Biological patterns of the argentine shortfin squid Illex argentinus in the slope trawl fishery off Brazil/Patrones biologicos del calamar argentino Illex argentinus en la pesqueria de arrastre en el talud continental de Brasil.
Squids have long represented important bycatch components of the multispecific trawl fishery off Brazil (Costa & Haimovici, 1990; Perez & Pezzuto, 1998). On the continental shelf, loliginids have further become seasonal targets of both hand jigging and trawl fisheries, as they are densely concentrated in space and time (Perez, 2000; Martins & Perez, 2007). In recent years, however, commercial landings of the ommastrephid Argentine shortfin squid Illex argentinus (Castellanos, 1960) have been recorded in the southeastern and southern sectors of the Brazilian coast and have placed this squid among the main cephalopod resources exploited in the country (Perez et al., 2009a).
The species is distributed in the SW Atlantic from Rio de Janeiro (23[degrees]S) to southern Argentina (54[degrees]S) sustaining, on the Patagonian shelf and around the Falkland (Malvinas) Islands, one of the largest cephalopod fisheries in the world (Boyle & Rodhouse, 2005). Off Brazil, several fishing surveys conducted since the 1970s have revealed important concentrations of paralarvae, juveniles, and spawning individuals, particularly in the shelf break and slope waters of the southern coast (south of 25[degrees]S) (Haimovici & Andriguetto Fo, 1986; Haimovici & Perez, 1991; Haimovici et al., 1995, 2007, 2008). In this area, the species has also been often found in stomach contents of large predators, and it is regarded as one of the key components of both pelagic and demersal trophic chains (Santos & Haimovici, 2000; Gasalla et al., 2007).
Commercial exploitation of the Argentine shortfin squid was virtually non-existent in Brazilian waters until 2000, when foreign-chartered trawlers initiated their operations on the slope grounds south of 20[degrees]S (Perez et al., 2003, 2009b). In that year, the Portuguese trawler "Joana" landed approximately 48 ton of this species caught during one fishing trip between 26-29[degrees]S and 235-401 m isobaths (Perez et al., 2003). In 2002, the South-Korean trawler "In Sung 207" exploited the same area in winter (June-September) catching, on average, 199 kg of I. argentinus per trawling hour. After four fishing trips, this vessel landed a total of 1,400 ton, the largest catch ever recorded in Brazilian waters (Perez et al., 2009b). In total, landings of I. argentinus that year reached 2,601 ton, nearly twice the amount recorded for other squids (mostly loliginids). These catches, however, decreased to 100-400 ton in the following years, as chartered trawlers either abandoned Brazilian waters or moved to deeper areas (> 700 m). Since then, national trawlers have included I. argentinus among the targets of a developing "upper slope" (250-500 m) trawl fishery (Perez & Pezzuto, 2006; Perez et al., 2009a).
Preliminary assessments of this fishery have considered I. argentinus to be a seasonal resource with a fishing potential that has not been objectively defined but that is generally considered to be highly variable and unpredictable (Haimovici et al., 2006). The main questions regarding the biological aspects of I. argentinus commercial exploitation off Brazil, however, revolve around its complex population structure and potential connections with migrating stocks exploited off Uruguay and Argentina (Perez et al., 2003; Haimovici et al., 2006). As most ommastrephid squids, I. argentinus is a short-lived species (~1 year) that matures late in life and dies after a single and terminal spawning event (Haimovici et al., 1998). Because generations do not overlap in time, population resilience is highly dependent on recruitment and, consequently, annual abundances typically exhibit wide oscillations, as do commercial catches (Boyle & Rod house, 2005). Associated with this extreme life history pattern, ommastrephids tend to combine extended spawning seasons, long reproductive migrations, and the passive transport of offspring by surface geostrophic currents to produce both seasonal and geographic population units (stocks); this complex structure is regarded as an evolutionary strategy to minimize the risks of semelparity (O'Dor, 1998).
In the SW Atlantic, at least four stocks were distinguished from general size-at-maturity patterns: summer spawning stock (SSS), south Patagonian stock (SPS), Bonaerensis north Patagonian stock (BNS), and southern Brazil stock (SBS) (Brunetti, 1988; Haimovici et al., 1998). The latter group included the main concentrations of spawning squid found in winter months on the slope off southern Brazil (Haimovici & Perez, 1990; Santos & Haimovici, 1997). Growing biological evidence (i.e. maturation patterns, trophic relationships, the occurrence of certain parasites, statolith morphometrics), however, suggests that these squid are in fact BNS members that migrate north to spawn in Brazilian waters (Santos & Haimovici, 1997; Schwarz & Perez, 2007). Although local spawning was also observed occuring off Brazil throughout the year, winter spawning was potentially linked to recruitment off the northern Patagonian shelf through paralarval transport by the Falkland (Malvinas)-- Brazil Current system (Haimovici et al., 1995). In this context, this study analyzes biological attributes of commercial catches of the Argentine shortfin squid off southern Brazil as a descriptive approach to assess both the population structure subject to the seasonal exploitation regime and the hypothesis of a shared stock scenario.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Biological samples of the Argentine shortfin squid were obtained from commercial catches of 25 national and seven foreign (chartered) trawlers all derived from operations in the southeastern and southern sectors of the Brazilian coast (Fig. 1) between 23[degrees]-33[degrees]S and 170-740 m depth. Samples represent two periods of the species' commercial exploitation in Brazil: 2001-2003, when both chartered and national slope trawlers operated simultaneously, and 2006-2007, when only national vessels continued to exploit I. argentinus along with other slope stocks (Table 1) (Perez & Pezzuto, 2006; Perez et al., 2009b).
Onboard observers collected samples from chartered trawlers for all fishing trips conducted principally between September 2001 and April 2003. After each positive trawl, a sample was taken from the catch and deep-frozen for posterior analysis in the laboratory ashore. Each sample had detailed information on trawl position (lat-long), date, time, and fishing effort (trawling hours). Samples from national trawlers were collected from landings at the harbors of Santa Catarina state (southern Brazil) as part of a daily fishery sampling program (Perez et al., 1998). From each landed catch, approximately 20 kg of squid were measured for their dorsal mantle length (ML) to the nearest centimeter, and a length stratified subsample was taken to the laboratory. These subsamples could not be related to individual trawls conducted during each fishing trip, but represented the entire fishing area covered by it. Information on the fishing area, effort (mean trawl duration, number of trawls per day, trip duration in days), and total catch were obtained during interviews with skippers at the time of the landings.
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In the laboratory, the ML and the total body weight (BW) were recorded to the nearest millimeter and gram, respectively. After dissecting the mantle, males and females were differentiated and maturity stages were assigned according to the macroscopic scale proposed by Brunetti (1990). This scale defined seven and eight maturity stages for males and females, respectively, including: immature (stages I and II), in maturation (stage III), early maturity (stage IV), advanced maturity (stage V), spawning (stage VI for males and stages VI and VII for females), and spent (stage VII for males and stage VIII for females).
In females, the ovary and accessory organs (oviduct + nidamental glands + oviducal gland) were weighed (OW and AOW, respectively), the nidamental gland length was measured (NGL), and the gills were checked for the presence of spermatophores as signs of mating. In males, the testis and accessory organs (spermatophoric complex + Needhan's sac + penis) were weighed (TW and AOW, respectively), the testis length was measured (TL), and the Needhans's sac was examined for the presence of spermatophores. All weights were taken to the nearest 0.1 g and measurements to 0.1 mm.
Maturation in males and females was expressed numerically by three indices:
a) the Gonadosomatic index defined for males ([GSI.sub.M]) and females ([GSI.sub.F]) as:
[GSI.sub.M] = [TW + AOW/(BW - (TW + AOW))]100
[GSI.sub.F] = [OW + AOW/(BW - (OW + AOW))]100 (1)
b) the Hayashi index (HI) defined for males ([HI.sub.M]) and females ([HI.sub.F]) as
[HI.sub.M] = AOW/TW + AOW, [HI.sub.F] = AOW/OW + AOW
c) the Testis (TI) - Nidamental Gland (NGI) indices defined as
TI = TL/ML, NGI = NGL/ML
A data bank was produced in which each squid was described by its origin (sample, landing date), sex, size (ML, BW), and reproductive characteristics (maturity stage, OW, TW, AOW, GSI, HI, TI/ NGI).
Size-at-maturity was assessed from the cumulative ML frequency distribution of mature and spawning males and females (stages > IV). This distribution was linearized by the probit transformation of cumulative ML frequencies and a straight line was then fitted to the transformed frequency vs. ML class relationship using the least-squares method. Precise ML at different percentiles were then estimated by substituting the probit values in the estimated linear equation (i.e. probit 5 corresponds to 50% percentile):
[ML.sub.m] = pf - c/d (4)
where pf is the probit transformed ML cumulative frequency and c and d are the intercept and the slope of the fitted line, respectively.
Population differentiation among squid caught by commercial trawlers was explored through a multivariate Principal Component Analysis (PCA) applied separately for males and females. Variables included in this analysis involved size and reproductive attributes (BW, GSI, HI, TI/ NGI), day-of-the-year (DYR), decimal latitude (LAT), decimal longitude (LONG), and depth (DEPTH). A correlation matrix was calculated for the variables (previously standardized as a proportion of their mean) and new axes (factors) were extracted in the direction of greatest variance. These factors were linear combinations of the original variables and used to interpret the potential existence of biologically similar groups of squids and their occurrence in space and time.
Size structure of catches
Males and females caught during slope trawl fishing exhibited a bi-modal ML frequency distribution (Fig. 2). Males ranged from 78 to 340 mm ML, exhibiting one pronounced mode centered around 160 mm ML and a secondary mode between 220 and 240 mm ML. Females were generally larger, ranging from 91 to 395 mm ML. A main modal group was formed around 180 mm ML and a less pronounced one between 280-320 mm ML (Fig. 2, Table 1). The overall size structures remained practically unchanged as the catches by the chartered and national trawlers in 2001-2007 were examined separately, although larger females were found in the former (Fig. 2).
During the early exploitation period (2001-2003), the size structure of the chartered fleet catches varied with the season, latitude, and depth of commercial operations (Figs. 3 and 4). Large males (ML > 200 mm) dominated catches obtained in winter (July-September) south of 28[degrees]S, between 350-540 m depth (Fig. 3). During the rest of the year, catches were generally unimodal, concentrating on individuals between 100-250 mm ML that originated north of 28[degrees]S and on the upper slope (< 400 m depth). In females, the patterns observed were virtually the same (Fig. 4), with an uniform group of individuals (100-250 mm ML long) dominating the catches throughout the year, except for winter months when a distinct group of large females was caught in southern (south of 28[degrees]S) and deeper (> 350 m) areas.
Slope trawling between 2006-2007, as conducted by the national fleet, concentrated on the larger fractions of both males and females (Fig. 5). These fractions were generally obtained in areas south of 29[degrees]S (Fig. 1), inshore of the 400 m isobath, and in autumn (April-June) and winter (July-September) months.
Maturation and maturity stages
Males and females in all maturity stages were present in the slope trawling catches off southeastern and southern Brazil (Table 2). The spawning stage (stage VI) was the most frequently identified maturity condition in both sexes and nearly 50% off all individuals caught were at least in an early maturity stage (stage IV and higher). This overall maturity stage composition was observed in 2001-2003 but shifted towards a complete dominance of spawning (and spent) squid after 2003, as the national trawlers that continued to exploit the Argentine shortfin squid tended to catch and land larger males and females (Fig. 6).
Catches included immature males and females as small as 78 and 91 mm ML, respectively. Spawning males (stage VI) and females (stage VII) attained the largest sizes (Table 2). Squids of both sexes enlarged homogenously as maturation progressed. At an advanced maturity-spawning condition (stages V, VI, and VII), however, two distinct size groups were found (Fig. 7). The first group was dominant in the samples and was composed of males and females ranging from 140-180 mm ML and 160-240 mm ML, respectively. The second group was less abundant but included larger individuals (males > 200 mm ML; females > 260 mm ML). Male size-at-maturity was estimated to be 163.3 mm ML and 211.8 mm ML for the smaller and larger modal groups, respectively (Fig. 8). In females, size-at-maturity was estimated to be 201.3 mm ML for the smaller modal group and 292.3 mm ML for the larger one.
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The overall maturity condition of the squid in the catches oscillated in space and time (Fig. 9). The GSI variability in males and females indicated that gonads and accessory organs tended to be relatively larger in the second half of the year in both central and northern latitudinal strata. In the southern areas, however, they enlarged earlier, reaching a maximum in autumn. A similar pattern was also revealed by the Hayashi index, which expresses the advanced maturity condition when values are low (Table 2, Fig. 9).
Sex ratio and mating activity
Overall catches during the 2001-2003 period were slightly but significantly biased towards males (male/female ratio = 1.1; p = 0.001) (Table 3). Season, latitudinal, and depth strata, however, significantly affected this general pattern, particularly as females tended to outnumber males in winter months, both in shallow areas (< 250 m) and along the central latitudinal stratum (Table 3). A contrasting scenario characterized the 2006-2007 samples: females dominated all spatial and temporal situations except in the northern areas (Table 3).
Spermatophore production and storage increased in stage IV males and peaked in fully mature males (stage V) (Table 2). Mating activity was evidenced in the subsequent maturity stages by a sharp decrease in the presence of spermatophores in the Needhan's sac. Similarly, mated females (evidenced by the presence of spermatophores inside the mantle) were generally scarce in the catches obtained between 2001-2003 period (not mated/ mated female ratio = 1.8) (Table 4) except in winter months and > 400 m depths between 25[degrees]-29[degrees]S, where the opposite pattern was observed. On the other hand, mated females largely dominated landings in 2006-2007 (Table 4).
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The association among squids caught by trawlers between 2001-2003 was analyzed from the scores produced by the first three PCA extracted factors (axes) that, together, explained 63% and 72% of the total variance in males and females (Table 5). In males, factor 1 was defined mainly by geographical variables (lat, long) and squid size (BW) (higher positive and negative weights, respectively). Consequently, in the graphic representation (Fig. 10), large mature males caught at southwesterly sites should be plotted on the left hemiplane, whereas small mature squid caught at northeasterly sites should appear in the right hemiplane. Depth and maturity condition, as expressed by the Hayashi Index (HI), were particularly important in factor 2 (Table 5); males caught in deep areas with enlarged accessory reproductive organs (i.e. Needham's sac loaded with spermatophores) should be plotted on the left hemiplane and small mature males caught in shallower areas on the right one (Fig. 10). Factor 3 was highly influenced by seasonality, being mostly defined by the day-of-the-year (DYR) (Table 5); squid caught in spring and summer should be plotted in the extremes of the upper and lower hemiplanes, respectively, whereas autumn-winter squids should appear near the center of the axis (Fig. 10). A similar spatial scenario resulted from the three factors obtained with female variables except that factor 2 was also highly influenced by maturity indices (GSI and NGI) and high loads for the depth (DEPTH) variable were placed in factor 3 (Table 5).
In the spatial representation of both males and females, a large group of squid corresponded to small mature animals caught throughout the year in shallower areas of the northeastern slope. In contrast, a smaller group of both sexes, detached from the former group, was composed of large mature animals caught in deep southwestern areas during a restricted period in the middle of the year (winter) (Fig. 10).
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Interpreting the biological patterns of I. argentinus from commercial catches off Brazil requires the initial consideration that these patterns may combine the mixed effects of three critical sources: (a) existing biologically distinct population units that may exhibit particular spatial/ temporal distribution patterns, (b) non-random spatial/ temporal fishing strategies that may or may not include squid as a principal target, and (c) on board discards (at least for the national trawl fleet). The two latter sources of bias limit our capacity to comprehensively address the entire population diversity of the species in Brazilian waters. On the other hand, it is possible to conclude, by confronting biological patterns of the catches with synoptic descriptions of the Illex population structure as produced by preceding trawl surveys (Haimovici & Perez, 1990, 1991; Santos & Haimovici, 1997), that different spawning groups can be identified in the commercial catches and, more importantly, that the availability/vulnerability of these groups and their specific biological features may have influenced the trawl fishing patterns on the slope off southern Brazil (Perez & Pezzuto, 2006; Perez et al., 2009b).
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Samples of commercial catches obtained between 2001-2003 contained immature and maturing squid throughout the year, as well as at least two distinguishable fully mature-spawning groups. The first group, composed of small-sized males and females, was present during all seasons on the shelf-break/ upper slope (< 400 m). In winter-spring, however, a distinctive group of large squid dominated the catches in southern (south of 28[degrees]S) and deep fishing grounds (400-700 m). Both groups had been previously identified in trawl surveys off southern Brazil, the latter being specifically referred to as the southern Brazil stock (SBS) (Haimovici et al., 1998). In the present study, this group was shown to sustain the exceptionally large catches obtained by the chartered trawler "In Sung 270" in September 2001 and also the winter catches produced by national trawlers, mostly from 2003 onwards (Perez & Pezzuto, 2006; Perez et al., 2009b). Unlike the upper slope concentrations of small squid, it seems evident that these large individuals, seasonally available in dense concentrations on the lower slope, attracted the attention of the fishing industry and became valued targets of the developing multispecies deep-water trawl fishery off southern Brazil (Perez & Pezzuto, 2006; Perez et al., 2009b). A relevant issue regarding this pattern, however, has been the fact that SBS squid could actually be connected to the Patagonian shelf stocks through spawning migrations and paralarval transport, as described for other ommastrephid species elsewhere (Hatanaka et al., 1985). If confirmed, this hypothesis would directly characterize a shared stock scenario with important implications for management in Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil (Haimovici et al., 2007).
Population connections between I. argentinus occurring in the SW Atlantic were formerly addressed by Brunetti (1988), who defined three major stocks occurring off the coast of Argentina and Uruguay (SSS, SPS, and BNS) and concluded that squid distributed along southern Brazil were an extension of the northernmost stock (BNS). Because partly spawned or spent squid were never observed in BNS catches, the spawning location remained uncertain but was speculated to occur between July and September somewhere offshore, north of 38[degrees]S, under the Falkland (Malvinas) or Brazil Currents. Santos & Haimovici (1997) analyzed reproductive patterns of the previously considered SBS members and also concluded that these squid were, in fact, members of BNS, but proposed alternatively that southern Brazil was their major winter-spring spawning ground. Taking into consideration records of elevated concentrations of I. argentinus paralarvae under the core of the Brazil Current (Haimovici et al., 1995) and other evidence derived from trophic relations, parasites, and body proportions (Santos, 1992), Santos & Haimovici (1997) further postulated that maturing BNS squid would migrate in early winter from northern Argentina to southern Brazil slope waters, where spawning would take place under the warm Brazil Current. During spring-summer, as the Subtropical Convergence retracted, egg masses and paralarvae would be transported southwards, allowing recruitment to occur on the southern feeding grounds off northern Argentina (Haimovici et al., 1998). Whereas this hypothesis still requires corroboration through high-resolution methods such as tagging experiments or genetic markers, the biological data from commercial catches off southern Brazil may provide further indirect evidence in its support.
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Initially, the sizes of mature squid present in winter catches off Brazil resembled those reported for members of both BNS and SBS, although precise comparisons were not possible because the different studies included different maturity stages for estimating size-at-maturity. Nonetheless, mantle lengths of males and females of these groups were noticeably larger than those estimated for a presumably "local" upper--slope stock, suggesting that these squid were, in fact, biologically distinct (Table 6). Schwarz & Perez (2007) analyzed the morphology and morphometry of statoliths extracted from squid caught by commercial trawlers off Brazil and reached similar conclusions.
Secondly, the majority of the squid present in the winter catches off Brazil were mated females in a spawning-spent condition, indicating that fishing was concentrated on a spawning event that could be related to a) the spawning seasons proposed for BNS and SBS and b) the spawning grounds proposed for the latter, namely the slope area between 27[degrees]S and 34[degrees]S (Brunetti, 1988; Santos & Haimovici, 1997) (Table 6). Within these grounds, commercial catches further revealed that large spawning squid concentrated in high densities during the day on the deep slope (400-700 m). This pattern was also observed by both fishing and acoustic surveys conducted between 2001 and 2002, which further associated spawning squid concentrations with temperature ranges between 7[degrees] and 13[degrees]C (Madureira et al., 2005; Haimovici et al., 2008). The deep, cold environment off southern Brazil is generally associated with the influence of South Atlantic Central Water (SACW), which flows southwards over the slope as a deep layer of the Brazil Current (Castro et al., 2006). Temperature and salinity within this water mass range from 6-20[degrees]C and 34.6-36.0, respectively, characterizing a considerably colder, less saline environment than that of the overlaying Tropical Water, which is also transported, although superficially, by the Brazil Current. Considering that (a) spawning squid from the Patagonian shelf may require an optimal thermal environment ranging from 4[degrees] to 13[degrees]C (Brunetti et al., 1998) and (b) that pre-reproductive BNS members at the Argentine-Uruguayan Common Fishing Zone (34[degrees]00'-39[degrees]30'S) were shown to concentrate in subantarctic waters between 4-10[degrees]C (Bazzino et al., 2005), it seems reasonable that a spawning migration towards Brazilian waters (Santos & Haimovici, 1997) would take place in association with deep water masses such as SACW. A final element in support of a connection between Brazilian and Patagonian squid stocks can be drawn from the combination of the commercial value of "big squid", the opportunistic behavior of the trawl fishery, and the general evolutionary population strategies of ommastrephid squids (O'Dor, 1992). These squids normally exhibit complex population structures in association with geostrophic currents, protracted spawning, and latitudinal migrations as a strategy to spread--over space and time--the risks of their short, semelparous life cycle (O'Dor, 1998). Because cold, nutrient-enriched temperate waters tend to delay maturity and enhance survivorship of juvenile squid, stocks whose offspring drift, carried by geostrophic currents, to these waters attain larger sizes, are more abundant, and sustain larger fisheries (e.g. I. illecenbrosus, O'Dor & Coelho, 1993; Perez & O'Dor, 1998). Although these squid need to perform long migrations, their large body size favors swimming long distances (O'Dor, 1988). In contrast, those stocks that remain in food-poorer, warmer, tropical and sub tropical waters tend to grow fast but also to mature early at smaller sizes (O'Dor & Coelho, 1993). In a less productive environment, these squids are also less abundant and sustain significantly lower annual landings.
By experiencing their early life in a highly productive and cold environment such as the Patagonian Shelf, BNS squid would tend to be abundant (actually sustaining large catches in the northern Patagonian Shelf) and to mature late in life at large sizes, fit for a ~2,000-km-long winter spawning migration towards Brazilian waters. Because these are cold-water squid, they would tend to reach the deep layers of the slope as they approach southern Brazil, concentrating within the 300-400-m-high SACW layer (Madureira et al., 2005; Castro et al., 2006) and, hence, becoming vulnerable to the slope trawling in winter and early-spring. Off southern Brazil during this period of the year, winter spawners should be markedly distinct from the "local" spawners, both by their larger body size and their deeper bathymetric distribution, attracting the attention first of the highly efficient and exploratory foreign chartered trawlers (Perez et al., 2009b) and later the more conservative but overcapitalized national trawl fleet (Perez & Pezzuto, 2006). In 2002, trawler skippers persistently tried to convince fishing biologists involved with this study that their large catches off Brazil were, in fact, a different squid species due to their obviously different body proportions and suggested that it be given a new name as a marketing strategy (Perez pers. observ.). Albeit anecdotal, this fact highlights the effect of the diversity of this species population (and particular biological attributes) on the observed exploitation patterns in the SW Atlantic, reinforcing the need to consider multinational, shared stock management strategies in the region. Other shellfish and finfish resources exploited in the deep waters off southern Brazil (e.g. deep-water crabs, hake, and others) seem to justify the same strategies (Perez et al., 2009a).
The authors are indebted to all observers, captains, and crews that allowed this large body of data to be collected during their commercial operations off southern Brazil. We also thank Rodrigo Sant'Ana for invaluable help with figures. Funding for this study was provided by the Special Secretariat for Aquacul ture and Fisheries (SEAP/PR/027/2007) and the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) research grant (Process 306184/2007-9).
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Santos, R.A. 1992. Relacoes troficas do calamar argentino Illex argentinus (Castellanos, 1960) (Teuthoidea: Ommastrephidae) no sul do Brasil. MSc. Thesis. Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande, 83 pp.
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Schwarz, R. & J.A.A. Perez. 2007. Diferenciacao populacional do calamar argentino (Illex argentinus) (Cephalopoda: Teuthida) no sul do Brasil atraves da morfologia e morfometria do estatolito. Braz. J. Aquat. Sci. Technol., 11(1): 1-12.
Received: 23 March 2009; Accepted: 31 August 2009
Jose Angel Alvarez Perez (1), Tiago Nascimento Silva (2), Rafael Schroeder (1,3) Richard Schwarz (1,3) & Rodrigo Silvestre Martins (4,5)
(1) Grupo de Estudos Pesqueiros. Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas da Terra e do Mar. Universidade do Vale do Itajai, Rua Uruguai 458, Centro, Itajai, SC, Brazil
(2) Biogas Energia Ambiental S.A., Rua Mogeiro 1580. Bairro Perus, 05206-240 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
(3) Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Tecnologia Ambiental, Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas da Terra e do Mar, Universidade do Vale do Itajai, Rua Uruguai 458, Centro, Itajai, SC, Brazil
(4) Marine and Coastal Management (MCM), Private Bag X2, Rogge Bay 8012, Cape Town, South Africa
(5) Zoology Department and Marine Research Centre, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town, South Africa
Corresponding author: Jose Angel Alvarez Perez (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Table 1. Summary of data for the Argentine shortfin squid Illex argentinus obtained from chartered and national trawlers operating off Brazil between 2001 and 2007. N: number of individuals; Min-Max: smallest and largest mantle length (ML) and total wet body weight (BW). Tabla 1. Resumen de datos de calamar argentino Illex argentinus obtenidos en las operaciones de pesca de arrastreros arrendados y nacionales en Brasil entre 2001 y 2007. N: numero de individuos, Min-Max: valores maximos y minimos de la longitud del manto (ML) y peso total humedo (BW). Males Females ML (mm) BW (g) ML (mm) Trimester N Min-Max Min - Max N Min - Max Chartered Jan-Mar/2001 - - - - Apr-Jun/2001 - - - - Jul-Sep/2001 32 78 - 195 14 - 240 24 91 - 332 Oct-Dec/2001 966 110 - 278 23 - 425 506 105 - 336 Jan-Mar/2002 395 115 - 221 25 - 295 262 98 - 254 Apr-Jun/2002 466 115 - 239 26 - 345 524 104 - 299 Jul-Sep/2002 153 119 - 316 27 - 570 307 114 - 346 Oct-Dec/2002 4 221 - 275 260 - 420 7 280 - 325 Jan-Mar/2003 73 105 - 191 29 - 188 60 143 - 234 Apr-Jun/2003 131 123 - 200 40 - 192 130 130 - 250 Apr-Jun/2006 - - - Jul-Sep/2006 7 229 - 259 195 - 325 1 250 Total 2227 78 - 316 14 - 570 1821 91 - 346 National Jan-Mar/2001 4 154 - 174 76 - 121 6 155 - 185 Apr-Jun/2001 136 129 - 245 30 - 253 213 115 - 395 Jul-Sep/2001 12 190 - 261 163 - 405 16 195 - 315 Oct-Dec/2001 36 135 - 166 38 - 148 89 124 - 204 Jan-Mar/2002 81 114 - 254 30 - 309 125 117 - 262 Apr-Jun/2002 86 100 - 250 30 - 335 88 130 - 376 Jul-Sep/2002 95 110 - 340 31 - 450 86 118 - 350 Oct-Dec/2002 5 220 - 262 211 - 249 8 252 - 367 Jan-Mar/2003 - - - Apr-Jun/2003 27 159 - 225 100 - 315 16 190 - 290 Apr-Jun/2006 24 130 - 210 49 - 162 51 117 - 305 Jul-Sep/2006 43 110 - 289 128 - 470 45 166 - 351 Oct-Dec/2006 73 111 - 249 28 - 390 77 132 - 344 Jan-Mar/2007 Apr-Jun/2007 75 145 -246 50 - 299 122 135 - 338 Jul-Sep/2007 46 160 - 289 116 - 505 54 223 - 353 Oct-Dec/2007 Total 743 100 - 340 28 - 505 996 115 - 395 TOTAL 2970 78 - 340 14 - 570 2817 91 - 395 Females BW (g) Trimester Min - Max Chartered Jan-Mar/2001 - Apr-Jun/2001 - Jul-Sep/2001 18 - 455 Oct-Dec/2001 33 - 655 Jan-Mar/2002 18 - 320 Apr-Jun/2002 23 - 560 Jul-Sep/2002 26 - 775 Oct-Dec/2002 228 - 670 Jan-Mar/2003 52 - 260 Apr-Jun/2003 43 - 400 Apr-Jun/2006 - Jul-Sep/2006 162 Total 18 - 775 National Jan-Mar/2001 79 - 145 Apr-Jun/2001 32 - 580 Jul-Sep/2001 90 - 655 Oct-Dec/2001 39 - 255 Jan-Mar/2002 31 - 375 Apr-Jun/2002 44 - 605 Jul-Sep/2002 25 - 830 Oct-Dec/2002 196 - 580 Jan-Mar/2003 - Apr-Jun/2003 180 - 645 Apr-Jun/2006 68 - 700 Jul-Sep/2006 57 - 860 Oct-Dec/2006 35 - 870 Jan-Mar/2007 Apr-Jun/2007 37 - 740 Jul-Sep/2007 184 - 910 Oct-Dec/2007 Total 25 - 910 TOTAL 18 - 910 Table 2. Summary of the maturity conditions of the Argentine shortfin squid Illex argentinus in commercial trawl catches off Brazil between 2001 and 2007. Examined males and females were pooled by maturity stages (after Brunetti, 1990) and the relative and cumulative frequencies of each stage were calculated and expressed in percentages (% and Cum.% respectively). The largest (Max) and smallest (Min) mantle length of squid in each maturity stage are indicated. Males with no, few, and many spermatophores (spermat.) in the Needhan's sac and females with and without spermatophores at the base of the gills were also quantified for each maturity stage. Tabla 2. Resumen de las condiciones de madurez sexual de calamar argentino Illex argentinus en capturas comerciales de la pesca de arrastre en Brasil entre 2001 y 2007. Los machos y hembras examinados fueron agrupados por estadios de madurez (segun Brunetti, 1990). Para cada estadio se calcularon las frecuencias relativas y acumuladas expresadas en valores porcentuales (% y Cum.% respectivamente). Para cada estadio de madurez sexual se indica la longitud maxima (Max) y minima (Min) del manto. Tambien se contaron para cada estadio de madurez los machos con ninguno, pocos o muchos espermatoforos (spermat.) en la bolsa de Needhan y las hembras con y sin espermatoforos en las bases de las branquias. Maturity stages Immature+Maturing Mature I II III IV V Males N 108 286 517 621 535 % 3.6 9.6 17.4 20.9 18.0 Cum.% 3.6 13.3 30.7 51.6 69.6 ML Max 199 218 254 260 316 Min 78 100 102 111 122 GSI Mean 1.02 1.93 3.56 4.86 5.58 (SE) (0.11) (0.10) (0.10) (0.12) (0.07) HI Mean 0.60 0.65 0.72 0.64 0.46 (SE) (0.02) (0.01) (0.01) (0.01) (0.01) No spermat. N 109 286 517 0 2 % 11.9 31.2 56.4 0.0 0.2 Cum. % 11.9 43.1 99.6 99.6 99.8 Few spermat. N 0 0 0 625 3 % 0.0 0.0 0.0 38.9 0.2 Cum. % 0.0 0.0 0.0 38.9 39.1 Many spermat. N 0 0 0 0 540 % 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 Cum. % 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 Females N 183 365 344 366 383 % 6.5 13.0 12.2 13.0 13.6 Cum. % 6.5 19.5 31.7 44.7 58.3 ML Max 205 213 277 299 334 Min 91 115 124 104 105 GSI Mean 2.4 2.6 3.7 13.6 25.2 (CE) (0.7) (0.3) (0.2) (0.4) (0.8) HI Mean 0.51 0.48 0.48 0.46 0.38 (CE) (0.01) (0.01) (0.01) (0.01) (0.01) Mated N 183 368 347 370 383 % 11.1 22.3 21.0 22.4 23.2 Cum. % 11.1 33.4 54.4 76.8 99.9 Non-mated N 0 0 1 1 2 % 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 Cum. % 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.3 Maturity stages Spawning+Spent VI VII VIII Total Males N 728 174 - 2969 % 24.5 5.9 - Cum.% 94.1 100.0 - ML Max 340 302 340 Min 110 131 78 GSI Mean 5.09 4.27 (SE) (0.08) (0.31) HI Mean 0.51 0.43 (SE) (0.01) (0.02) No spermat. N 1 1 - 916 % 0.1 0.1 - Cum. % 99.9 100.0 - Few spermat. N 791 189 - 1608 % 49.2 11.8 - Cum. % 88.2 100.0 - Many spermat. N 0 0 - 540 % 0.0 0.0 - Cum. % 100.0 100.0 - Females N 643 399 134 2817 % 22.8 14.2 4.8 Cum. % 81.1 95.2 100.0 ML Max 351 395 367 395 Min 242 262 120 91 GSI Mean 25.1 19.5 16.0 (CE) (0.4) (0.5) (0.9) HI Mean 0.30 0.27 0.20 (CE) (0.00) (0.01) (0.02) Mated N 0 0 1 1652 % 0.0 0.0 0.1 Cum. % 99.9 99.9 100.0 Non-mated N 665 529 157 1354 % 49.1 39.1 11.6 Cum. % 49.4 88.5 100.1 Table 3. Sex ratio of the Argentine shortfin squid Illex argentinus in commercial trawl catches off Brazil in two periods: 2001-2003 and 2006-2007. M/F: male/female ratio, p: probability ([[PI].sup.2]). Values in bold correspond to probabilities obtained by contingency table analysis to compare the effects of trimesters, depth, and latitudinal strata on the sex-ratio. Table 3. Proporcion de sexos del calamar argentino Illex argentinus en capturas de la pesca comercial de arrastre en Brasil en dos periodos: 2001-2003 y 2006-2007. M/F: fraccion numero de machos/ numero de hembras; p: probabilidad ([[PI].sup.2]). Valores en negrita corresponden a probabilidades resultantes del analisis de la tabla de contingencia para comparar los efectos de trimestres, estratos batimetricos y estratos latitudinales sobre la proporcion sexual. 2001-2003 2006-2007 Trimester Males Females M/F p Males Females Jan-Mar 553 453 1.2 0.002 0 0 Apr-Jun 846 971 0.9 0.003 164 308 Jul-Sep 292 433 0.7 < 0.001 126 155 Oct-Dec 1011 610 1.7 < 0.001 73 77 p < 0.001 Depth strata < 250 m 224 313 0.7 < 0.001 46 60 250 - 400 1992 1822 1.1 0.006 145 214 > 400 m 450 288 1.6 < 0.001 172 266 p < 0.001 Latitudinal strata North 2015 1537 1.3 < 0.001 77 57 Centre 483 741 0.7 < 0.001 25 101 South 144 78 1.8 < 0.001 226 338 p < 0.001 Total 2702 2467 1.1 0.001 363 540 2006-2007 Trimester M/F p Jan-Mar - - Apr-Jun 0.5 < 0.001 Jul-Sep 0.8 0.084 Oct-Dec 0.9 0.74 p 0.002 Depth strata < 250 m 0.8 250 - 400 0.7 > 400 m 0.6 p 0.736 Latitudinal strata North 1.4 0.137 Centre 0.2 < 0.001 South 0.7 < 0.001 p < 0.001 Total 0.7 0.002 Table 4. Evidence of mating in female Argentine shortfin squid Illex argentinus caught in commercial trawl catches off Brazil in two periods: 2001-2003 and 2006-2007. N/M: not mated/mated female fraction, p-values correspond to probabilities obtained by contingency table [[PI].sup.2] analysis to compare the effects of trimesters, depth, and latitudinal strata on the mated condition of females. Tabla 4. Evidencias de copula en hembras de calamar argentino Illex argentinus capturado por la pesca comercial de arrastre en Brasil en dos periodos: 2001-2003 y 2006-2007. N/M: fraccion no-copuladas/copuladas. P: probabilidades resultantes del analisis [[PI].sup.2] para comparar los efectos de trimestres, estratos batimetricos y estratos latitudinales sobre la actividad de copula de las hembras. 2001-2003 2006-2007 Not-mated Mated N/M Not-mated Mated N/M Trimester Jan-Mar 339 114 3.0 Apr-Jun 752 219 3.4 20 288 0.1 Jul-Sep 67 366 0.2 26 128 0.2 Oct-Dec 423 187 2.3 25 52 0.5 p <0.001 <0.001 Depth Strata < 250 m 150 163 0.9 6 54 0.1 250 - 400 1281 541 2.4 39 175 0.2 > 400 m 107 181 0.6 26 239 0.1 p <0.001 0.019 Latitudinal strata North 1201 336 3.6 23 34 0.7 Centre 262 479 0.5 9 92 0.1 South 47 31 1.5 38 299 0.1 p <0.001 <0.001 Total 1581 886 1.8 71 468 0.2 p <0.001 <0.001 Table 5. Principal Component Analysis employed to differentiate Argentine shortfin squid Illex argentinus stocks within the catches obtained by commercial trawlers off Brazil between 2001 and 2003. Variables included were: day-of-the-year (DYR), decimal latitude (LAT), decimal longitude (LONG), depth (DEPTH), body wet weight (BW), gonadosomatic index (GSI), Hayashi index (HI), Nidamental gland/Testis Index. The linear coefficients of the variables (loadings) in the first three factors rotated by the PCA are indicated for males and females. The eigenvalues and the variance explained by each factor are indicated in the last three rows. Tabla 5. Analisis de Componentes Principales aplicada en la diferenciacion de los stocks de calamar argentino Illex argentinus en las capturas de arrastreros comerciales en Brasil entre 2001 y 2003. Las variables incluidas fueron: dia-delano (DYR), latitud decimal (LAT), longitud decimal (LONG), profundidad (DEPTH), peso humedo del cuerpo (BW), indice gonadosomatico (GSI), indice de Hayashi (HI), indice de la glandula nidamental/ testiculo. Los coeficientes lineales de las variables (pesos) en los tres primeros factores rotacionados por el PCA se indican para machos y hembras. Los valores propios y la varianza explicada por cada factor se indican en las ultimas tres lineas. Component Males Females Factor Factor 1 2 3 1 2 3 DYR -0.105 -0.051 0.846 -0.379 0.043 0.662 LAT 0.929 0.157 0.090 0.952 0.031 0.084 LONG 0.896 0.306 0.102 0.940 0.117 -0.008 DEPTH -0.006 0.694 -0.163 0.105 0.445 -0.686 BW -0.699 0.358 -0.020 -0.737 0.059 -0.282 GSI 0.149 0.310 0.453 0.027 0.873 0.114 HI 0.425 -0.683 -0.213 0.363 -0.685 0.014 NGI / TI 0.185 0.392 -0.427 0.128 0.766 0.263 Eigenvalue 2.403 1.447 1.195 2.639 2.037 1.079 Variance 30.035 18.087 14.933 32.983 25.461 13.483 explained (%) Cum. variance 30.035 48.122 63.055 32.983 58.444 71.927 explained (%) Table 6. Summary of characteristics of two stocks of the Argentine shortfin squid Illex argentinus in waters of the northern Patagonian shelf (BNS) and southern Brazil (SBS) in comparison with spawning groups differentiated in the commercial trawl catches off southern Brazil between 2001 and 2007. Sizes at maturity refer to modal mantle lengths of males and females in different maturity stages (between parentheses) as defined by Brunetti (1990). Tabla 6. Resumen de las caracteristicas de dos stocks de calamar argentino Illex argentinus en el norte de la plataforma patagonica (BNS) y el sur de Brasil (SBS) en comparacion con los grupos desovantes diferenciados en las capturas comerciales de pesca de arrastre en el sur de Brasil entre 2001 y 2007. La talla de madurez sexual corresponde a la longitud modal del manto de machos y hembras en diferentes estadios de madurez (entre parentesis) definidos por Brunetti (1990). Proposed stocks Bonaerensis-north Southern patagonic (BNS) (1) Brazil (SBS) (2) Spawning Grounds Slope, north of Slope, between 38[degrees]S, 27[degrees]S under the Falkland/ and 34[grados]S under Malvinas Current or the Brazil Current Brazil Current Spawning season July - September July - November Modal size at Males: ~200 mm Males: ~250 mm maturity (ML) Females: ~240 mm Females: ~300 mm (Stages IV+V) (Stages > V) Commercial catches off Brazil Large Small spawners (3) spawners (3) Spawning Grounds Between 26[degrees] North of and 29[degrees]S, 28[degrees]S, 360-520 m depth shallower than 360 m depth Spawning season July - September All year-round Modal size at Males: 212 mm Males: 161 mm maturity (ML) Females: 292 mm Females: 201 mm (Stages > IV) (Stages > IV) (1) Brunetti et al. (1991), (2) Santos & Haimovici (1997), (3) This study.
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|Title Annotation:||Research Article|
|Author:||Perez, Jose Angel Alvarez; Silva, Tiago Nascimento; Schwarz, Richard; Schroeder, Rafael; Martins, Ro|
|Publication:||Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research|
|Date:||Nov 1, 2009|
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