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Biopolymers produce a more elastic dough.

Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder caused by intolerance to gluten. There are many techniques being used to make gluten-free bread, but only a few involve the use of gluten-free pasta.

Biopolymers, such as polysaccharides and proteins, may enhance the textural aspects of dough, making them practically indispensable to formulating most types of gluten-free dough and pasta. In a gluten-free pasta formulation, each constituent has a major impact on final product quality. This is especially the case for the water and hydrocolloids that are used to replace the gluten matrix.

Argentinian scientists set out to determine how polysaccharides, water and proteins would affect the viscoelastic and textural properties of gluten-free corn starch and flour-based dough used for pasta production. The basic dough formula they used involved a mixture of 1% sodium chloride, 3% sunflower oil, up to 39.5% water, up to 2.5% xanthan and locust bean gums in a 2-to-1 ratio, and up to 6.7% of a dry egg and ovalbumin mixture in a 10-to-1 ratio.

The combinations of gum, protein and water were used by the scientists in a simplexcentroid design, which is a type of design used to analyze the relationship involved in a process that contains several variables. They performed viscoelastic measurements on a controlled commercial stress rheometer and texture analysis on a commercial texture analyzer. Textural data were evaluated using response surface methodology.

The researchers applied overall desirability criteria to determine the optimal dough composition required to achieve desirable textural properties. The increase in gum content produced an increase in both shear moduli (G' and G''), leading to a more elastic dough. G' was always greater than G'' in the frequency range measured. The increase of the two moduli with frequency was minimal.

The scientists used the Baumgaertel-Schausberger-Winter mathematical model to predict the mechanical relaxation spectrum based on dynamic oscillatory data. The linear viscoelastic behavior showed the same extensibility observed in large deformation experiments.

Further information. Alicia Califano, Center for Research and Development in Food Cryotechnology (CIDCA), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Avenida 7, N 776, 1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina; phone/fax: (221)4254853; (221)4890741; (221)4249287; email:
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Publication:Emerging Food R&D Report
Date:Apr 1, 2012
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