Biotechnology of uncooked smoked meat products with biocorrective property.
The use of phytopreparations, water and alcohol infusions, wild growing herbs [1,2] and Far Eastern balms together with starter cultures [3-5] in the production of uncooked smoked sausages and whole muscle meat products allowed significantly modifying traditional principals of manufacturing these types of products, reducing technological cycle and improving organoleptic characteristics. Moreover, prerequisites to the transition of the process to a totally new level appeared--to developing therapeutic and functional uncooked smoked and uncooked cured meat products [6-10]--particularly, taking into account high social demand for corrective food for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) [11,12]. For this kind of patients, the aforesaid group of uncooked smoked pro ducts has been developed for eliminating protein-energy malnutrition and improving oxidative and immune status.
The results of chemical development studies of new types of uncooked smoked meat products using amino acids mix, hydrolysate of mussel, bacterial preparations and Far Eastern balms showed increase in the level of finished products' bioavailability [13,14]. Adding the aforesaid contents influences the quantitative content of free amino acids in finished uncooked smoked products, and the use of uncooked smoked meat products with biocorrective property in the complex treatment regimen for COPD patients gives positive effect: positive dynamics in changing clinical laboratory and anthropometric measures is observed.
As basic objects (control samples), uncooked smoked sausages and uncooked smoked hams were chosen for manufacturing using both beef and pork as well as broiler chicken breast fillet, adding bacterial preparations for activation of fermentation during the technological process [15-17].
Mixes of L-amino acids and hydrolysates of mussel and zosterin preparation were additionally added into test batches of meat products taking into account the medico-biological requirements for COPD patients [18-22].
Mixes of amino acids were obtained  by enzymic hydrolysis of mussel using crab collagenase. The composition of mussel hydrolysate is given in Table 1.
Zosterin is low methoxyl pectin extracted from the sea grass of Zosteraceae kind. It has high adsorptive, antidotic, antimutagenic, immunomodulating, antiallergenic and antibiotic properties [24-26]; it is produced by Biopreparat (Primorskiy region). It is recommended by Institute of Nutrition RAMS as nutritional supplement in therapeutic and special products [27-29].
Medico-biological tests of new types of uncooked smoked products enriched in mussel hydrolysates and zosterin were conducted involving groups of patient volunteers at the City Clinical Hospital in Vladivostok.
Results and Discussion
The results of chemical development studies of uncooked smoked sausages 'Sidimi' (a complex mix of mussel hydrolysate, zosterin and bacterial agent PBK-BR was added into the formulation) and uncooked smoked ham 'Yubileynaya' (with an addition of mussel hydrolysate and bacterial agent PB-MP) showed that the use of amino acids mix provides significant increase in the level of finished products' bioavailability. This is showed by the data (Table 2) characterizing quantitative content of essential amino acids in the composition of protein as well as by values of estimated and analytic indexes (Table 3) of degree of protein equivalence to human needs.
Taking into account special medico-biological significance of free amino acids in functional products, researchers estimated the degree of impact of L-amino acids mix (leucine, isoleucine, valine, arginine, lysine, threonine, tryptophane, histidine, alanine, proline, serine, glycine) together with bacterial agent PBK-BR on uncooked smoked sausages, as well as impact of hydrolysates of hydrobionts and starter culture PB-MP on the quantitative content of free amino acids in restructured ham products.
The data given in Table 4 show that content of free essential amino acids in test batches of products has increased by 215% at the average in comparison with the control, and that of nonessential amino acids by 120%. As individual amino acids are easily absorbed directly into blood flow, it can be supposed that the level of bioavailability in vivo of experimental types of products will be significantly higher than that of control samples [30-33].
Medico-biological tests of new types of uncooked smoked products enriched in mussel hydrolysates and zosterin conducted at the City Clinical Hospital in Vladivostok involving COPD patients at YY and YYY stages showed that the produced uncooked smoked products can be recommended to COPD patients for correction of protein-energy and oxidative status [34,35]. On the basis of integrated studies, new types of uncooked smoked meat products have been developed, and standard documentation has been approved: TC 9213-169-02067936-07 'Uncooked smoked sausage products,' TC 9213-170-0206793-07 'Uncooked smoked hams.'
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Lyudmila Aleksandrovna Tekutyeva *, Oksana Mikhailovna Son, Natalya Viktorovna Situn
Merchandizing and Goods Examination Department, Far Eastern Federal University, 8 Suhanova St., Vladivostok 690950, Russia
* Corresponding author: Tekutyeva LA, Merchandizing and Goods Examination Department, Far Eastern Federal University, 8 Suhanova St., Vladivostok 690950, Russia
Received: May 17, 2015; Accepted: June 26, 2015; Published: Aug 9, 2015
Table 1: Chemical composition of mussel hydrolysate Assay % Water 80-85 Sodium chloride 2-5 Peptides, amino acids 10-15 Carbohydrates 3-5 Lipids 0.04-0.07 Micro-, macroelements 0.06 Micro-, macroelements composition mg/% Phosphorous 145 Calcium 45 Iron 18 Silicon 15 Zinc 4.5 Strontium 1.5 Manganese 1.5 Copper 0.7 Titanium 0.3 Iodine 0.15 Nickel 0.1 Barium 0.07 Cobalt 0.03 Argentum 0.003 Amino acids composition mg/% Glutamic acid 38.1 Aspartic acid 27.6 Lysine 16.6 Arginine 13.9 Glycine 13.4 Leucine 11.1 Proline 10.9 Alanine 10.2 Threonine 9.6 Serine 9.5 Valine 9.2 Isoleucine 8.7 Phenylalanine 8.5 Tyrosine 6.5 Methionine 5.0 Histidine 4.5 Cystine 2.1 OH-Lysine 0.6 Ornithine 0.3 Tryptophane 3.2 Taurine 7.4 Table 2: Amino acids composition of produced uncooked smoked products Amino acids, g/100 Uncooked smoked products Standard g of protein FAO/WHO Sausage Ham 'Sidimi' 'Yubileynaya' Isoleucine 4.77 4.72 4.0 Leucine 7.81 7.69 7.0 Lysine 8.86 8.28 5.5 Methionine + cystine 3.4 4.16 3.5 Phenylalanine + tyrosine 7.18 7.02 6.0 Threonine 4.52 4.38 4.0 Tryptophane 1.24 1.0 1.0 Valine 5.79 5.62 5.0 Amount of essential 43.57 42.87 36.0 amino acids Table 3: Bioavailability of protein Indexes of protein Uncooked smoked products bioavailability Sausage 'Sidimi' Ham 'Yubileynaya' Minimum score, [C.sub.min], % 97.0 100.0 Utility index, U 0.812 0.846 Comparable excess index, G 9.00 6.81 Table 4: Content of free amino acids in uncooked smoked meat products Amino acids Amino acids content, mg/100 g of product Uncooked smoked products Sausage 'Sidimi' Ham 'Yubileynaya' Control Experiment Control Experiment Essential amino acids: Valine 1,282 6,543 1,346 6,155 Isoleucine 1,593 4,330 1,486 4,072 Leucine 3,493 8,719 4,139 8,250 Lysine 1,824 9,830 1,942 7,171 Methionine + cystine 1,194 2,543 1,087 2,547 Threonine 1,148 5,400 1,167 5,012 Tryptophane 54.5 398 61.2 387 Phenylalanine + 1,422 3,613 1,536 3,595 tyrosine Amount of essential 12,010.5 41,376 12,764.2 37,189 amino acids Nonessential amino acids: Alanine 5,647 12,286 5,869 14,706 Arginine 328 469 295 218 Aspartic acid 395 4,065 468 3,433 Histidine 511 2,932 498 2,540 Glycine 1,449 6,858 1,657 6,270 Glutamic acid 10,415 10,707 10,764 12,801 Proline 769 6,079 783 5,078 Serine 1,560 6,035 1,679 5,781 Amount of 21,074 49,431 22,013 50,827 nonessential amino acids Total amount of 33,084.5 90,807 34,777.2 88,016 amino acids Note: Control samples didn't contain amino acids mix.
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|Title Annotation:||Research Article|
|Author:||Tekutyeva, Lyudmila Aleksandrovna; Son, Oksana Mikhailovna; Situn, Natalya Viktorovna|
|Publication:||Biology and Medicine|
|Date:||Jul 1, 2015|
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