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Biotechnology of uncooked smoked meat products with biocorrective property.


The use of phytopreparations, water and alcohol infusions, wild growing herbs [1,2] and Far Eastern balms together with starter cultures [3-5] in the production of uncooked smoked sausages and whole muscle meat products allowed significantly modifying traditional principals of manufacturing these types of products, reducing technological cycle and improving organoleptic characteristics. Moreover, prerequisites to the transition of the process to a totally new level appeared--to developing therapeutic and functional uncooked smoked and uncooked cured meat products [6-10]--particularly, taking into account high social demand for corrective food for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) [11,12]. For this kind of patients, the aforesaid group of uncooked smoked pro ducts has been developed for eliminating protein-energy malnutrition and improving oxidative and immune status.

The results of chemical development studies of new types of uncooked smoked meat products using amino acids mix, hydrolysate of mussel, bacterial preparations and Far Eastern balms showed increase in the level of finished products' bioavailability [13,14]. Adding the aforesaid contents influences the quantitative content of free amino acids in finished uncooked smoked products, and the use of uncooked smoked meat products with biocorrective property in the complex treatment regimen for COPD patients gives positive effect: positive dynamics in changing clinical laboratory and anthropometric measures is observed.


As basic objects (control samples), uncooked smoked sausages and uncooked smoked hams were chosen for manufacturing using both beef and pork as well as broiler chicken breast fillet, adding bacterial preparations for activation of fermentation during the technological process [15-17].

Mixes of L-amino acids and hydrolysates of mussel and zosterin preparation were additionally added into test batches of meat products taking into account the medico-biological requirements for COPD patients [18-22].

Mixes of amino acids were obtained [23] by enzymic hydrolysis of mussel using crab collagenase. The composition of mussel hydrolysate is given in Table 1.

Zosterin is low methoxyl pectin extracted from the sea grass of Zosteraceae kind. It has high adsorptive, antidotic, antimutagenic, immunomodulating, antiallergenic and antibiotic properties [24-26]; it is produced by Biopreparat (Primorskiy region). It is recommended by Institute of Nutrition RAMS as nutritional supplement in therapeutic and special products [27-29].

Medico-biological tests of new types of uncooked smoked products enriched in mussel hydrolysates and zosterin were conducted involving groups of patient volunteers at the City Clinical Hospital in Vladivostok.

Results and Discussion

The results of chemical development studies of uncooked smoked sausages 'Sidimi' (a complex mix of mussel hydrolysate, zosterin and bacterial agent PBK-BR was added into the formulation) and uncooked smoked ham 'Yubileynaya' (with an addition of mussel hydrolysate and bacterial agent PB-MP) showed that the use of amino acids mix provides significant increase in the level of finished products' bioavailability. This is showed by the data (Table 2) characterizing quantitative content of essential amino acids in the composition of protein as well as by values of estimated and analytic indexes (Table 3) of degree of protein equivalence to human needs.

Taking into account special medico-biological significance of free amino acids in functional products, researchers estimated the degree of impact of L-amino acids mix (leucine, isoleucine, valine, arginine, lysine, threonine, tryptophane, histidine, alanine, proline, serine, glycine) together with bacterial agent PBK-BR on uncooked smoked sausages, as well as impact of hydrolysates of hydrobionts and starter culture PB-MP on the quantitative content of free amino acids in restructured ham products.

The data given in Table 4 show that content of free essential amino acids in test batches of products has increased by 215% at the average in comparison with the control, and that of nonessential amino acids by 120%. As individual amino acids are easily absorbed directly into blood flow, it can be supposed that the level of bioavailability in vivo of experimental types of products will be significantly higher than that of control samples [30-33].

Medico-biological tests of new types of uncooked smoked products enriched in mussel hydrolysates and zosterin conducted at the City Clinical Hospital in Vladivostok involving COPD patients at YY and YYY stages showed that the produced uncooked smoked products can be recommended to COPD patients for correction of protein-energy and oxidative status [34,35]. On the basis of integrated studies, new types of uncooked smoked meat products have been developed, and standard documentation has been approved: TC 9213-169-02067936-07 'Uncooked smoked sausage products,' TC 9213-170-0206793-07 'Uncooked smoked hams.'


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Lyudmila Aleksandrovna Tekutyeva *, Oksana Mikhailovna Son, Natalya Viktorovna Situn

Merchandizing and Goods Examination Department, Far Eastern Federal University, 8 Suhanova St., Vladivostok 690950, Russia

* Corresponding author: Tekutyeva LA, Merchandizing and Goods Examination Department, Far Eastern Federal University, 8 Suhanova St., Vladivostok 690950, Russia

Received: May 17, 2015; Accepted: June 26, 2015; Published: Aug 9, 2015
Table 1: Chemical composition of mussel hydrolysate

Assay                       %

Water                     80-85
Sodium chloride            2-5
Peptides, amino acids     10-15
Carbohydrates              3-5
Lipids                  0.04-0.07
Micro-, macroelements     0.06

Micro-, macroelements
composition               mg/%

Phosphorous                145

Calcium                    45

Iron                       18

Silicon                    15

Zinc                       4.5

Strontium                  1.5

Manganese                  1.5

Copper                     0.7

Titanium                   0.3
Iodine                     0.15
Nickel                     0.1
Barium                     0.07
Cobalt                     0.03
Argentum                   0.003

Amino acids
composition               mg/%

Glutamic acid             38.1
Aspartic acid             27.6
Lysine                    16.6
Arginine                  13.9
Glycine                   13.4
Leucine                   11.1
Proline                   10.9
Alanine                   10.2
Threonine                  9.6
Serine                     9.5
Valine                     9.2
Isoleucine                 8.7
Phenylalanine              8.5
Tyrosine                   6.5
Methionine                 5.0
Histidine                  4.5
Cystine                    2.1
OH-Lysine                  0.6
Ornithine                  0.3
Tryptophane                3.2
Taurine                    7.4

Table 2: Amino acids composition of produced uncooked smoked products

Amino acids, g/100          Uncooked smoked products  Standard
g of protein                                          FAO/WHO

                           Sausage         Ham
                           'Sidimi'   'Yubileynaya'

Isoleucine                   4.77         4.72          4.0
Leucine                      7.81         7.69          7.0
Lysine                       8.86         8.28          5.5
Methionine + cystine         3.4          4.16          3.5
Phenylalanine + tyrosine     7.18         7.02          6.0
Threonine                    4.52         4.38          4.0
Tryptophane                  1.24         1.0           1.0
Valine                       5.79         5.62          5.0
Amount of essential         43.57         42.87         36.0
amino acids

Table 3: Bioavailability of protein

Indexes of protein                       Uncooked smoked products

bioavailability                  Sausage 'Sidimi'   Ham 'Yubileynaya'

Minimum score, [C.sub.min], %          97.0               100.0
Utility index, U                      0.812               0.846
Comparable excess index, G             9.00                6.81

Table 4: Content of free amino acids in uncooked smoked meat products

Amino acids                 Amino acids content, mg/100 g of product

                                   Uncooked smoked products

                           Sausage 'Sidimi'       Ham 'Yubileynaya'

                       Control    Experiment   Control    Experiment

Essential amino acids:

Valine                  1,282       6,543       1,346       6,155
Isoleucine              1,593       4,330       1,486       4,072
Leucine                 3,493       8,719       4,139       8,250
Lysine                  1,824       9,830       1,942       7,171
Methionine + cystine    1,194       2,543       1,087       2,547
Threonine               1,148       5,400       1,167       5,012
Tryptophane              54.5        398         61.2        387
Phenylalanine +         1,422       3,613       1,536       3,595
Amount of essential    12,010.5     41,376     12,764.2     37,189
  amino acids

Nonessential amino acids:

Alanine                 5,647       12,286      5,869       14,706
Arginine                 328         469         295         218
Aspartic acid            395        4,065        468        3,433
Histidine                511        2,932        498        2,540
Glycine                 1,449       6,858       1,657       6,270
Glutamic acid           10,415      10,707      10,764      12,801
Proline                  769        6,079        783        5,078
Serine                  1,560       6,035       1,679       5,781
Amount of               21,074      49,431      22,013      50,827
  amino acids
Total amount of        33,084.5     90,807     34,777.2     88,016
  amino acids

Note: Control samples didn't contain amino acids mix.
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Title Annotation:Research Article
Author:Tekutyeva, Lyudmila Aleksandrovna; Son, Oksana Mikhailovna; Situn, Natalya Viktorovna
Publication:Biology and Medicine
Article Type:Report
Date:Jul 1, 2015
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