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Biological and geological characterization of modern biofilms and microbial mats and comparison with similar lithified structures in Colombian Cretaceous formations/Caracterizacion biologica y geologica de biopeliculas y tapetes microbianos actuales y comparacion con estructuras litificadas similares en formaciones cretacicas de Colombia.


The surface adhesion of microorganisms by means of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) favors the formation of thin organic laminae known as biofilms (Marshall, 1992; Costerton et al., 1995). These structures may grow to form thick stratified layers called microbial mats (Castenholz, 1994; Gerdes, 2010), fibrillar networks that often irreversibly bind filaments of cyanobacteria and sediments. They are characterized by an inner stratification with functional groups of microorganisms that coexist, generate symbiotic relationships and potentially modify the characteristics of sediments and sedimentary rocks (Walter, 1976 in Golubic et al., 2000), particularly in extreme environments. Microbial mats have been regarded as advanced stages of a biofilm that build laminae on the top of layered surfaces and reflect gaps in sedimentation (Gerdes, 2010). The transition from a biofilm to a microbial mat involves several weeks of non-burial and the formation of fibrillar condensed networks (Schieber et al., 2007), as well as the incorporation and stabilization of sediments (Stolz, 2000).

The interaction between EPS and sediments, either calcareous or siliciclastic, allows the preservation of characteristics that provide evidence of the presence of microorganisms. Those microbially-induced sedimentary structures (MISS) have been categorized into 17 different types and can be found not only in current environments but also in the lithological record (Noffke, 2009). In addition, Schieber et al. (2007) describes four main categories of microbial mat features in the rock record, from which the biolaminites are the most abundant. Both MISS and microbial mats are considered biosignatures, chemical or physical evidence of biological activity (Farmer and Des Marais, 1999; Summons et al., 2011; Westall and Cavalazzi, 2011).

The study of MISS and microbial mat features is highly relevant to understand the paleobiological implications of the associations between microorganisms and sediments, the paleoecology of microorganisms and their contribution to the sedimentary record through the formation of structures and biominerals. Some other applications include: basin analysis and the detection of sea-level oscillations in sequence stratigraphy, oceanographic and paleoclimatic research, geochemical and paleoenvironmental reconstructions of the early Earth (Noffke, 2010), and the potential for the search of extraterrestrial life (Foster and Mobberley, 2010).

Studies on geobiology and astrobiology in Colombia are scarce and their development has not been extensively considered in the main geosciences research schools and centers that traditionally have given more relevance to other areas such as geochemistry, petrology, geophysics, and oil and mineral deposits. This is one of the pioneering works in the geobiology and astrobiology lines of study at the Geosciences Department at the National University of Colombia. The aim of this study was to identify the filamentous cyanobacteria isolated from biofilms and microbial mats collected in three sampling sites, considered representative of present-day extreme environments, in order to assess their morphological variability and find correlations between the morphotypes and the environment. In addition, we analyzed the role of the cyanobacteria in the formation of the rocks in which they were growing, as an analog for the identification of potential microbial mat features on several Cretaceous formations in Colombia.

2. Data

The samples analyzed in this study were microbial mats and the rocks that they were growing on top of, collected from the thermal spring "Agua Caliente" at El Rosal (Cundinamarca), and biofilms from a channel with organic sludges adjacent to the salt mine at Nemocon (Cundinamarca) and a flooding land surface nearby the Colombian Agricultural Institute (ICA) inside the campus of the National University of Colombia, Bogota (Figure 1). Table 1 indicates the sampling coordinates and Figure 2 shows the location of the sampling sites.

The rock samples collected with the microbial mat growing on top were macroscopically identified as a travertine (R-1) and a mudstone (R-2). The rocks, microbial mats and biofilms from each location are illustrated in Figure 3.

3. Methodology

1 [cm.sup.2] of the biofilm (less than 1 mm thickness), or 1 [cm.sup.3] of the microbial mat (1cm thickness) collected at each location was separately dispersed on a glass slide with the aid of forceps. Nanopure water was added as necessary to dilute each sample until it was possible to distinguish cellular structures with transmitted light microscopy. The observation was made on a Nikon Eclipse E100 microscope at the Laboratory of Microbial Ecology of the National University of Colombia, Bogota. Photographs at different scales were taken (Figures 4-6) and compared to the revised classification Castenholz (2002) and considering the taxonomic revisions of Komarek & Anagnostidis (2005), and Komarek et al. (2014).

For assessing the presence of microbial mat features in the Colombian Cretaceous sedimentary record, we performed a petrographic analysis on rock samples from La Luna, Paja and Tetuan formations. These units were selected considering that they were formed in a shallow marine setting, the one where microbial mats have been mostly studied and described, and the previous observation of organic matter laminae in rocks from these formations (e.g. Sarmiento et al. 2015, Gaviria, 2016). Although the rocks analyzed in the present study are continental, we consider the comparison valid since the microbial mat features preserved in rocks are usually consistent over a wide range of environments (Schieber et al., 2007). The samples from La Luna Formation (Turonian-Coniacian) were taken from Quebrada La Sorda, Santander, where they are characterized by the dominance of foraminifera biomicrites with partial silicification, pseudospar and siliciclastic sediments of silt and sand sizes, mainly towards the top of the unit (Sarmiento et al. 2015). Tetuan Formation (Albian) samples were taken from Quebrada Motilona, Paicol, Huila, where it is composed of marls and biomicrites deposited during the second marine Cretaceous flooding (Gaona, 2015, Hay & Floegel, 2012, Keller, 2008 in Gaviria, 2016) and simultaneously with two different global anoxic events, which probably produced the high organic matter accumulations that characterize this unit (Villamil et al., 1999 in Gaviria, 2016). Finally, samples from Paja Formation (Hauterivian-Late Aptian) were taken from the uppermost part of the intermediate level "Lodolitas abigarradas" near Villa de Leyva, Boyaca, characterized by fissile black mudstones interlayered with micrites, calcareous concretions and gypsum (Patarroyo, 2000).

To identify potential microbial mat features in samples R-1 and R-2 collected at the thermal spring "Agua Caliente", as well as in the thin sections of rocks from the La Luna, Paja and Tetuan formations, the petrographical definition and characterization at Gerdes (2007), Schieber (1986), Schieber (2007) and Ulmer-Scholle et al. (2014) was used. For the characterization of sample R1 (travertine), neither the classifications of Folk (1959), Dunham (1962) or Embry & Klovan(1971), traditionally used for calcareous rocks, nor Mount's (1985) classification for mixed rocks were considered. These classifications do not take into account fossils of microorganisms, so Burne & Moore (1987) classification for microbialites was used instead.

4. Results

4.1 Identification of cyanobacteria

The microscopical observation of cyanobacteria from the three sampling locations led to the morphological identification of organisms to order, and to genera in some cases. None unicellular cyanobacteria were recognized (Orders Chroococales and Pleurocapsales).

In the samples from the thermal spring "Agua Caliente", five morphotypes of filamentous cyanobacteria were identified:

- Narrow trichomes (2.5 [micro]m thickness), 5-8 [micro]m length cells, abundant gas vesicles bound to the walls of the filaments. Order Oscillatoriales, unknown genus (Figure 4 (a), morphotype *).

- Narrow trichomes (< 2 thickness), 3.3-6.6 [micro]m length cells. Order Oscillatoriales, Genus Leptolyngbya sp. (Figure 4 (a), morphotype **).

- Trichomes with helicoidal coiling in a close to partially unwinded helix, with a width of 1.4 to 2.9 [micro]m. Crossed wills with nearly invisible cells. Order Spirulinales, Genus Spirulina sp. (Figure 4 (b)).

- Cyanobacteria with heterocysts, predominantly intercalar (inside the filaments). Vegetative cells spherical to ovoid. The trichomes have a slight coiling. Order Nostocales. Possible genera: Nostoc sp./Anabaena sp. (Figure 4 (c)).

- Trichomes composed of vegetative cells with discoid shape. Presence of heterocysts and possible akinetes. Order Nostocales, genus Nodularia sp. (Figure 4 (d)).

At the biofilm from the runoff channel nearby the salt mine of Nemocon it was possible to recognize two morphotypes of filamentous cyanobacteria similar to those found at the thermal spring "Agua Caliente":

- Order Oscillatoriales, unknown genus (Figure 5 (a), morphotype *); Order Oscillatoriales. Genus Leptolyngbya sp. (Figure 5 (a), morphotype **).

- Trichomes of 5-6 [micro]m width, with discoid cells (wider than long). Order Oscillatoriales, genus Oscillatoria sp. (Figure 5 (b)).

Finally, at the flooding surface inside the National University of Colombia, Bogota, one of the same morphotypes of filamentous cyanobacteria found at the channel nearby the salt mine of Nemocon was identified, assigned to the Order Oscillatoriales, Genus Oscillatoria sp. (Figure 6).

4.2 Lithologic characterization of microbialites related to the microbial mat isolatedfrom the thermal spring "Agua Caliente ", El Rosal (Cundinamarca)

The macroscopic observation of the samples R-1 and R-2 and the related microbial mat collected at the thermal spring "Agua Caliente" allowed the identification of processes of carbonate biomineralization. binding of quartz grains and a well-defined layering (Figures 7, 8 and 9. respectively). Sample R-1 was classified as a travertine according to the definition given by Pentecost (2005), and as a microbial framestone (Burne & Moore, 1987). It was possible to recognize brown lenses with a possible microbial origin, similar to the ones that form the microbial mat found on top of the rock. Layering is evident in some areas, while in some others the rock has a clotted texture (Figures 7 (a) and 8). Therefore, according to Kalkowski (1908) the rock has a stromatolitic texture in the layered areas, and it also has a dendritic texture in the zones with macroscopic patches (Aitken, 1967). Besides, a brownish tone can be observed in some layers, which could be ascribed to the presence of iron from pore fluids, that allowed the precipitation of hematite and sideritization of the carbonates nearby.

The observation of the sample R-2 allowed to establish the presence of terrigenous sediments and a very small fraction of calcareous material. Only at the uppermost part of the rock, it was possible to determine an association between the microorganisms from the mat and some crystals of carbonate and quartz. However, at the middle part of the sample layered structures with iron oxides were distinguished, similar to biolaminations (Figure 7 (b)). The observation of thin sections under the petrographic microscope allowed to determine that the sample is predominantly made of quartz grains (> 90%; 15% fine sand, 25% very fine sand, 60% mud). Besides, it contains iron oxides (5%), opaque minerals (1-3%), calcium carbonate (1-3%) and glauconite (<1%) (Figure 9 (a) and (b)). This sample was classified as a mudstone (Folk, 1959), a sandy mudrock (Mount, 1985), and a microbial boundstone (Burne & Moore, 1987).

The microbial mat that was found growing on the surface of samples R-1 and R-2 contains laminae with a thickness of less than 1 mm, and a green internal coloring, related to the photosynthetic pigments of cyanobacteria and with a brownish coloring at the borders (Figure 7 (e) and (f)). The microscopic observation of the mat allowed to establish the presence of iron oxides in the brown-reddish layers (Figure 10 (a)) and of calcium carbonates between the filaments formed by the cyanobacteria (Figure 10 (b)).

4.3 Identification of possible biolaminations and microbial mats in Cretaceous formations in Colombia

Potential lithified microbial mats were found in thin sections from the La Luna (Figure 11), Tetuan (Figure 12) and Paja (Figure 13) formations, that were interpreted based on the images from the Figures 8-10 and those presented in Schieber (1986), Schieber (2007), Gerdes (2007) and Ulmer-Scholle et al. (2014).

The most similar structure to a microbial mat from all the observed sections was the one from from the La Luna Formation. It consists of a network of light grey fibers, inside which it was possible to recognize carbonate crystals (Figure 11 (a) and (b)). Reddish brown continuous and discontinuous laminae, interpreted as biolaminations, were also identified. These laminae may contain microbial kerogen and carbonate aggregates inside the filament sheaths and networks (Figure 11 (c)-(g) and (h)). Light grey localized lenses with elongated surfaces, distinguishable from other structures similar to fibrillar networks, were observed in some sections (Figure 11 (i) and (j)).

On the other hand, the observation of possible biolaminations and biomineralizations associated to the presence of microorganisms in thin sections of the Tetuan Formation allowed the identification of laminar, discontinuous and linear dark-brown colored structures, that signal the presence of organic matter (Figure 12 (a) and (b)). Some of these form aggregates and very small and localized fibrillar networks (Figure 12 (e) and (f)). In one of the sections, the simultaneous presence of phosphatic lenses, mature kerogen, and possible biolaminations was observed, and apparent stylolites were identified (Figure 12 (c) and (d)).

Observation of thin sections from the Paja Formation allowed to establish that these are rocks with flat parallel lamination and high fissionability, with a variable content of organic matter. Microphotographs show that its accumulation occurs in the form of sinuous fibrillar networks that produce dense to disperse laminae, concentrated in some regions of the samples (Figure 13 (a)) or disseminated, without any specific distribution (Figure 11 (b)). The laminae, that potentially have a microbial origin due to their high similarity to the structures reported in the literature, border the clay grains and the high interference tones in polarized light can be attributed to a high concentration of micas (Figure 13 (c)).

5. Discussion

5.1. Lithologic characterization of microbialites associated with the microbial mat isolatedfrom the thermal spring "Agua Caliente ", El Rosal (Cundinamarca)

Sample R-1 was classified as a travertine (Pentecost, 2005). In travertines, carbonate precipitation is mainly produced by the transference (evasion or invasion) of carbon dioxide from or to a source of groundwater that produces a calcium carbonate supersaturation, with nucleation and growth of crystals over an immersed surface. They can be stratified and the stratification is frequently irregular (Pentecost, 2005). It is produced because of compositional changes of the material dissolved in the water during their deposition -which is slow and often discontinuous- such as iron, organic matter, and other substances that precipitate together with the carbonate and may produce its characteristic band pattern (Ujueta, 1960).

Some travertine deposits have been identified in Colombia, mainly in the departments of Caldas and Boyaca, this last one being the one that registers the most travertines in the villages of Villa de Leyva (Ujueta, 1960), Firavitoba and Tibasosa. The geologic characterization of a travertine from Pesca was performed recently (Vargas, 2013). Because of their localization and distribution, travertine deposits in Colombia have been associated with the volcanic activity of domes and the ascent of hydrothermal fluids through fractures (Vargas, 2013). For the area of El Rosal-San Francisco-Subachoque, no travertines have been reported. The calcareous supply for the formation of these bodies possibly comes from the Seca Formation (Maastrichtian-Paleocene; De Porta, 1966), over which it is located.

In the microbial mat growing on the surfaces of the samples R-1 (travertine) and R-2 (mudstone), structures related to the microbial growth together with the binding of sediments, such as biolaminations and biovarves, were identified (Schieber, 2004). The light laminae in biovarves have been related to the growth of coccoid cyanobacteria, which are the main EPS produces and may favor the precipitation of gypsum and carbonates (Gerdes, 2010).

Carbonates and iron oxides in microbial mats have been considered a product of possible simultaneous processes of inorganic precipitation and biomineralization, classified as structures produced by metabolic effects (Schieber, 2004). Photosynthesis may shift carbonate solubility enough to promote the precipitation of these minerals, which induces the formation of irregular ooids, disseminated grains, cementation in specific laminae, early diagenetic dolomite, etc. We also identified siderite, that was probably produced by a diagenetic substitution of calcium by iron in the carbonate structure. The layers with iron enrichment may be explained by the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria. The binding of iron to polysaccharide sheaths promotes the fixation of carbon dioxide and limits photorespiration, and the iron hydroxides below the cyanobacteria layer protect them from an excess of sulfur and keep oxygen from reaching the anaerobic community of microorganisms (Schieber et al., 2007).

The identification of microbial mats with similar textural characteristics in the samples R-l (travertine) and R-2 (mudstone) provides an evidence of the ability of filamentous cyanobacteria to promote carbonate biomineralization and bind siliciclastic sediments. Therefore, the composition of the grains, the sedimentary textures, and the microbial mat features in any environment might be mainly influenced by its physicochemical properties and the input of sediment. We thus hypothesize that the species of cyanobacteria that colonize microbial mats could be very variable, since they could be interchangeable as long as their ecological role within the microbial community is fulfilled.

5.2 Cyanobacteria identification

Several groups of cyanobacteria have been found growing on travertine surfaces. This can be explained by the fact that many of these grow well in environments with high temperatures enriched in sulfur, variable light intensities, high carbon dioxide concentrations, and are resistant to desiccation (Castenholz, 2002). The cyanobacteria genera identified in the present study match those who have been recognized as the most predominant in fresh to brackish water environments with mild temperatures (Castenholz, 2002; Komarek and Anagnostidis, 2005; Komarek et al., 2014). These cyanobacteria have also been recognized as some of the main contributors to the formation of MISS and modern microbial mats (e.g. Schieber et al., 2014)

For the observation and morphological characterization of cyanobacteria, more advanced microscopy techniques had been used, such as confocal, phase-contrast, fluorescence and electronic microscopy (Castenholz, 2002). Getting a precise identification of cyanobacteria in different environments would be critical to know the diversity of these microorganisms, track the appearance of their characteristics and adaptations, and determine the conditions that drove the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis, one of the most relevant events studied by geobiologists. The present is an exploratory, morphological study, and further work considering the use of molecular identification techniques is strongly encouraged to achieve a more precise discrimination and resolution of the cyanobacteria present in each location, given that the morphological identification may be subject to errors and does not allow to achieve the resolution needed to differentiate species, and in some cases, genera (Komarek et al., 2014).

5.3 Identification of possible biolaminations and microbial mats in Cretaceous formations in Colombia

Most of the structures with a possible microbial origin identified in La Luna, Paja, and Tetuan formations are related to growth and binding of particles, such as biolaminations and biovarves, and with metabolic effects (biomineralizations) in the case of the La Luna and Tetuan formations. It is possible that the differences between the lithified and modern structures identified here and those that have been previously reported obey to two main factors: first, most reported MISS and microbial mat features have been observed and classified on coastal and hypersaline environments (Schieber, 1986; Gerdes, 2007; Schieber, 2007; Ulmer-Scholle et al, 2014), which might have contrasting conditions to the paleoenvironments in which the La Luna, Paja, and Tetuan formations were deposited. In addition, there are diagenetic phenomena that can alter the appearance of the structures observed in the rock record with respect to modern microbial mats and biofilms, from which is worth mentioning burial, compressive forces (that can produce faulting, fracturing and pressure dissolution), mineral replacement and weathering. These diagenetic processes can alter the integrity of lithified microbial mats, which makes it possible to find fragmented and transported fossil fragments inside of them. In the analyzed thin sections from La Luna Formation, light lenticular structures were found, that have been interpreted as intraclasts, produced by erosion and reworking from deep currents inside the basin (Schieber et al., 2010). Conversely, in modern settings, deformed microbial mats with folds, bulges and roll-ups have been reported to form as a consequence of tidal currents (Cuadrado et al., 2015), while sand layers interspersed within the microbial mats have been considered a record of highly energetic storm events (Cuadrado et al., 2013). None of these processes can be discarded as a potential factor involved in the formation of the structures that we described.

It is also important to note that in some of the studied sections, the possible lithified microbial mats can be mistaken with surfaces in which dissolution of carbonates had occurred due to compressive forces (stylolites). Some criteria that can be used to differentiate them are the tendency of stylolites to be continuous, have curved and serrated edges and truncate carbonate crystals. However, the simultaneous presence of both structures cannot be discarded (Figure 11 (c), (k), and (1)). On the other hand, although the presence of phosphates and dissolution surfaces at the Tetuan Formation had been previously acknowledged (Gaviria, 2016), the present study is the first to question the nature of stylolites and some kerogen laminae in this unit and to propose a possible microbial origin for those structures. Finally, on the thin sections from Paja Formation highly continuous and abundant biolaminations were recognized (Figure 13 (d)-(f)), together with diagenetic gypsum at outcrop scale.

As previously stated, the La Luna, Paja and Tetuan formations are characterized by low-energy marine facies, with variations in depth and fossil content and with intermittency in the rates of sediment and continental matter supply. These characteristics have been previously regarded as ideal for microbial mat proliferation (Schieber, 1986). The finding of biolaminations with high similarity to those reported by Gerdes (2007), Schieber (1986), Schieber (2007) and Ulmer-Scholle et al. (2014), mainly in the La Luna and Paja formations is consistent with the depositional environment and constitutes the first morphological evidence of fossilization of microbial mats or their remnants in the rock record in Colombia.

It is very important to remark that observation and identification of MISS and microbial mat features should, whenever possible, be complemented with additional tests to provide confidence and robustness to their interpretation. The fact that morphology is an interpretative biogenicity criterium makes it susceptible to confusion with similar structures such as stylolites, intraclasts, and non-microbial kerogen. Some of the most used complementary analytical techniques are advanced microscopy techniques and geochemical analyses like chromatography and mass spectrometry to detect chemical biomarkers such as associated heavy elements and rare earth elements, as well as carbon, oxygen, sulfur and nitrogen isotopes in terrestrial samples studies (Westall, 2008).

6. Conclusions

The detailed observation of organic matter laminae in sedimentary geologic units, mainly in marine settings, has allowed the reinterpretation of some of these as potential microbial mat features. Most of these structures manifest themselves as continuous biolaminations, inside which a fibrillar mesh produced by the filaments of cyanobacteria can be differentiated, related to biomineralization and sediment binding. Diagenetic effects can alter the integrity of lithified microbial mats, which, together with the characteristics of the depositional environment, could account for the differences between the structures observed in the modern and the Cretaceous microbial mat features.

The observation of filamentous cyanobacteria isolated from the microbial mat from the thermal spring "Agua Caliente", El Rosal (Cundinamarca) and from the biofilms collected from a runoff channel nearby the salt mine of Nemocon and a flooding plain at the National University of Colombia, Bogota, allowed their identification until genus. Most of them belong to the order Oscillatoriales, that has a worldwide distribution in fresh, brackish and marine waters, with representatives that require or tolerate extremes of salinity and temperature.

Two rock samples from the thermal spring "Agua Caliente", El Rosal (Cundinamarca), whose genesis was influenced by the growth of a microbial mat, were characterized. One of these, a travertine and microbial framestone, had stromatolitic and thrombolitic textures. In the second one, a mudrock and microbial boundstone, biolaminations and biomineralizations were identified. The comparison between the textures observed in a modern microbial mat and its associated rocks, and those reported in the literature, allowed the identification of potential microbial mat features in the La Luna, Paja and Tetuan formations. This finding is highly relevant given that it makes up the first report of biolaminations and biomineralizations produced by microoganisms in Cretaceous rocks in Colombia, and may be complemented with additional studies to perform paleoclimatic and sedimentological inferences about its depositional environment.

Despite the fact that the observation of microbial mat features is a strictly morphological criterium to assign a microbial origin to a sedimentary structure, it is a critical tool for the identification of biosignatures inside the frame of the search of life in extraterrestrial settings. However, we encourage performing additional tests in future studies to provide more reliability to the biogenicity interpretation.


We would like to thank the Department of Geosciences of National University of Colombia, Bogota, for the use of the laboratories, supplies and equipment that allowed the development of this work. We also want to thank Professor Jimena Sanchez, from the Microbial Ecology Laboratory (ECOMIC) of the Department of Biology of National University of Colombia, Bogota, for the kind supply of microscopes and materials for the biological characterization of cyanobacteria. Furthermore, the borrowing of thin sections made by Jonatan Bustos, Nestor Gaviria and Professor Gustavo Sarmiento, respectively, was fundamental for the development of this work. We would also like to thank Armando Sanchez from the laboratory of thin sections at the Geosciences Department of National University of Colombia, Bogota, for his help with the elaboration of thin sections. Miguel Gomez and David Valentin helped in the elaboration of the map. Yael Natalia Mendez, a student of M.Sc. in Geosciences at National University of Colombia, provided important ideas for the development of this research. Finally, we want to acknowledge the comments and suggestions from two anonymous reviewers, which greatly contributed to the improvement of the manuscript.


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Daniela Osorio-Rodriguez & Carlos Alberto Sanchez-Quinonez

Universidad Nacional de Colombia - Departamento de Geociencias,


Manuscript received: 15/11/2017

Accepted for publication: 01/06/2018

How to cite item

Osorio-Rodriguez, D., & Sanchez-Quinonez, C. A. (2018). Biological and geological characterization of modern biofilms and microbial mats and comparison with similar lithified structures in Colombian Cretaceous formations. Earth Sciences Research Journal, 22(3), 159-168.

Table 1. Location and characteristics of the sampling site of biofilms
and microbial mats analyzed in this study.

Sampling site              Coordinates             Height (m)
                           (Bogota origin)

Thermal spring "Agua        4[degrees]55'44,09"N/  2258
Caliente", El Rosal (a)    74[degrees]15'39,16"W
Salt mine, Nemocon (b)      5[degrees]3'55,10"N/   2595
Flooding plain, UNAL (c)    4[degrees]38'6,72"N/   2600

Sampling site              Water temperature ([degrees]C)
                           at the sampling time

Thermal spring "Agua       42
Caliente", El Rosal (a)
Salt mine, Nemocon (b)     11
Flooding plain, UNAL (c)   14

Sampling site              Annual ranges
                           of air temperature ([degrees]C)

Thermal spring "Agua       6.9-19.3
Caliente", El Rosal (a)
Salt mine, Nemocon (b)     6.7-20.7
Flooding plain, UNAL (c)   7.2-19.4

Sampling site              Average air
                           temperature ([degrees]C)

Thermal spring "Agua       13.3
Caliente", El Rosal (a)
Salt mine, Nemocon (b)     13.8
Flooding plain, UNAL (c)   13.5
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Title Annotation:GEOLOGY
Author:Osorio-Rodriguez, Daniela; Sanchez-Quinonez, Carlos Alberto
Publication:Earth Sciences Research Journal
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:3COLO
Date:Sep 1, 2018
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