbird * II 2 3 2 x - Scarlet Sunbird I - - - - x Little Spiderhunter I - 2 3 - x Thick-billed Spiderhunter I x - - - - Long-billed Spiderhunter I - - 1 - x Spectacled Spiderhunter I - ?1 - - ?x ? Yellow-eared Spiderhunter I - - - - ?x Grey-breasted Spiderhunter II - - - - - Dusky Munia III ts - - - x White-bellied Munia * II - - - - - Chestnut Munia III - - - - - Tree Sparrow III - - - - - Asian Glossy Starling III - - - - - Hill Myna * II x x 2 3 x Dark-throated Oriole I - - - - - ? Crow-billed Drongo m II - - - - - ? Bronzed Drongo I - - - - - Greater Racquet-tailed Drongo * II - 4 5 - x Crested Jay I - - - - - Black Magpie * II - - - - - Slender-billed Crow * II x - 3 5 - Large-billed Crow III - - - - - M Doc Oriental Darter - s Great-billed Heron - s Purple Heron - s Great Egret - s Intermediate Egret - s Little Egret - S Chinese Egret - text Cattle Egret - S ? Chinese Pond-heron - text Striated Heron - s Black-crowned Night-heron - s ? Rufous Night-heron - text Yellow Bittern - s Cinnamon Bittern - s Black Bittern - s Storm's Stork - s Lesser Adjutant - s Osprey - s Jerdon's Baza - s Oriental Honey-buzzard - s ? Bat Hawk - text Brahminy Kite x s White-bellied Sea-eagle - s Lesser Fish-eagle - s,t Grey-headed Fish-eagle - s Crested Serpent-eagle - s,t ? Buzzard - text ? Grey-faced Buzzard - text Crested Goshawk - s,t ? Japanese Sparrow-hawk lx text ? Besra - text Black Eagle - s Changeable Hawk-eagle x s ? Blyth's Hawk-eagle - text Wallace's Hawk-eagle - s Black-thighed Falconet x s ? Peregrine Falcon - text Wandering Whistling Duck - s ? Black Partridge - text Blue-breasted Quail - s Crested Partridge - s ? Crestless Fireback - text Crested Fireback - text ? Bulwer's Pheasant - text Great Argus 4 v Slaty-breated Rail - s ? Red-Legged Crake - text White-breasted Waterhen - s ? Watercock - text Little Ringed Plowr - s Wood Sandpiper - s Common Sandpiper - s Little Tern - t,vt ? Large Green Pigeon - text Thick-billed Green Pigeon - s Cinnamon-headed Green Pigeon - s Little Green Pigeon x s Pink-necked Green Pigeon - S ? Jambu Fruit-dove - text Green Imperial Pigeon - s ? Mountain Imperial Pigeon - text Ruddy Cuckoo-dove 1 v Spotted Dove - s ? Zebra Dove - text Emerald Dove 1 s,v Long-tailed Parakeet - s,t Blue-rumped Parrot - s,v Blue-crowned Hanging-parrot - s,v Chestnut-winged Cuckoo - s Moustached Hawk-cuckoo - v Hodgson's Hawk-cuckoo 1 v Indian Cuckoo - t Banded Bay Cuckoo - v Plaintive Cuckoo x v,t Rusty-breasted Cuckoo - ts Violet Cuckoo 1 s,v Little Bronze Cuckoo - s,t Drongo Cuckoo x s,t Asian Koel - rd Black-bellied Malkoha - s Chestnut-bellied Malkoha - vt Raffles's Malkoha - t,vt Chestnut-breasted Malkoha 2 s ? Sunda Ground-Cuckoo - text ? Short-toed Coucal - text Greater Coucal x s,t Lesser Coucal s Oriental Bay Owl - v Reddish Scops-owl - t Collared Scops-owl - v Barred Eagle-owl x t Buffy Fish-owl - s,v Brown Boobook - v Brown Wood-owl rd s Frogmouth - text Malaysian Eared Nightjar - v Grey Nightjar - text Bonaparte's Nightjar - t ? Edible-nest Swiftlet - text Black-nest Swiftlet - s Glossy Swiftlet x s ? White-throated Needletail - text ? Silver-backed Needletail - text Brown-backed Needletail - text Silver-rumped Swift - s Little Swift - s Grey-rumped Tree-swift - s WhiskeredTree-swift - s Red-naped Trogon 2 s,t Diard's Trogon 1 s,t Scarlet-rumped Trogon 1 s,t Common Kingfisher - rj,rd Blue-eared Kingfisher x s,t,m Oriental Dwarf Kingfisher 1 s,v Stork-billed Kingfisher x s,v,t Banded Kingfisher - s,v Black-capped Kingfisher - rd,ih Blue-throated Bee-eater - rw Red-bearded Bee-eater 1 t Common Dollarbird x s White-crowned Hornbill 1 v Bushy-crested Hornbill x s Wrinkled Hornbill rd s Wreathed Hornbill 2 s Black Hornbill x t Asian Pied Hornbill 2 s,m Rhinoceros Hornbill 4 s,t Helmeted Hornbill 1 v Gold-whiskered Barbet - s,v Red-crowned Barbet 3 v Red-throated Barbet 4 v Yellow-crowned Barbet - bs Blue-eared Barbet 9 s,v Brown Barbet 6 s,v Malaysian Honeyguide - m Rufous Piculet - s,t,tv Rufous Woodpecker 1 s Crimson-winged Woodpecker - s,t Banded Woodpecker - s,v Common Goldenback - wg,ts,bs Buff-rumped Woodpecker - s Buff-necked Woodpecker - s,t Great Slaty Woodpecker 1 s,t White-bellied Woodpecker x s,t Grey-capped Woodpecker - s Brown-capped Woodpecker - em Grey-and-buff Woodpecker - s,t Maroon Woodpecker x s Orange-backed Woodpecker 1 s Greater Goldenback - vt Dusky Broadbill - bs Black-and-red Broadbill x s,v,t Banded Broadbill x s,v Black-and-yellow Broadbill 5 s,v Green Broadbill 1 s,v Hooded Pitta x s, Blue-winged Pitta - rj Barn Swallow - s Pacific Swallow - s ? Red-rumped Swallow - text ? Asian House-martin - text ? Bar-bellied Cuckoo-shrike - text Lesser Cuckoo-shrike x s,t Fiery Minivet - s Scarlet Minivet 2 s ? Bar-winged Hemipus - text Black-winged Hemipus] 2 s,v Large Wood-shrike 2 s,v Straw-headed Bulbul - text Black-and-white Bulbul - rj Black-headed Bulbul x s,v ? Black-crested Bulbul - text Grey-bellied Bulbul x s Puff-backed Bulbul x t Yellow-vented Bulbul rd S Olive-winged Bulbul rd m Cream-vented Bulbul 5 s,v Red-eyed Bulbul 2 s,t,m Spectacled Bulbul x s,t Finsch's Bulbul x s ? Ochraceous Bulbul - text ? Grey-cheeked Bulbul - text Yellow-bellied Bulbul 2 s,t ? Hook-billed Bulbul 3 text Buff-vented Bulbul x s,t Hairy-backed Bulbul x s,t Common Streaked Bulbul 2 t Common Iora - s,v Green Iora 4 s,t Greater Green Leatbird 3 s,v Lesser Green Leafbird ?x rd Asian Fairy Bluebird I s,t Tiger Shrike - rj Brown Shrike - rj Bornean Btistlehead - text Oriental Magpie-robin x s,t,m White-rumped Shama 6 s,t,m Rufous-tailed Shama - rj Cheatnut-naped Forktail I s White-crowned Forktail - ih Chats - text Rail Babbler ?x text Short-tailed Babbler 8 s,t White-cheated Babbler s,t Ferruginous Babbler - s,v ? Abbott's Babbler ?x text Moustached Babbler - v,t Sooty-capped Babbler 5 s,t Scaly-crowned Babbler 8 s,t Rufous-crowned Babbler - s,v Chestnut-backed Scimitar-babble 4 s,t Striped wren-babbler x s ? Black-throated Wren-babbler ?x text Chestnut-rumped Babbler - s,t Black-throated Babbler I s,t,m Chestnut-winged Babbler 10 s,t Striped Tit-babbler 2 t,m Fluffy-backed Tit-babbler x s,t Brown Fulvetta 21 s,v ? Black-Browed Reed-Warbler - text Yellow-bellied Prinia x s,v Dark-necked Tailorbird - s,t Rufous-tailed Tailorbird x m Ashy Tailorbird x s,t Arctic Leaf-warbler 2 s,t Grey-chested Rhinomyias 1 s,v ? Rufous-tailed Rhinomyias - text Asian Brown Flycatcher - s Mugimaki Flycatcher - em,rdd ? Blue-and-white Flycatcher - text Pale Blue Flycatcher - hn,bs ? Hill Blue Flycatcher - text ? Bornean Blue Flycatcher - text Malaysian Blue Flycatcher x s,v Rufous-winged Philentoma rd t,m Maroon-breasted Flycatcher - s Black-naped Monarch 7 s,t Asian Paradise-flycatcher I s,t Pied Fantail - s,v Spotted Fantail 5 s,t Mangrove Whistler - v,t ? Great Tit - text Velvet-fronted Nuthatch - s Yellow-breasted Flowerpecker - s,t Crimson-breasted Flowerpecker 2 m,vt Yellow-rumped Flowerpecker rd s,text Scarlet-breasted Flowerpecker 3 s ? Brown-backed Flowerpecker - text Yellow-vented Flowerpecker - bs,rw Orange-bellied Flowerpecker 2 s,t,m Plain Flowerpecker 1 s,t Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker rd s,t Plain Sunbird 2 s Plain-throated Sunbird rd s,v,t ? Red-throated Sunbird - text Ruby-checked Sunbird rd s Purple-naped Sunbird 2 s,v Purple-throated Sunbird rd s,t,m ? Copper-throated Sunbird - text Olive-backed Sunbird - s,t Crimson Sunbird - s,t Scarlet Sunbird 1 s,t Little Spiderhunter x t,m Thick-billed Spiderhunter - s Long-billed Spiderhunter 3 s Spectacled Spiderhunter ?x rd ? Yellow-eared Spiderhunter - text Grey-breasted Spiderhunter x s,v Dusky Munia 1 s White-bellied Munia - wg Chestnut Munia - wg, rd Tree Sparrow - ih,rd Asian Glossy Starling - rj,bs Hill Myna x s,v Dark-throated Oriole l s,v ? Crow-billed Drongo - s,v,t ? Bronzed Drongo - wg,bs Greater Racquet-tailed Drongo 1 s,t Crested Jay - rj Black Magpie - rd Slender-billed Crow - s,v Large-billed Crow - text
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
Table 1 Similarity Indices for bird communities in five census sites DSNP. A gradual shift in species composition is found from the dwarf swamp forest Tekenang through the swamp forest cluster (Gernis, Pemera, and Empaik) to Menyukank. T E P G M Tekenang x .24 .38 .38 .11 Empaik x .44 .47 .22 Pemera x .54 .23 Gernis x .19 Menyukung x Table 2 Bird Species Diversity Values for five census localities in DSNP. BSD: Bird Species Diversity index (Shannon-Weaver formula; MacArthur and MacArthur 1961); Species Richness (number of species for four 50-individual samples); Evenness (or Equitability; Pielou 1966). Species sample BSD Richness Evenness size Tekenang 2.82 27 .86 195 Empaik 3.36 46 .88 186 Pemera 3.58 46 .93 190 Gernis 3.45 46 .90 186 Menyukung 3.73 61 .91 186
(1.) This depends on taxonomic views.
(2.) Two recently caught birds tethered on raft at Meliau, 2 Feb 1996.
(3.) One in tree near Lake Bekuwan on 29 Nov 1994; not perfect views but considered this species.
(4.) This species has recently been split into Sumatran Carpococcyx viridis and Bornean Ground-cuckoo C. radiceus (Collar and Long 1996)
(5.) Four flying high over the Entipau River on 1 Dec 1993: smaller than H. giganteus, pale back, white vent and no white throat.
(6.) Four very pale birds seen above Tekenang bill on 26 November 1994
(7.) Seen in the north of DSNP in 1996.
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|Author:||Dennis, Roy H.|
|Publication:||Borneo Research Bulletin|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2000|
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