Biological & physiological aspects of action of insulin-like growth factor peptide family.
Key words Cancer treatment strategies--insulin-like--growth factors--oncogenes--tumours
Three critical early findings have been substantial for subsequent research on IGF 1/2 signaling. First, in 1957. Salmon et al found a growth hormone dependent serum factor that stimulated (35) S-sulphate incorporation into rat cartilage (1). It was designated as <<sulphation factor activity>> (subsequently also termed somatomedin C). Second, in early 1970s, a polypeptide fraction with mitogenic activity was described in rat liver conditioned medium. It was designated as multiplication stimulating activity, MSA (2). Third, several laboratories identified serum components with insulin-like activities which were not neutralized by anti-insulin antibodies, so called non suppressible insulinlike activity, NSILA (3). Based on amino acid sequencing analyses of these factors it was shown that all three activities could be ascribed to two different peptides. Because of their structural and functional homology with insulin all former names are now replaced by the term insulin-like growth factors, more precisely, insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2).
Insulin, insulin-like growth factors, as well as later discovered insulin-like growth factor receptors (IGF R of type 1 and type 2) and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGF-BP 1-6) (IFG family of peptides), play an important role in the normal control of many metabolic and growth related processes. They have been shown to have mitogenic and distinct apoptotic effects regulating thereby the growth of mammalian organism; they can act in endocrine (like a hormone), and autocrine/paracrine manner.
Insulin-like growth factors
Both IGFs have been isolated and characterized in the year 1970 (4). They are highly homologous small single chain peptides of 70 (IGF-1) and 67 (IGF-2) amino acids respectively, and approximate 7.5 kD size. The protein molecules of IGF-1 and IGF-2 can be divided to B- (receptor binding domain), C-(determines preferential binding to IGF-R1), A- (in part, receptor binding domain), D- (determines the affinity of IGF-2, but not IGF-1, to receptor binding) and E-domains (Fig. 1). The proteins are 70 per cent identical to one another, and 50 per cent to proinsulin, mostly due to their B (residues 3-29 in IGF-1 and residues 3-32 in IGF-2) domain. The C domains are analogous in location to the C-domain of proinsulin, but are not spliced out from the mature molecule, as it happens during proinsulin processing. There is no C-domain sequence homology either with each other or with proinsulin. Then follows the A-domain, which is homologous to the A-chain of insulin. Short C-terminal D-domain, although homologous to each other, is not found in insulin. The mature IGF-1 and IGF-2 do not possess the most C-terminal E-domain which is cleaved from the promolecules post-translationally (5).
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
The gene for IGF-1 is located on chromosome 12q22-q24.1. The gene for IGF-2 is located close to the insulin one, on a chromosome 11p15.5 (6).
IGF-1 is atrophic factor that circulates at high levels in the blood stream. Although the main source of IGF-1 in the serum is liver, many other tissues synthesize it and are sensitive to its action, especially during postnatal development (7). Regulation of hepatic IGF-1 production is mostly mediated by growth hormone and insulin (Fig. 2). In turn, IGF-1 feeds back to suppress growth hormone and insulin release. In addition to growth hormone, developmental factors as well as nutrition status all modify IGF-1 production (7).
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
The synthesis of IGF-2 is relatively growth hormone independent. Its expression is much higher during foetal development than in postnatal life. It acts as a regulatory peptide; it is mitogenic for a number of cell types. The IGF-2 gene is transcribed from four different promoters (P1-P4). P2-P4 contains CpG islands, and transcription from these promoters is subject to imprinting. Monoallelic expression from these promoters occurs mostly in foetal and young tissues. The P1 promoter, utilized primarily in adult liver tissue, is regulated differentially; it escapes imprinting and is expressed biallelically (8). The IGF-2 gene can be expressed to produce proteins of various molecular weights. The most active form, with regard to binding to IGF receptors, is 7.5 kDa (9). Larger forms lack post-transcriptional cleavage and have been implicated in hypoglycaemia, which can accompany a variety of tumours.
Insulin-like growth factor receptors
The biological effects of IGF-1 and IGF-2 on a target cell are mediated by two types of cell surface receptors: IGF receptor of type 1 (IGF-R1) and IGF receptor of type 2 (IGF-R2), as well as through binding to receptors for insulin (Fig. 3). IGF-1 binds to the type 1 receptor, and with a lower affinity to insulin receptor. IGF-2 binds with high affinity to the type 2 receptor and with low affinity to the type 1 receptor. It has no affinity for the insulin receptor. The type 2 receptor is identical to the cation-independent mannose-6- phosphate receptor. In general, most of the action of IGFs is mediated via IGF-R (17). As well as insulin receptor, it is a member of tyrosine-kinase class of growth factor receptors. It is a heterotetramer, consisting of two [alpha]- (ligand binding) subunits, and two transmembrane [beta]-subunits which contain a tyrosine kinase domain, that activates receptor by autophosphorylation. Binding of ligand (IGF-1 and GF-2) to the extracellular part of IGF-R1 initiates a cytoplasmic signal cascade that includes receptor conformational change which enables them to bind ATP and become autophosphorylated on tyrosine residues within the [beta]-subunits, resulting in activation of the intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity of the IGF-R1 and subsequent tyrosine phosphorylation of several substrates, including IRS and Shc. This stimulates downstream signaling through intracellular networks that regulate cell proliferation and survival. Key downstream molecules include the phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase (PI3K)-serine/threonine protein kinase B (PKB or AKT)--target of rapamycin (TOR) system and serine/threonine kinase (RAF)-mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) system. Activation of these pathways results in variety of responses, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and protection from apoptosis.
[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]
In addition to be stimulated by IGF-2, IGF-R1 is overexpressed in some tumours. Overexpression of these receptors, independent of exogenous peptides transforms cells to a phenotype of anchorage-independent growth (10).
The type 2 IGF receptor, also known as cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor (IGF-R2/ M-6-P), is structurally and functionally different from the IGF-R1. The receptor is monomeric membrane spanning glycoprotein of 250 kDa, with a large extracellular domain, which binds M-6-P, lysosomal enzymes, and IGF-2 (11). The extracellular part contains one binding site for IGF-2 and two sites for M-6-P containing ligands. This suggests that IGF-R2/M-6-P may be involved in the clearance of IGF-2 from the circulation (on the cell surface the IGF-R2 is constitutively endocytosed, where its main role is the binding and internalization of IGF-2) and in the modulation of trafficking of lysosomal enzymes. IGFR2 does not have intracytoplasmatic signaling domain and is thought to be recycled between the plasma and different cellular compartments. The gene for IGF-R2 is located on chromosome 6q. In opposite to the gene for IGF-2 it is paternally imprinted (Fig. 3).
IGF binding proteins and proteases
The IGF binding proteins represent a family of six conserved proteins (IGF-BP 1-6) with the common property of binding IGF-1 and IGF-2 present in serum and other biological fluids (12) (Table; Fig. 4). The genes for human IGF-BP are located on different chromosomes: genes for IGF-BPs 1 and 3 on chromosome 7, genes for IGF-BPs 2 and 5 on chromosome 2, the gene for IGF-BP 4 on chromosome 17 and the gene for IGF-BP 6 on chromosome 6 (13). IGF binding to IGF-BP may be modulated by IGF-BP modifications, such as glycosylation, phosphorylation and proteolysis, and by IGF-BP association with cell surface or components of the extracellular matrix. All IGF-BPs inhibit IGF action by sequestering IGFs, and prolong their half-life in the plasma, whereas some of them, like IGF-BP 1, -3 and -5 also potentiate IGFs action. In addition, IGF-BP 3 and -5 also have IGFs independent action, via signaling through BPs cell surface receptors. (Fig. 4).
[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]
Proteins that bind IGF-BPs can be classified into three families. The first includes components of the extracellular matrix where binding of the IGF-BPs regulates IGF bioavailability. The second includes transmembrane proteins that are plasma membrane components and can induce intracellular signals (L5[beta]1 integrin, type V transforming growth factor TGF[beta] receptor) while the third includes intracellular proteins localized in nucleus or cytosol (retinoid X receptor[alpha], retinoic acid receptor-[alpha], importin-[beta], Four-and-a-half LIM protein 2) (14).
IGF-BP degrading proteases act as growth stimulators by increasing local IGF availability. They fall into three major categories (15). Kallikrein-like serine proteases, which cleave IGF-BP 3, include prostate specific antigen (PSA), gamma nerve growth factor and plasmin. Thrombin, another serine protease, cleaves IGF-BP 5. The second major category is cathepsins, intracellularproteinases, and the third category involves matrix metalloproteinases, a family of peptide hydrolases that function in tissue remodeling by degradation of extracellular matrix components. Proteolytic activity by proteases may play a role in normal and abnormal tissue proliferation by cleaving IGF-BP into fragments with lower affinity for IGFs, thereby increasing the levels of free IGFs to activate IGF-R1.
IGFs and cancer
During the past two decades, the joint efforts of several laboratories have firmly established the important role of IGF family of peptides (ligands, receptors, binding proteins and proteases) as mitogens for variety of tumour types. As their action is strongly interrelated, any deregulation of interactions among them may lead to the pathological condition, mostly cancer formation and progression. In this respect, very often, IGF-1 and IGF-2 overproduced by tumour cells act as autocrine stimulators of malignant cells division, through binding and stimulating the activity of IGF-R1. These have been shown first in vitro (16,17), and later on in vivo (18-21) as well as in clinical studies (22). Based on a cell culture experiments conducted on prostate, breast, lung, colon, stomach, endometrial, liver, brain, and many other cell lines it was presumed that growth hormone-IGF-1 axis plays a role in neoplastic pathology (16,17). In vivo, for instance, it was possible to induce tumour growth by the molecules isolated from the tumour stromal cells or tumour host serum (18-21). Moreover, tumour cells with nonfunctional IGF receptors could induce their own proliferation by the synthesis of endogenous IGF molecules. This process of autocrine stimulation contributed in part to the autonomous and faster tumour growth (22).
More than 20 yr ago we have also described the involvement of IGF in cancer (18,21). Increased glucose level in the blood of diabetic but normoinsulinaemic mice was accompanied by suppressed growth of mammary carcinoma (23). The same tumours, as well as some other murine tumour cell types maintained in hypoinsulinaemic mice grew faster after each subsequent transplantation into diabetic mice. The observed proliferation enhancement of tumours was caused by de novo synthesis of insulin-like protein, by the tumour cells themselves (18-20). Later we showed that IGFs appear in many experimental and human tumours (21,24-27). As it was shown for human hemangiopericytomas, increase in tumour size was paralleled by an elevation of IGFs in the serum. Removal of tumours (from the patients) eliminated most of the IGF-2 serum activity. Moreover, when IGF-2 was added to the cell cultures of hemangiopericytomas, cell proliferation was significantly increased. It appeared that IGF-2 produced by tumour cells stimulated tumour proliferation by autocrine mechanism (21,24).
Maybe the most important proof for the involvement of IGFs to tumour growth and progression comes from the clinical studies. For instance, several studies have shown the link between serum concentration of (i) IGF-1 and IGF-BP 3 with increased risk of breast, prostate, colorectal and lung cancer (28); (ii) IGF-2 with increased risk of colorectal cancer (29). Overexpression of IGF-2, as measured at the level of mRNA and protein, is also found in variety of cancers, including lung, gastric cancer and hemangiopericytomas (21,25-27).
However, it seems today that the predominating single factor among IGFs implicated in cancer, is IGF-R1 whose overexpression (therefore augmented signaling) could promote tumour formation and maintenance even at the normal levels of IGF-1 and IGF-2, by an autocrine mechanism. It has also been shown to be crucial for anchorage-independent growth, the property unique to tumour cells. Several studies, both experimental and clinical, have demonstrated that the IGF-R1 is overexpressed in tumour cells (30) contributing to tumour formation, maintenance and progression. The results of our studies also indicate the importance of IGF-R1, together with IGF1 and IGF-2, in pathogenesis of lung cancer, hemangiopericytomas, and gastric cancer. For instance, 12 of 22 tested human hemangiopericytomas overexpressed IGF-2, and even 90 per cent of them IGF-RI, as recorded at the level of mRNA (21). Similarly, we have also shown that majority of human lung cancers tested (all together 69) overexpress simultaneously IGF-1, IGF-2, IGF-R I and IGF-BP 4. Seventeen tumours were concomitantly positive for all four IGFs, whereas 34 were positive for IGF-2, IGF-R1 and IGF-BP 4. At the same time, these tumours were negative for IGF-R2 (25). IGF-2 is also secreted by human gastric cancer cells, of both, diffuse and intestinal type, as we have shown by culturing these tumours in vitro (26). At the same time the mRNA for IGF-2 and IGF-R1 was also overexpressed in both gastric cancer types. In contrast, the synthesis of IGFR-2 was diminished in these cancers.
Regarding to the role of IGF-R2 in cancer formation, it should be emphasized that this receptor has no intrinsic signaling transduction capability and in the context of the IGF system primarily acts to sequester IGF-2 from the circulation. Mutation or loss of expression, resulting in loss of heterozygosity, of the IGF-R2 gene occurs in several cancers and correlates with a poor prognosis, indicating this gene as a tumour suppressor (31,32). We have shown, in human lung cancers, that IGF-R2 gene deregulation is connected to the mutations in this tumour suppressor (26). The mutations were connected with more aggressive tumour types, high proliferation index, as well as autocrine overproduction of IGF-2.
As the defects in IGFs that are commonly seen in cancers are mostly associated with overexpression of IGF-1/IGF-2 and/or IGF-R1 as well as mutations in the IGF-R2 gene, targeting at the level of these four molecules would be a reasonable choice for the treatment of IGF-dependent cancers.
Targeting growth factors and their receptors
In principle, autocrine circuits of IGFs can be interrupted at two points: outside and inside the cell. The most widely investigated outside approach is the use of blocking antibodies directed against the extracellular part of the receptor (33,34). However, laboratory studies are also directed to the use of inhibitors of ligand binding, and the use of competitive binding antagonists (35,36). Inside the cell antisense strategies and the use of small interfering RNA (siRNA) are the tools of choice to reduce receptor expression. There is also a great interest in therapeutic strategies that target signaling downstream of IGF-R1 (35,36).
There are only a few studies that describe targeting of IGF-2 production as cancer therapy strategy. For instance, it was shown that an analogue of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), tryptorelin, exerts a biphasic growth effect on ovarian cancer cells (that express GnRH binding sites), by a mechanism of diminished autocrine production of IGF-2 (37). Similarly, the GnRH antagonist, SB-75, inhibited growth of gynaecological cancer cells, again by inhibition of IGF-2 secretion (38-40).
Reduction of IGF- 1 levels by the use of somatostatin analogues, GHRH or GH antagonists (41-43) have shown, so far, only a modest success. However, Csernus et al (44) suggested that antagonistic analogues of GHRH can inhibit the growth of certain tumours not only by inhibiting the GHRH-GH-IGF-2 axis, but also by reducing IGF-2 production and by interfering with the autocrine regulatory pathway. Antagonists of GHRH directly block the expression of IGF-2 mRNA and, as a consequence, the production of IGF-2. GHRH significantly inhibits the rate of proliferation of mammary, prostatic, and pancreatic cancer cell lines.
Blocking of IGF-R1 seems to be promising approach for the development of an IGF-2 dependent cancer therapy. Receptor function can be abrogated by utilizing monoclonal antibodies against receptors such as [alpha]IR3 (26), use of polyanionic compound suramine (45), or exploiting antisense oligodeoxynucleotides directed against the IGF-R1 mRNA. The [alpha]IR (3) monoclonal antibody recognizes human IGF-R1 and neutralizes IGF-I and IGF-2 mediated signal transduction pathway. Its blocking effects on IGF-1 and IGF-2 mediated responses have been shown in vitro and in vivo (25,46-48). This approach was also tested and supported with results of our previous experiments conducted on malignant hemangiopericytomas (21,24).
According to Arteaga (49), blockade of the IGF-R1 may be even more effective when used in conjunction with other manipulations that also target the IGF system. This approach was supported by the results obtained in our previous experiments (21). IGF-BP and somatostatin analogues are also potentially rational candidates for combined therapy with monoclonal antibodies or antisense oligonucleotides against IGFR1/IGF-2 (50).
Since IGF proteins are involved in cell proliferation regulation, any disturbance of the IGF signaling proteins has been shown to be connected with development and progression of many cancer types. Considering that high serum concentrations of IGF-1 and IGF-2 are associated with an increased risk of breast, prostate, colorectal and lung cancers and that IGF-R1 is commonly overexpressed in many tumours (like gastric, lung, endometrial cancer) leading to a phenotype of anchorage-independent tumour growth, it is reasonable that interfering with IGF-R1 signaling approach is considered as one of the promising cancer treatment strategies.
Authors acknowledge the financial support received from the Ministry of Science Education and Sport, Republic of Croatia.
Received November 28, 2005
(1.) Salmon Jr WD, Daughaday WH. A hormonally controlled serum factor which stimulates sulfate incorporation by cartilage in vitro. J Lab Clin Med 1957; 49.: 825-36.
(2.) Dulak NC, Temin HM. A partially purified polypeptide fraction from rat liver cell conditioned medium with multiplication-stimulating activity for embryo fibroblasts. J Cell Physiol 1973; 8 : 153-60.
(3.) Froesch ER, Burgi H, Ramseier EB, Bally P, Labhart A. Antibody-suppressible and nonsuppressible insulin-like activities in human serum and their physiologic significance. J Clin Invest 1963; 42 : 1816-34.
(4.) Rinderknecht E, Humbel RE. The amino acid sequence of human insulin-like growth factor I and its structural homology with proinsulin. J Biol Chem 1978; 253 : 2769-76.
(5.) Denley A, Cosgrove LJ, Booker GW, Wallace JC, Forbes BE. Molecular interactions of the IGF system. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 2005; 16 : 421-39.
(6.) www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=gene&cmd= search&term=IGF+2. Accessed on September 20, 2005.
(7.) Pollak MN, Schernhammer ES, Hankinson SE. Insulin-like growth factors and neoplasia. Nat Rev Cancer 2004; 4 : 505-18.
(8.) Tang SH, Yang DH, Huang W, Zhou M, Zhou HK, Lu XH, et al. Differential promoter usage for insulin-like growth factor-II gene in Chinese hepatocellular carcinoma with hepatitis B virus infection. Cancer Detect Prev 2006; 30 : 192-203.
(9.) Kiess W, Yang Y, Kessler U, Hoeflich A. Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) and the IGF-II/mannose-6-phosphate receptor: the myth continues. Horm Res 1994; 41 : 66-73.
(10.) Carboni JM, Lee AV, Hadsell DL, Rowley BR, Lee FY, Bol DK, et al. Tumor development by transgenic expression of a constitutively active insulin-like growth factor I receptor. Cancer Res 2005; 65 : 3781-7.
(11.) Kornfeld S. Structure and function of the mannose-6-phosphate/insulin like growth factor II receptors. Annu Rev Biochem 1992; 61 : 307-30.
(12.) Clemmons DR. Use of mutagenesis to probe IGF-binding protein structure/function relationships. Endocr Rev 2001; 22 : 800-17.
(13.) www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=gene&cmd= search&term=IGF+binary+protein. Accessed on September 20, 2005.
(14.) Ricort JM. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) signaling. Growth Horm IGF Res 2004; 14 : 277-86.
(15.) Lelbach A, Muzes G, Feher J. The insulin-like growth factor system: IGFs, IGF-binding proteins and IGFBP-proteases. Acta Physiol Hung 2005; 92 : 97-107.
(16.) Yu H, Rohan T. Role of insulin like growth factors family in cancer development and progression. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000; 92 : 1472-89.
(17.) Schernhammer ES, Holly JM, Hunter DJ, Pollak MN, Hankinson SE, Schernhammer ES, et al. Insulin-like growth factor-I, its binding proteins (IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3), and growth hormone and breast cancer risk in The Nurses Health Study II. Endocr Relat Cancer 2006; 13 : 583-92.
(18.) Pavelic K, Slijepcevic M, Pavelic J, Ivic J, Audy-Jurkovic S, Pavelic ZP, et al. Growth and treatment of Ehrlich tumor in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. Cancer Res 1979; 39 : 1807-13.
(19.) Pavelic K, Ferle-Vidovic A, Osmak M, Vuk-Pavlovic S. Synthesis of immunoreactive insulin in vitro by aplastic mammary carcinoma preconditioned in diabetic mice. J Natl Cancer Inst 1981; 67: 687-8.
(20.) Pavelic K, Bolanca M, Verek N, Pavelic J, Marotti T, Vuk-Pavlovic S. Carcinomas of the cervix and corpus uteri in humans: stage-dependent blood levels of substance(s) immunologically cross-reactive with insulin. J Natl Cancer Inst 1982; 68 : 891-4.
(21.) Pavelic K, Spaventi S, Gluncic V, Matejcic A, Pavicic D, Karapand*a N, et al. The expression and role of insulin-like growth factor II in malignant hemangiopericytomas. J Mol Med 1999; 77 : 865-9.
(22.) Sporn MB, Todaro GJ. Autocrine secretion and malignant transformation of cells. N Engl J Med 1980; 303 : 878-80.
(23.) Pavelic K. Aplastic carcinoma in diabetic mice: hyperglycemia-suppressed proliferation rate and insulin synthesis by tumor cells. J Natl Cancer Inst 1979; 62 : 139-41.
(24.) Pavelic K, Cabrijan T, Hrascan R, Vrkljan M, Lipovac M, Kapitanovic S, et al. Molecular pathology of heman giopericytomas accompanied by severe hypoglycemia: oncogenes, tumor-suppressor genes and the insulin-like growth factor family. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 1998; 124 : 307-14.
(25.) Pavelic J, Pavelic Lj, Karad*a J, Kri*anac S, Unusic J, Spaventi S, et al. Insulin-like growth factor family and combined antisense approach in therapy of lung carcinoma. Mol Med 2002; 8 : 149-57.
(26.) Pavelic K, Kolak T, Kapitanovic S, Radosevic S, Spaventi S, Kruslin B, et al. Gastric cancer: the role of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) and its receptors (IGF IR and M6-P/IGF-2R). J Pathol 2003; 201 : 430-8.
(27.) Pavelic J, Kri*anac S, Kapitanovic S, Pavelic Lj, Samar*ija M, Pavieic F, et al. The consequences of insulin-like growth factor/receptors dysfunction in lung cancer. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2005; 32 : 65-71.
(28.) Renehan AG, Zwahlen M, Minder C, O'Dwyer ST, Shalet SM, Egger M. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF binding protein-3, and cancer risk: systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Lancet 2004; 363 : 1346-53.
(29.) Renehan AG, Jones J, Potten CS, Shalet SM, O'Dwyer ST. Elevated serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II and IGF binding protein-2 in patients with colorectal cancer. Br J Cancer 2000; 83 : 1344-50.
(30.) Larsson O, Girnita A, Girnita L. Role of insulin-like growth factor I receptor signalling in cancer. Br J Cancer 2005; 92 : 2097-101.
(31.) Oka Y, Waterland RA, Killian JK, Nolan CM, Jang HS, Tohara K, et al. M6P/IGF2R tumor suppressor gene mutated in hepatocellular carcinomas in Japan. Hepatology 2002; 35 : 1153-63.
(32.) Jamieson TA, Brizel DM, Killian JK, Oka Y, Jang HS, Fu X, et al. M6P/IGF2R loss of heterozygosity in head and neck cancer associated with poor patients prognosis. BMC Cancer 2003; 3 : 4.
(33.) Maloney EK, McLaughlin JL, Dagdigian NE, Garrett LM, Connors KM, Zhou XM, et al. An anti-insulin-like growth factor-I receptor antibody that is a potent inhibitor of cancer cell proliferation. Cancer Res 2003; 63 : 5073-83.
(34.) Feng Y, Zhu Z, Xiao X, Choudhry V, Barrett JC, Dimitrov DS. Novel human monoclonal antibodies to insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II that potently inhibit the IGF receptor type I signal transduction function. Mol Cancer Ther 2006; 5 : 114-20.
(35.) Yee D. Targeting insulin-like growth factor pathways. Br J Cancer 2006; 94 : 465-8.
(36.) Perona R. Cell signaling: growth factors and tyrosine kinase receptors. Clin Transl Oncol 2006; 8 : 77-82.
(37.) Ho MN, Delgado CH, Owens GA, Steller MA. Insulin-like growth factor-II participates in the biphasic effect of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist on ovarian cancer cell growth. Fertil Steril 1997; 67 : 870-6.
(38.) Manetta A, Gamboa-Vujicic G, Paredes P, Emma D, Liao S, Leong L, et al. Inhibition of growth of human ovarian cancer in nude mice by luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonist Cetrorelix (SB-75). Fertil Steril 1995; 63 : 282-7.
(39.) Kleinman D, Roberts CT Jr, LeRoith D, Schally AV, Levy J, Sharoni Y. Regulation of endometrial cancer cell growth by insulin-like growth factors and luteinizing hormonereleasing hormone antagonist SB-75. Regul Pept 1993; 48 : 91-8.
(40.) Hershkovitz E, Marbach M. Bosin E, Levy J, Roberts CT Jr, LeRoith D, et al. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonists interfere with autocrine and paracrine growth stimulation of MCF-7 mammary cancer cells by insulin-like growth factors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1993; 77: 963-8.
(41.) Pollak MN, Schally AV. Mechanisms of antineoplastic action of somatostatin analogues. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1998; 217 : 143-52.
(42.) Szereday Z, Schally AV, Varga JL, Kanashiro CA, Herbert F, Armatis P, et al. Antagonists of growth hormone releasing hormone inhibit the proliferation of experimental non-small cell lung carcinoma. Cancer Res 2003; 63 : 7913-9.
(43.) Kopchick JJ, Parkinson C, Stevens EC, Trainer PJ. Growth hormone receptor antagonists: discovery, development, and use in patients with acromegaly. Endocr Rev 2002; 23 : 623-46.
(44.) Csernus V J, Schally AV, Kiaris H, Armatis P. Inhibition of growth, production of insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II), and expression of IGF-II mRNA of human cancer cell lines by antagonistic analogs of growth hormone-releasing hormone in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1999; 96 : 3098-103.
(45.) Pollak M, Richard M. Suramin blockade of insulin like growth factor I-stimulated proliferation of human osteosarcoma cells. J Natl Cancer Inst 1990; 82 : 1349-52.
(46.) Kaleko M, Rutter WJ, Miller AD. Overexpression of the human insulin like growth factor I receptor promotes ligand-dependent neoplastic transformation. Mol Cell Biol 1990; 10 : 464-73.
(47.) Lahm H, Amstad P, Wyniger J, Yilmaz A, Fischer JR, Schreyer M, et al. Blockade of the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor inhibits growth of human colorectal cancer cells: evidence of a functional IGF-II-mediated autocrine loop. Int J Cancer 1994; 58 : 452-9.
(48.) Macaulay VM, Everard MJ, Teale JD, Trott PA, Van Wyk JJ, Smith IE, et al. Autocrine function for insulin-like growth factor I in human small cell lung cancer cell lines and fresh tumors. Cancer Res 1990; 50 : 2511-7.
(49.) Arteaga CL. Interference of the IGF system as a strategy to inhibit breast cancer growth. Breast Cancer Res Treat 1992; 22 : 101-6.
(50.) Brunetti CR, Burke RL, Kornfeld S, Gregory W, Masiarz FR, Dingwell KS, et al. Herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D acquires mannose 6-phosphate residues and binds to mannose 6- phosphate receptors. J Biol Chem 1994; 269 17067-74.
Reprint requests: Prof. dr. sc. Jasminka Pavelic, Rudjer Bogkovic Institute, Division of Molecular Medicine Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Bijenicka 54, 10002 Zagreb, Croatia e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Jasminka Pavelic, Tanja Matijevic & Jelena Knezevic
Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Division of Molecular Medicine, Bijenicka 54, 10002 Zagreb, Croatia
Table. Some structural and functional properties of insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGF-BP 1-6) IGF-BP-1 IGF-BP-2 IGF-BP-3 Gene location 7p14-p12 2q33-q34 7p14-p12 (chromosome) (a) Amino acids 234 289 264 Cysteine rich + + + N-region Cysteine rich + + + C-region Central L + + + domain Glycosilation - - N-linked Phosphorylation + - + Proteolysis + serine PAPP-A (e), (protease) protease (d) MMPs (f), PSA (g), cathepsin-D Synthesized by liver, maternal hepatocytes, liver, specific placenta epithelial subset of cells mesenchimal cells Expressed in amniotic fluid serum serum Binding to cell surface cell surface cell surface (RGD) (h) (RGD) (h), proteins ECM (i) (receptors?) ECM Proposed action inhibit, inhibit, inhibit, potentiate potentiate potentiate, IGF independent Affinity for IGF-1- IGF-1 (lower) IGF-1 phosphorylation IGF-2 (higher) (very high) dependent IGF-BP-4 IGF-BP-5 IGF-BP-6 Gene location 17g12-q21 2q33-q36 12b (chromosome) (a) Amino acids 237 252 216 Cysteine rich + + + N-region Cysteine rich + + + C-region Central L + + + domain Glycosilation N-linked O-linked O-linked nonglycosilated Phosphorylation - + ND (c) Proteolysis calcium serine trypsin (protease) dependent protease (d) chymotrypsin serine protease MMPs Synthesized by mesenchimal/ mesenchimal developmentaly epithelial cells regulated cells connective tissue Expressed in all biological serum physiological fluids fluids Binding to soluble cell surface, limited cell extracellular ECM surface form Proposed action inhibit inhibit inhibit IGF potentiate, independent (?) IGF independent Affinity for IGF-1 and -2 IGF-1 IGF-2 with similar (very high) (very high) affinities (a) all genes are structurally similar; possess 4 conserved exons; (b) exact position not known; (c) not determined; (d) ND, exact identity not established; (e) PAPP-A, pregnancy associated plasma protein (cation dependent serine protease); (f) MMPs, matrix metalloproteases 1 and 2; (g) PSA, prostate specific antigen; (h) RGD motif, Arg-Gly-Asp--integrin-binding motif; (i) ECM, extracellular matrix
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Author:||Pavelic, Jasminka; Matijevic, Tanja; Knezevic, Jelena|
|Publication:||Indian Journal of Medical Research|
|Date:||Apr 1, 2007|
|Previous Article:||Genistein administration & climacteric symptoms: from plasma levels to biological activity.|
|Next Article:||Recurrent annual outbreaks of a hepato-myo-encephalopathy syndrome in children in western Uttar Pradesh, India.|