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Biogeographical Review of Asteraceae in the Espinhaco Mountain Range, Brazil.

Introduction

The Espinhaco complex is a range of mountains running through the states of Bahia and Minas Gerais in the eastern region of Brazil. The range is located within the limits of the Cerrado, Atlantic Forest and Caatinga domains and is extremely rich in plant species, many of which are endemic. It is also notable for its complex geology and zoological diversity (Gontijo, 2008; Rapini et al., 2008; Alves & Kolbek, 2010). Due to its large expanse, the Espinhaco Range is directly influenced by these immediately adjacent phytogeographical domains (Harley, 1995), which generate important biogeographic distribution patterns within these mountains (Giulietti & Pirani, 1988; Fiaschi & Pirani, 2009).

The vegetation of campos rupestres (rocky fields) is well known for its significant floristic diversity and for harboring a high number of endemic species throughout its distribution (Alves & Kolbek, 2010; Giulietti & Pirani, 1988; Pirani et al., 2003; Zappi et al., 2003). Campos rupestres normally occur at elevations above 900 m in Brazil (Giulietti & Pirani, 1988), and 90% of the records of that vegetation type are concentrated in the Espinhaijo Range (Alves & Kolbek, 2010). Although the campos rupestres vegetation is very limited in geographical extension, occupying a mere 0.78% of the Brazilian territory, it harbors 14.7% of all Brazilian plant species (Brazil Flora Group, 2015; Silveira et al., 2016). This is probably because the campos rupestres represent a relictual area for ancient strains as well as a nursery for the diversification of new groups (Bitencourt & Rapini, 2013).

The high biodiversity documented in the campos rupestres ecosystems has also been attributed to the high macro-environmental (elevation, geology, topography and latitude) and micro-environmental (edaphic and microclimatic) heterogeneity found in the places where they occur (Giulietti et al., 1987; Harley, 1995; Rapini et al., 2008; Zappi et al., 2017). However, recent studies have classified areas of campos rupestres as OCBIL-Old Climatically-Buffered Infertile Landscapes (Oliveira et al., 2015; Silveira et al., 2016), whose high botanical diversity is ascribed mainly to the disjunction of populations, climatic stability and the presence of infertile soils (Hopper, 2009).

Many species found in campos rupestres have restricted distributions or are microendemics (Giulietti et al., 1987; Harley, 1995; Conceicao & Pirani, 2005; Bitencourt & Rapini, 2013; Roque et al., 2017), resulting in low floristic similarity among different campos rupestres, even those that are spatially close to one another (Concei<;ao & Pirani, 2005; Alves & Kolbek, 2010; Borges et al., 2011; Bunger, 2011). This raises questions about which level of influence do the phytogeographical domains surrounding the campos rupestres have on its flora, and how environmental heterogeneity shape the floristic diversity of the campos rupestres of the Espinhaco Range. Furthermore, do these factors contribute to the heterogeneous distribution of the plant taxa?

The family Asteraceae is highly diversified in the campos rupestres of the Espinha?o Range, and it consistently reported among the richest families in floristic inventories undertaken therein (Giulietti et al., 1987; Stannard, 1995; Pirani et al., 2003; Zappi et al., 2003; Silveira et al., 2016; Campos et al., 2017). We document here Asteraceae species recorded to the campos rupestres of the Espinha90 Range, providing a check list of species, and also evaluate biogeographical patterns of plant distribution in the campos rupestres. Using these data, we aim to answer the following questions: [1] Is it possible to recognize distribution patterns for Asteraceae species of campos rupestres vegetation in the Espinha<;o Range? [2] Do surrounding phytogeographical domains influence the flora of Asteraceae in campos rupestres in different sectors of the Espinhaijo Range? and [3] Does environmental heterogeneity influence the distribution of these taxa?

Materials and Methods

Espinhaco Range: A Geologic Unit

The Espinhaco Range extends for approximately 1200 km from the Serra de Jacobina (Bahia State) in the north, to the Serra do Ouro Branco (Minas Gerais State) in the south. The range is 50 to 100 km wide (Giulietti et al., 1987), with elevations varying between 800 and 2033 m (Alkmim, 2012; Guimaraes et al., 2012).

According to Daderfer and Dardenne (2002), the Espinhac0 Range can be divided into two disjunct physiographic blocks: the northern physiographic block, known as Chapada Diamantina, located in central-northern Bahia State; and the southern block, known as Serra do Espinhaco, composed of mountains located in southwestern Bahia and Minas Gerais. As stated by Guimaraes et al. (2012), a large lowland area, known as the Paramirim Corridor, marks the division between these two physiographic blocks. Additionally, Saadi (1995) subdivided the Serra do Espinhaco into two welldifferentiated highland portions, called Espinhaco Septentrional (the mountains of southwestern Bahia and northern Minas Gerais) and Espinhaco Meridional (extending south from the mountains of central-southern Minas-Gerais to the "Iron Quadrangle"), as already discussed by Augustin et al. (2011) and Echternacht et al. (2011). According to Saadi (1995) these two portions are separated by the Jequitinhonha and Araguai river basins (Fig. 1).

The Striking Vegetation of Campos Rupestres

The vegetation of campos rupestres occurs on rocky substrates located in highlands of Brazil and it mostly occurs on quartzite-sandstone substrates and sandy soils that are thin, nutrient poor and infertile, with high acidity and high concentrations of aluminum. However, there are also campos rupestres on limestone and canga (iron-ore) such as in the Iron Quadrangle in Minas Gerais (Benites et al., 2007; Oliveira et al., 2015; Schaefer et al., 2016; Zappi et al., 2017). The campos rupestres vegetation is encountered in disjunct areas of the Espinhaco Range because it occurs only at high elevations (above 900 m) that are frequently separated by areas of lower elevation (Giulietti & Pirani, 1988; Alves & Kolbek, 2010). This vegetation also occurs on other geologic formations (Schaefer et al., 2016), such as Serra de Sao Joao Del Rey, Serra da Canastra, Serra de Ibitipoca (Minas Gerais State), Serra dos Cristais, Serra dos Pirineus, Chapada dos Veadeiros (Goias State), Amazonian Carajas (mountaintops with canga deposits; Viana et al. 2016) and on Tepuis (in northern South America) (Rapini et al., 2008; Schaefer et al, 2016). The vegetation of campos rupestres is characterized by the dominance of herbs and shrubs growing among rock outcrops, resulting in a landscape of fields, numerous rocks, and small islands of vegetation (Giulietti & Pirani, 1988; Conceicao & Pirani, 2005) (Fig. la-c).

Database of the Species of Asteraceae in the Espinhaco Range

To determine the distribution of Asteraceae taxa (tribes, genera, and species) in the Espinhaco Range (composed of the Espinhaco Meridional, Espinhaco Septentrional and Chapada Diamantina), we constructed a database showing the occurrence of species belonging to this family in the campos rupestres vegetation. Infraspfic classification was not added to the dataset. Plant records were retrieved from the SpeciesLink database and Brazilian virtual herbaria of the Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden database (JBRJ). We added records collected until the year 2017. We also added to our database species and extra information from taxonomic revisions (e.g., Roque et al., 2012; Roque & Pirani, 2014), floristic surveys in the Espinhaco Range focusing on Asteraceae (e.g., Hind & Miranda, 2008; Moura & Roque, 2014; Alves et al., 2015; Roque et al., 2016), and descriptions of new species in campos rupestres of the Espinhaco Range (e.g., Pruski & Hind, 1998; Demmateis, 2006; Deble, 2007; Bautista & Hind, 2000; Loeuille et al., 2012; Loeuille & Roque, 2017; Roque et al., 2017). Records without collection numbers or geographic coordinates or municipality of occurrence were excluded, as were specimens that were not identified by recognized experts in Asteraceae. The classification of Asteraceae followed Funk et al. (2009) and the scientific names were checked and updated based mainly on 'Flora do Brasil 2020 under construction' (Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro, 2018).

Distribution of Taxa within the Espinhaco Range: Internal Pattern of the Study Area

The Espinhaco Range and its physiographic blocks (Chapada Diamantina, Espinhaco Septentrional and Espinhaco Meridional) were delimited using digital cartographic charts of the CPRM Brazilian Geological Survey (CPRM, 2010) and information about brazilian relief (IBGE, 2018). Following this classification, the Espinhaco Range contains 184 municipalities in Bahia and Minas Gerais States (ESM 1). We then divided the Espinhaco Range into a grid of 0.5[degrees] x 0.5[degrees] Having all records plotted on a GIS, we overlapped the 0.5 x 0.5[degrees] grid with the specimen locations and we constructed a matrix of species presence/absence showing the occurrence of each species by each square of the grid. An UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic mean) group analysis using Bray-Curtis distances was applied to compare floristic affinities between each pair of sites. To perform the UPGMA, species reported for a single site (singletons) and grid squares with less than 10 records were excluded. We applied an ANOSIM test to evaluate the significance of the groups generated.

Influence of the Surrounding Phytogeographical Domains in the Campos Rupestres Flora: External Pattern of the Study Area

The Flora do Brasil 2020 database (under construction; Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro, 2018) was consulted to determine in which vegetation types each Asteraceae species recorded in our dataset occur. Genera and species were considered endemic to campos rupestres if they were recorded in the Flora do Brasil database and literature as occurring exclusively in campos rupestres of the Espinhaco Range. Species distributed within Cerrado s.l. were pointed out as occurring in savanna phytophysiognomies (Eiten, 1972; Coutinho, 1978). Species from Caatinga s.s. were considered those occurring in deciduous, spiny, woody vegetation concentrated mainly in the interior of northeastern Brazil (IBGE, 2012). Campos de altitude correspond to shrub vegetation growing between exposures of igneous or metamorphic rocks (e.g., granite or gneiss) that predominate in the highest elevations of the Atlantic Forest, such as in the Serra do Mar and Mantiqueira mountains (Vasconcelos, 2011). Campos sulinos correspond to the grasslands of southern Brazil (Rizzini, 1997) that occur at high elevations in the Pampas. Restingas are habitats on sandy coastal areas of relatively recent geological origin that occur along the Brazilian coast (IBGE, 2012). Carrasco is a woody dry scrub habitat that occurs on sandy terrains of the Brazilian semiarid region and comprises shrubby xerophilous vegetation with abundant creepers and a discontinuous canopy with sparse emergent trees. Campinarana is exclusive to the Amazon domain and occupies sandy terrain and mainland areas (Brazilian Flora Group, 2015). Forests were distinguished based on their proximity to watercourses (Gallery forest), being evergreen (Ombrophilous forest) or showing some degree of deciduousness.

The next step was to construct a spreadsheet of taxa with presence/absence by phytophysiognomy. We included only the species native to Brazil. These data were examined using the NMDS (Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling) and the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index.

Influence of Environmental Heterogeneity on the Distribution of the Taxa

To evaluate how environmental variables shape the distribution of Asteraceae assemblages we applied a biogeographical analysis to our dataset. It was analyzed using 31 climatic and soil environmental variables (Hijmans et al., 2005; ISRIC, 2016) available as raster files. We uploaded the variables on our GIS and extracted each value by calculating the median values within each square (30" spatial resolution, about 1 km) (ESM 2). Since the variables have different units and scales, the values of all the variables were standardized (Legendre & Gallagher, 2001). In order to evaluate the influence of the selected variables on species composition, it was performed a selection of the environmental variables with greater explanatory power for floristic diversity through forward selection fuction. We then split the selected variables into climatic and pedogeomorphological variables and performed a partial redundancy analysis (RDA) followed by permutation with 999 randomizations for the significance test. In order to reduce the effects of random correlations between the explanatory variables, [R.sup.2] adjusted ([R.sup.2]adj) was calculated (Borcard et al., 2011), while a variance partitioning procedure was used to determine the percentage of total floristic variance among the areas assigned to the selected climatic and pedogeomorphological variables.

All procedures that involved geoprocessing and construction of maps were done in Qgis 2.18 and ArcGIS 10 software. The multivariate analyses and model selection were done in R version 3.3.2 software.

Results

Check List of Asteraceae Species in the Espinhaco Range

The database of Asteraceae from the campos rupestres of the Espinhaco Range contained 2420 validated records distributed among 19 tribes, 106 genera and 535 species. Of this total, 528 species were native and seven exotic. Our check list recorded 430 species endemic to Brazil and 178 endemic to the campos rupestres vegetation of the Espinhaco Range (Table 1). Eupatorieae, Vernonieae, Heliantheae, and Astereae were the richest tribes in terms of genera and species (Fig. 2a). Mikania (43 spp.), Baccharis (38 spp.), Lessingianthus (36 spp.), and Lychnophora (31 spp.) were the most diverse genera (Fig. 2b).

Sixteen endemic genera were identified for the campos rupestres of the Espinhaco Range. Of these, nine (Arrojadocharis, Bishopiella, Catolesia, Lapidia, Lasiolaena, Scherya, Stylotrichium, Semiria and Pseudostifftia) were restricted to campos rupestres of Chapada Diamantina (Bahia); Agrianthus occured in two blocks (Chapada Diamantina with seven species and Espinhaco Septentrional with two); Proteopis and Piptolepsis were endemic to Serra do Espinhaco (Septentrional and Meridional), while Lychnophoriopsis, Minasia, Prestelia and Vinicia were restricted to the Espinhaco Meridional (Table 2).

Although Heterocoma was endemic to campos rupestres, the genus is not restricted to the Lspinhago Range, since the distribution of H. ekmaniana extends to the Chapada dos Veadeiros highlands in Goias State. Though Maschalostachys and Moquinia were exclusive to the Espinha?o Range, they can occur in other phytophysiognomies; Maschalostachys has been recorded in caatinga rupestre (rocky caatinga) (Loeuille & Roque, 2017) and Moquinia in Cerrado vegetation (Flora do Brasil 2020, under construction).

Distribution of Taxa within the Espinhaco Range

The richest sector of the Espinhafo Range, in terms of species diversity and number of endemic species of Asteraceae, is the Espinhaco Meridional, followed by Chapada Diamantina (Fig. 3). The UPGMA analysis included 895 records of 263 species within 21 grid squares (ESM 3) and produced statistically significant clusters (ANOSIM with R= 0.6408 and p = 0.001) with two major groups. One of these groups represents grid squares in Bahia State (Cluster B), grouping Chapada Diamantina and the northern part of the Espinhaco Septentrional. The second group (Cluster M) represents grid squares in Minas Gerais State, grouping the Espinhaco Meridional and the southern part of the Espinhaco Septentrional (Fig. 4).

Two groups were recognized within Cluster B: Group 1 for the central region of Chapada Diamantina; and Group 2 for southernmost Chapada Diamantina and the Espinha?o Septentrional. Four groups are recognized within Cluster M: Group 3 for the Espinhaco Septentrional in Minas Gerais; Group 4 for the Iron Quadrangle; Group 5 for the Diamantina Plateau and Serra do Cabral; and Group 6 for Serra do Cipo and southernmost Espinhatpo Meridional (Fig. 4).

Connections between Campos Rupestres of the Espinhaco Range and Other Phytophysiognomies

Among Brazilian phytophysiognomies, areas of eerrado s.l. share the largest number of species (251) with campos rupestres of the Espinhaco Range, followed by other disjunct areas of campos rupestres (140) occurring outside of the Espinhaco Range (Fig. 5a; ESM 4). The NMDS analysis (stress: 0.08295206) corroborated this result, since these three phytophysiognomies overlapped (Fig. 5b).

As a result, three main distribution patterns were detected: Northern Patternspecies occurring in campos rupestres of Chapada Diamantina and northern Espinhaco Septentrional in Bahia are also distributed in caatinga s.s. and eerrado s.l. of these areas and in disjunct campos rupestres in Bahia (such as in the mountains of the municipality of Macaubas) (e.g. Wunderlichia crulsiana, Stilpnopappus trichospiroides, Lessingianthus morii, Chresta pacoiirinoides): Central Pattern- species recorded in the Espinhaco Meridional are expanded to eerrado s.l. and disjunct campos rupestres of central Brazil (e.g. Chapada dos Veadeiros, Goias) (e.g. Praxelis capillaris, Lessingianthus wanningianus, Calea ferruginea)\ Southern Pattern- species occurring in the campos rupestres of Espinhaco Meridional that are also found in disjunct campos rupestres of southern Minas Gerais (e.g. Serra da Canastra), and campos de altitude of Serra da Mantiqueira (e.g. Senecio colpodes, Koanophyllon thysanolepis, Chromolaena pedalis) (Fig. 6).

Influence of Environmental Heterogeneity

Five environmental variables were identified as being related to the different compositions of species in the grid squares: 1) precipitation in the wettest month, 2) organic carbon stock in the soil, 3) average temperature in the coldest quarter, 4) precipitation in the driest month, and 5) annual precipitation. However, the variable 'organic carbon stock in the soil' was excluded from the analysis because it had a FIV value > 10, as suggested by Borcard et al. (2011). The RDA analysis with the four remaining variables explained 14.41% (31.53% unadjusted) of the variation in the composition of the grid squares of the study area (F = 1.8423, p = 0.001) (Table 3).

The first axis of the RDA (RDA 1) explained 42.92% of the variation in the data and was strongly correlated with the variable 'precipitation in the wettest month' (Fig. 7) (canonical coefficient = 0.2510). The second axis (RDA 2) explained 22.56% and was positively correlated with 'annual precipitation' (canonical coefficient = 0.1576) and negatively correlated with 'average temperature in the coldest quarter' (canonical coefficient = -0.1578) and 'precipitation in the driest month' (Table 3). RDA 1 separates the campos rupestres of Bahia from those of Minas Gerais, while RDA 2 differentiates the campos rupestres within these groups (Fig. 7). Partitioning the data revealed that the fractions of exclusive explanation of the climatic and pedogeomorphologic variables were 8.36% and 1.14%, respectively (Table 4); while the explanation of the two sets of variables together was 8% (Fig. 8).

Discussion

According to Flora do Brasil 2020 database (www.floradobrasil.jbij.gov.br, under construction), a total of 4928 vascular plant species occur in campos rupestres of the Espinhaco Range, of which 10.7% percent are members of the Asteraceae. The ranking of tribes according to species diversity--Eupatorieae followed by Vernonieae--was similar to those Asteraceae surveys undertaken in different areas of the Espinhaco Range (Stannard, 1995; Moura & Roque, 2014; Reis et al., 2015; Roque et al, 2016). These two tribes possess distinct evolutionary histories, with Eupatorieae belonging to a clade with high levels of diversity and low extinction rates (Panero & Croizat, 2016), while Vernonieae, is of African origin and highly diversified in Brazil (Keeley et al., 2007).

The genus Lychnophora (Vernonieae) comprises the greatest number of endemic species of campos nipestres of the Espinhaco Range (28 spp.). This genus is polyphyletic and is mainly divided into three lineages, one of which is restricted to the campos rupestres of Chapada Diamantina (Loeuille et al., 2015). Although Mikania and Baccharis are ranked as two of the 30 most diverse genera in Brazil (Brazilian Flora Group, 2015), they are represented in the study area by only a few endemic species (8 spp. and 9 spp., respectively). On the other hand, Baccharis had the greatest number of species (6 spp.) encountered in more than one physiographic block of the Espinhaco Range (Table 2).

Regarding the 17 endemic genera, ten are included in the tribe Eupatorieae. Molecular phylogenetic studies of Brazilian Eupatorieae recognized six of those endemic genera (Arrojadocharis, Agrianthus, Bishopiella, Lasiolaena, Stylotrichium, and Semiria) as belonging to a monophyletic clade (Rivera et al., 2016). According to these authors, the diversification of these genera must have occurred locally in small sites in campos rupestres of Chapada Diamantina, Bahia.

Another six endemic genera are nested in the subtribe Lychnophorinae (Vemonieae), which comprises approximately 100 species and 18 genera distributed mostly in the Cerrado domain of the Brazilian Central Plateau (Loeuille et al., 2015). Of these, Proteopis and Piptolepsis are endemic to the Serra do Espinhaco (Meridional and Septentrional), while Lychnophoriopsis, Minasia, Prestelia and Vinicia are restricted to the Espinhaco Meridional. According to the authors, this subtribe diversified in campos rupestres of the Espinhaco Range from two lineages--one from Serra do Cipo (part of the Espinhaco Meridional in Minas Gerais), and the other from the Espinhaco Septentrional (also in Minas Gerais).

Chapada Diamantina and the Espinhaco Meridional have the greatest number of native and endemic species (Fig. 3), corroborating previous workers who classified these two regions as important centers of endemism in the Espinhaco Range, with a special focus on the Serra do Cipo and the Diamantina Plateau (both located in the Espinhaco Meridional) (Echternacht et al., 2011; Ribeiro et al., 2012; Bitencourt & Rapini, 2013). However, these results may be biased since a high number of the studies and surveys undertaken in the Espinhaco Range are concentrated in these two areas (Echternacht et al., 2011; Bitencourt & Rapini, 2013).

Twenty-one grid squares were identified as the best collected areas of the Espinhaco Range (ESM 3). The UPGMA analysis identified two floristic groups: one totally included in the Caatinga domain (Group B), and another exclusive to the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest domains (Group M). Serra do Sincora (municipalities of Palmeiras, Lenpois, Mucuge and Andarai) and Serra das Almas (municipalities of Rio de Contas and Abaira) (Group 1), both belong to Group B (Bahia State), and compose a floristic unit that is the most similar areas in the Espinhaco Range. The Diamantina Plateau (Group 6) also emerged as a floristic unit, while Serra do Cipo, considered a center of endemism (Echternacht et al., 2011; Bitencourt & Rapini, 2013), presented a mixed flora encompassing the southern end of the Espinhaco Meridional (Group 7) (Minas Gerais State). The grid squares under the Iron Quadrangle (Group 5), which involves campos rupestres on canga deposits, appeared linked, but not related to campos rupestres on quartzite, reinforcing their previously described floristic differences (Carmo & Jacobi, 2015; Carmo et al., 2016) (Fig. 4).

Regarding Asteraceae, the grid squares located in the Espinhaco Septentrional (48ES, 53ES and 55ES) were not identified as a floristic unit since they did not form a group (Fig. 4), probably because of the 57 species disjunct between the Chapada Diamantina (CD) and the Espinhaco Meridional (EM), without any record in this intermediary block (ES). Although few floristic studies have been carried out in the Espinhaco Septentrional, there is a survey in Grao Mogol (Minas Gerais portion, 53ES, 55ES) in which campos rupestres vegetation was considered dominant (Pirani et al., 2003). However, studies undertaken by Campos et al. (2017) in Licinio de Almeida (Bahia portion, 48 ES) registered a major occurrence of cerrado s.l. and caatinga rupestre vegetation instead of campos rupestres. These observations can be explained by the lower elevations (700-1000 m) of the Espinhaco Septentrional block (Guimaraes et al., 2012) limiting the presence of campos rupestres vegetation and, consequently, few records of endemism. As already mentioned, the Espinhaco Septentrional is the least collected block in the Espinhaco Range and so there are limited data available for a more detailed comparison.

The distribution of Asteraceae in the Espinhaco Range reveals that taxa are distributed in a heterogeneous way, suggesting that each physiographic block has a different evolutionary history, although these results are still biased due to collection gaps in the studied area. Main knowledge gaps to be addressed by future floristic efforts in the Espinhaco Range include the North and Northwest portions of the Chapada Diamantina, in the Irece region, (municipalities of XiqueXique, Gentio do Ouro, Barra do Mendes, Ibipeba, Mulungu do Morro and Uibai), Piemonte de Diamantina (municipalities of Jacobina, Umburanas, Mirangaba and Varzea Nova), and practically the entire Espinhaco Septentrional.

In addition to the distribution pattern within the Asteraceae, the results revealed that the campos rupestres are under strong floristic influences by cerrado s.l. and disjoint campos rupestres (Fig. 5a). Evidence suggesting the strong link between these phytophysiognomies is that campos rupestres vegetation pre-dates the expansion of the Cerrado domain (Antonelli et al, 2010; Loeuille et al., 2015), considering that elevated lands (campos mpestres) within the Cerrado served as refuges for fire-sensitive lineages (Ribeiro et al., 2012); however, future studies are needed to test this hypothesis.

So, answering the first two questions posed at the beginning and related to the distribution of Asteraceae species in the campos rupestres of Espinhaco Range and the phytogeographical domains influence in this flora, we have identified three main distribution patterns of Asteraceae: Caatinga (irregular and scarce rains) (North Pattern), Cerrado domain (Central Pattern) and Cerrado/Atlantic Forest transition (more humid) (South Pattern) with many species recorded in altitude fields (campos de altitude, exclusive vegetation of the Atlantic Forest) (Fig. 6). These results corroborate Neves et al. (2017), who found that angiosperms from campos rupestres are floristically more similar to neighboring areas than to other discontinuous campos rupestres in South America.

Several factors may be influencing this distribution, such as evolutionary history, as already elucidated for certain groups (Loeuille et al., 2015; Roque et al., 2017); and geographical barriers, such as the Paramirim Corridor (Guimaraes et al., 2012) and the Araguai and Jequitinhonha river basins (Saadi, 1995); as well as the geomorphological and environmental features of the region (Chaves, 2015).

As supposed in the third question, if the environmental heterogeneity influences the distribution of Asteraceae taxa, the analysis of environmental factors indicate that climate is the main determinant of the distribution of these species, considering that the Espinhaco Range is encompasses several latitudes, which favors high climatic diversity throughout its extension (Silveira et al., 2015). However, other factors besides climate must influence the distribution of Asteraceae since the explanatory power of the RDA model proposed here was low (14.41%), but similar to the 15.8% found by Neves et al. (2017). Moreover, studies carried out on more detailed scales revealed that edaphic differences have more influence on the distribution of species of campos rupestres (Reis et al., 2015; Conceigao et al., 2016; Neves et al., 2016). So, although broadscale works have provided a global view of patterns and processes, there is a loss of the detailed information needed to make conclusions (Diniz-Filho et al., 2006).

Thus, we found that Asteraceae species of campos rupestres of the Espinhaco Range are distributed in a heterogeneous way and that climate, although not related to the diversification of this Brazilian OCBIL, influences the distribution of these taxa. Taking this into account it is necessary to consider the potential climate changes envisaged for the coming decades. It has been estimated that campos rupestres will be drastically reduced by 2080, with a decrease of up to 56% of its current area, such that they will be restricted to the Espinhaco Meridional and almost disappear from Chapada Diamantina (Bitencourt et al., 2016). This is an alarming fact for the maintenance and conservation of this vegetation over the long term, especially when one considers that campos rupestres shelter about 14% of all the country's floristic diversity (Silveira et al., 2016). In addition, although campos rupestres are distributed in a disjointed manner, threats are common to entire mountains, such as broadscale agriculture, criminal fires, and intense mining activities (Monteiro et al., 2018).

Finally, we emphasize the importance of adopting the division of the physiographic blocks, or other natural divisions of the Espinhaco Range (e.g. Bitencourt & Rapini, 2013; Campos et al., 2017; Monteiro et al., 2018), during any biological study carried out in the area. It should also be stressed that inventories of floras and local floristic diversity are still needed and should be encouraged considering the relevance and knowledge gaps of specific areas and groups.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s12229-019-09216-9

Acknowledgements LC and NR was supported by CAPES Agency and research grant (CNPq 400657/2014-7) respectively. The first author thanks to Dr. Alessandro Rapini and Dr. Benoit Loeuille for reading and suggestions during the defense of her Master's.

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Lidia Campos (1,5) * Marcelo Freire Moro (2) * Vicki A. Funk (3) * Nadia Roque (4)

(1) UEFS. Universidade Estadual dc Feira de Santana, Avonida Transnordestina, s/n--Novo Horizonte, Feira de Santana, Bahia 44036-900, Brazil

(2) Institute dc Ciencias do Mar (Labomar), Universidade Federal do Ceara, Avcnida da Abolicao 3207, Meireles, Fortalcza, Ceara, Brazil

(3) US National Herbarium, Department of Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, USA

(4) Institute de Biologia, Universidadc Federal da Bahia, Rua Barao de Jeremoabo, s.n., Ondina, Salvador, Bahia 40170-115, Brazil

(5) Author for Correspondence; e-mail: lidiaccampos@gmail.com

Published online: 15 November 2019

Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (https://doi.org/10.1007/s12229-01909216-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Caption: Fig. 1 The Espinhaco Range divided into its three physiographic blocks and the phytogeographical domains surrounding it. a Campo rupestre of Chapada Diamantina (Rio dc Contas Municipality), b Campo rupestre of the Espinhaco Septentrional (Licinio dc Almeida Municipality), c Campo rupestre of the Espinhaco Meridional (Ouro Branco Municipality). Photographs: a Roque N.; b-c Campos L photographs' owner

Caption: Fig. 3 a Distribution and concentration of records of species of Asteraceac in the studied area, b Species of Asteraceac recorded for campos rupestres in the physiographic blocks of the Espinhaco Range, Brazil

Caption: Fig. 4 Results of the cluster analysis of Asteraceac of campos rupestres of the Espinhaco Range performed using 0.5[degrees] x 0.5[degrees] squares, the Bray-Cuitis dissimilarity index and UPGMA (ANOS1M with R = 0.6408 and p= 0.001)

Caption: Fig. 6 Main distribution patterns for species of Asteraceae recorded in campos rupestres of the Espinhaco Range, Brazil

Caption: Fig. 7 Axes 1 and 2 of the RDA. a Position of grid squares in the RDA. b Position of spccics in the RDA. C Smaller scale showing the correlations of the axes with the squares, d Smaller scalc of the correlations of the axes with the species

Caption: Fig. 8 Venn diagram showing the fraction of exclusive and shared explanation of the climatic and pedogeomorphological variables related to the composition of Asteraceae in campos rupestres of the Espinhaco Range. Matrix Y = matrix of presence and absence of species by grid: Matrix X '= matrix with the climatic variables selected from forward selection; Matrix W matrix with the pedogeomorphological variables selected from forward selection, [a] fraction of exclusive explanation of climate variables; [c] fraction of exclusive explanation of pedogeomorphological variables; [b] fraction of the explanation shared by climatic and pedogeomorphological variables; [d] fraction not explained
Table 1 Astcraceae of the campos rupestres of the Espinhaco Range.
Identification of the origin, phytophysiognomic of occurrence
(following the Flora do Brasil 2020, site under construction) and
location in the physiographic blocks of the Espinhapo Range AA,
anthropic area; G4, campo de altitude; CAA, caatinga stricto sensu;
CAM, campinarana; CARR, carrasco; CE, ccrrado lato sensu; CR, campo
rupestre; CS, campo sulino; DIS, campo rupestre disjoint; GF, gallery
forest; NJ, no information; OF, ombrophylous forest; RE, restinga; SF,
seasonal forest * Species endemic of the campos rupestres of the
Espinhaco Range are in bold

Species                                 Exotic   Native     Endemic
                                                 of the     of the
                                                 Brazil     Brazil

Acanthospennum australe                          X
  (Loefl.) Kuntze
Acanthospermum hispidum D.C                      X
Achyrocline alata (Kunth) DC.                    X
Achyrocline albicans Griseb.                     X          X
Achyrocline chionaea (DC.) Deble                 X          X
  & Marchiori
Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC.              X
Achyrocline tombadorensis Deble                  X          X
  & Marchiori
Achyrocline vargasiana DC.                       X
Achyrocline vauthieriana DC                      X
Acmella uliginosa (Sw.) Casar.                   X
Acritopappus catolesemis                         X          X
  D.J.N.Hind & Bautista
Acritopappus confertus (Gardner)                 X          X
  R.M. King & H. Rob.
Acritopappus connatifolius                       X          X
  (Soar.Nunes) R.M.King & H.Rob. *#
Acritopappus diamantinicus Bautista,             X          X
  S.Ortiz & Rodr.Oubin *#
Acritopappus heterolepis (Baker)                 X          X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.*#
Acritopappus irwinii                             X          X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.

Species                                 Exotic   Native     Endemic
                                                 of the     of the
                                                 Brazil     Brazil

Acritopappus irwinii R.M.King                    X          X
  & H.Rob.
Acritopappus longifolius (Gardner)               X          X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Acritopappus mori R.M.King &                     X          X
  H.Rob. *#
Acritopappus pintoi Bautista &                   X          X
  DJ.N.Hind
Acritopappus prunifolius R.M.King                X          X
  & H.Rob.
Acritopappus santosii R.M.King                   X          X
   & H.Rob.
Acritopappus subtomentosus                       X          X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Acritopappus teixeirae                           X          X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratum conyzoides L.                           X
Ageratum fastigiatum (Gardner)                   X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratum myriadenium (Sch.Bip. ex                X          X
  Baker) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Agrianthus almasensis DJ.N.Hind *#               X          X
Agrianthus campestris Mart,                      X          X
  ex DC. *#
Agrianthus carvalhoi DJ.N.Hind *#                X          X
Agrianthus empetrifolius Mart,                   X          X
  ex DC. *#
Agrianthus giuliettiae                           X          X
  D.J.N.Hind *#
Agrianthus luetzelburgii Mattf. *#               X          X
Agrianthus microlicioides                        X          X
  Mattf. *#
Agrianthus myrtoides Mattf. *#                   X          X
Agrianthus pungens Mattf. *#                     X          X
Agrianthus pungens Mattf. *#                     X          X
Albertinia brasiliensis Spreng.                  X          X
Aldama bracteata (Gardner)                       X          X
  E.E.Schill. & Panero
Aldama grandijlora (Gardner)                     X          X
  E.E.Schill. & Panero
Aldama laxicvmosa (H.Rob. &                      X          X
  A.J.Moore) E.E.Schil
Aldama oblongifolia (Gardner)                    X          X
  E.E.Schill. & Panero
Aldama robusta (Gardner)                         X          X
  E.E.Schill. & Panero
Ambrosia polystachva DC.                         X          X
Arctium minus (Hill) Bemh.                       X
Arrojadocharis praxeUtides (Mattf.)              X          X
  Mattf. *#
Arrojadocharis santosii R.M.King                 X          X
  & II.Rob. *#
Aspilia almasensis DJ.N.Hind *#                  X          X
Aspilia cordifolia J.U.Santos *#                 X          X
Aspilia cylindracephala H.Rob. *#                X          X
Aspilia diniz-cruzeanae J.U.Santos               X          X

Aspilia eglerii J.U. Santos *#                   X          X
Aspilia Jloribunda (Gardner) Baker               X          X
Aspilia foliosa (Gardner) Baker *#               X          X
Aspilia fruticosa (Gardner) Baker                X          X
Aspilia hispidantha H.Rob.                       X          X
Aspilia jolyana G.M.Barroso                      X          X
Aspilia laevissima (Less, ex                     X          X
  Baker) Baker
Aspilia martii Baker                             X          X
Aspilia monlevidensis                            X
  (Spreng.) Kuntze
Aspilia ovalifolia (DC.) Baker                   X          X
Aspilia riedelii Baker                           X          X
Aspilia squarrosa Baker                          X          X
Aspiiia subalpestris Baker *#                    X          X
Aspilia subpetiolata Baker                       X          X
Austrocritonia angulicaulis                      X          X
  (Sch.Bip. ex Baker)
R.M.King & H.Rob
Austroeupatorium inulaejolium                    X
  (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ayapana amygdalina (Lam.)                        X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Avapanopsis oblongifolia (Lam.)                  X          X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Baccharis alleluia                               X          X
  A.S.OIiveira & Deble *#
Baccharis aphytla (Veil.) DC.                    X
Baccharis brevifolia DC.                         X          X
Baccharis catvescens DC.                         X          X
Baccharis cinerea DC.                            X          X
Baccharis concinna G.M.Barroso                   X          X
Baccharis crispa Spreng.                         X
Baccharis dracunculijolia DC.                    X
Baccharis elliptiea Gardner *#                   X          X
Baccharis genistelloides                         X
  (Lam). Pers.
Baccharis helichrysoides DC.                     X          X
Baccharis intermixta Gardner                     X          X
Baccharis italiaiae Wawra                        X          X
Baccharis ligustrina DC.                         X          X
Baccharis linearifolia (Lam.) Pers.              X
Baccharis lychnophora Gardner                    X          X
Baccharis minutiflora Mart,                      X          X
  ex Baker *#
Baccharis myricifolia DC.                        X          X
Baccharis ohdeltata G. lit id en *#              X          X
Baccharis oblongifolia (Ruiz                     X
  & Pav.) Pers.
Baccharis orhiculata Deble &                     X          X
  A.S. Oliveira *#
Baccharis orbignvana Klatt                       X
Baccharis perlata Sch.Bip.                       X          X
  ex Baker *#
Baccharis pingraea DC.                           X          X
Baccharis platypoda DC.                          X
Baccharis polyphylla Gardner *#                  X          X
Baccharis pseudomyriocephala                     X          X
  Malag.
Baccharis reticularia DC.                        X          X
Baccharis retusa DC.                             X
Baccharis rujidula (Spreng)                      X          X
  Joch. Mull.
Baccharis sagittalis (Less.) DC.                 X

Baccharis sessiliflora Vahl                      X
Baccharis simplex G. Heiden *#                   X          X
Baccharis singularis (Veil.)                     X
  G.M. Barroso
Baccharis subdentala DC.                         X
Baccharis trinervis Pers.                        X
Baccharis Iruncata Gardner                       X          X

Baccharis xiphophyUa Baker *#                    X          X
Bahianthus viscosus (Spreng.)                    X          X
  R.M. King & H. Rob.
Barmsoa organensis (Gardner)                     X          X
  R.M. King & H. Rob.
Biderts cynapiifolia Kunth                       X
Bidens flagellars Baker                          X          X
Bidens pilosa L.                                 X
Bidens mhifolia Kunth                            X
Bidens segetum Mart, ex Colla                    X
Bishopiella elegans R.M.                         X          X
  King & H. Rob.*
Calea brittoniana Pruski *#                      X          X
Calea candolleana (Gardner) Baker                X          X
Calea ferruginea Sch. Bip.                       X
  ex Baker
Calea fruticosa (Gardner)                        X          X
  Urbatsch Zlotsky &
Calea graminifolia Sch. Bip.                     X          X
  ex Krasch.
Calea grazielae J.LI. Santos *#                  X          X
Calea harleyi H. Rob.                            X          X
Calea hatschbachii Pruski &                      X          X
  D.J.N.Hind
Calea heteropappa Pruski &                       X          X
 Urbatsch *#
Calea hymenolepis Baker                          X          X
Calea monocephala Dusen                          X
Calea morii H.Rob.                               X          X
Calea nitida Less.                               X          X
Calea parvifolia (DC.) Baker                     X
Calea pilosa Baker                               X
Calea reticulata Gardner                         X
Calea rotundifolia (Less.) Baker                 X          X
Calea semirii Pruski & Hind *#                   X          X
Calea senecioides Baker                          X          X

Calea tomentosa Gardner                          X
Calea triantha (Veil.) Pruski                    X
Calea tridactylita Sch.Bip. ex                   X          X
  Kraseh. *#
Calea villosa Sch.Bip. ex Baker                  X          X
Campuloclinium hatschbachii                      X          X
  H.Rob. *#
Campuloclinium irwinii                           X          X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Catolesia huperzioides Roque,                    X          X
  H. Robinson & A.A. Conceicao *#
Catolesia mentiens DJ.N.Hind *#                  X          X
Centratherum punctatum Cass.                     X
Chaptalia araneosa Casar. *#                     X          X
Chaptalia vhapadensis D-J.N.Hind *#              X          X
Chaptalia cipoensis Roque *#                     X          X
Chaptalia cordifolia (Baker)                     X          X
  Cabrera
Chaptalia denticulata (Baker)                    X          X
  Zardini
Chaptalia integerrima (Veil.)                    X
  Burkart
Chaptalia martii (Baker)                         X          X
  Zardini *#
Chaptalia nutans (L.) Pol.                       X
Chionolaena arbuscula DC.                        X          X
Chionolaena jeffreyi II.Rob. *#                  X          X
Chresta harleyi H. Rob.                          X          X
Chresta pacourinoides (Mart,                     X          X
  ex DC.) niscalchi & L
Chresta plantaginifolia                          X          X
  (Less.) Gardner
Chresta pycnocephala DC.                         X          X
Chresta sphaerocephala DC.                       X          X
Chromolaena adenolepis DC.                       X          X
Chromolaena alvimii R.M.King                     X          X
  & H.Rob. *#
Chromolaena ascendens (Sch.Bip.                  X          X
  ex Baker)
R.M.King & H.Rob.
ChromolaeTia barbacensis (Hieron.)               X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Chromolaena barrosoae R.M.King                   X          X
  & H.Rob. *#
Chromolaena chaseae (B.L.Rob.)                   X          X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Chromolaena cinereoviridis (Sch.Bip.             X          X
  ex Baker) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Chromolaena cryptantha (Sch.Bip.                 X          X
  ex Baker) R.M.King &
Chromolaena cylindrocephala                      X          X
  (Sch.Bip. ex Baker)
R.M.King & H.Rob.
Chromolaena decumbens Gardner                    X          X
Chromolaena horminoides DC.                      X          X
Chromolaena laevigata (Lam.)                     X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Chromolaena morii R.M.King &                     X          X
  H.Rob. *#
Chromolaena multijlosculosa (DC.)                X          X
  R.M. King & H. Rob.
Chromolaena myriocephala (Gardner)               X          X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Chromolaena pedalii (Sch.Bip. ex                 X          X
  Baker) R.M.King & .Rob.
Chromolaena pedunculosa (Hook.                   X
  & Am.) R.M.King & H.Rob
Chromolaena pungens (Gardner)                    X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Chromolaena sagittifera (B.L.Rob.)               X          X
  R.M.King & H.Rob. *#
Chromolaena squalida (DC.)                       X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Chromolaena stachyophylla (Spreng.)              X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Chrvsolaena desertorum (Mart,                    X
  ex DC.) Dematt.
Chrysolaena obovata (Less.) Dematt.              X
Chrvsolaena simplex (Less.) Dematt.              X
Conocliniopsis prasiifolia (DC.)                 X          X
   R.M.King & H.Rob.
Convza primulifolia (Lam.)                       X
  Cuatrec. & Lourteig
Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E.Walker              X
Cyrtocymura harleyi (H.Rob.) H.Rob.              X          X
Cyrtocymura mattos-silvae                        X
  (H.Rob.) H.Rob.
Cyrtocymura scorpioides (Lam.)                   X          X
  H.Rob.
Dasyphyllum diamantinense                        X          X
  Saavedra & M.Monge *#
Dasyphyllum donianum (Gardner)                   X          X
  Cabrera
Dasyphyllum flagellare (Casar.)                  X          X
  Cabrera
Dasyphyllum J'odinarum (Gardner)                 X          X
  Cabrera
Dasyphyllum diamantinense                        X          X
  Saavedra & M.Monge *#
Dasyphyllum donianum (Gardner)                   X          X
  Cabrera
Dasyphyllum Jlagellare (Casar.)                  X          X
  Cabrera
Dasyphyllum J'odinarum (Gardner)                 X          X
  Cabrera
Dasyphyllum leptacanthum (Gardner)               X          X
  Cabrera
Dasyphyllum reticulatum (DC.)                    X          X
  Cabrera *#
Dasyphyllum sprengelianum                        X          X
  (Gardner) Cabrera
Dasyphyllum trichophyilum                        X          X
  (Baker) Cabrera *#
Dimerostemma brasilianum Cass.                   X
Dimerostemma episcopate (H.Rob.)                 X          X
   H.Rob.
Echinocorvne holosericea (Mart,                  X          X
  ex DC.) H.Rob.
Echinocoryne pungens (Gardner)                   X          X
  H.Rob.
Echinocorvne schwenkiifolia                      X          X
  (Mart, ex DC.) H.Rob.
Echinocoryne stricta                             X          X
  (Gardner) H.Rob.
Elephantopus hirtiflorus DC.                     X          X
Elephantopus mollis Kunth                        X
Emilia Josbergii Nicolson                        X
Emilia sonchijolia (L.) DC.                      X
  ex Wight
Erechtites hieracifolius (L.)                    X
  Raf. ex DC.
Erechtites missionum Malme                       X
Erechtites valerianij'olius                      X
  (Wolf) DC.
Eremanthus brevifolius Locuilie *#               X          X
Eremanthus capitatus (Spreng.)                   X          X
   MaeLeish
Eremanthus cinctus Baker                         X          X
Eremanthus crotonoides (DC.)                     X          X
  Sch.Bip.
Eremanthus etaeagnus (Mart,                      X          X
  ex DC.) Sch.Bip.
Eremanthus erythropappus (DC.)                   X          X
  MacLeish
Eremanthus glomerulars Less.                     X          X
Eremanthus hatschbachii H.Rob. *#                X          X
Eremanthus incanus (Less.) Less.                 X          X
Eremanthus leucodendron Mattf. *#                X          X
Eremanthus polycephalus (DC.)                    X          X
  MacLeish
Galinsoga parviflora Cav.                        X
Gamochaeta americana (Mill.)                     X
  Wedd.
Gvptidium trichobasis (Baker)                    X          X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Heterocoma alhida (DC. ex                        X          X
  Pers.) DC. *#
Heteroeoma erecta (H. Rob.)                      X          X
  Loeuille, J. N. Naka *#
Heterocoma gracilis Loeuille,                    X          X
  J. N. Nakaj. & Semir *#
Heterocoma lanuginosa (Glaz.                     X          X
  ex Oliv.) Loeuille. J.N *#
Heterocondylus alatus (Veil.)                    X          X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Heterocondylus amphidyctius (DC.)                X          X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Heterocondylus macrocephalus                     X          X
  H.Rob. *#
Heterocondylus pumilus (Gardner)                 X          X
   R.M.King & H.Rob.
Hoehnephvtum almasense                           X          X
  D.J.N.Hind
Hoehnephytum trixoides                           X          X
  (Gardner) Cabrera
Hololepispedunculata (DC. ex                     X          X
  Pers.) DC.
Hvpochaeris lutea (Veil.) Britton                X
Koanophyllon thysanolepis (B.L.Rob.)             X          X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ichthvothere integrifolia                        X
  (DC.) Baker
Inulopsis camporum (Gardner)                     X
  G.L.Nesom
Inulopsis scaposa (DC.) O.Hoffin.                X
Isostigma peucedanifolium                        X
  (Spreng.) Less.
Lapidia apicifvlia Roque &                       X          X
  S.C. Ferreira. *#
Lasiolaena blanehetii                            X          X
  (Sch.Bip. ex Baker)
R.M.King & H. Rob *#
Lasiolaena earvalhoi                             X          X
  DJ.N.Hind *#
Lasiolaena duartei R.M.King                      X          X
  & H.Rob. *#
Lasiolaena lychnophorioides                      X          X
  Roque et al. *#
Lasiolaena morii R.M.King                        X          X
  & H.Rob. *#
Lasiolaena pereirae R.M.King                     X          X
  & II.Rob. *#
Lasiolaena santosii R.M.King                     X          X
  & H.Rob. *#
Lepidaploa acutangula (Gardner)                  X          X
  H.Rob.
Lepidaploa almasensis (DJ.N.Hind)                X          X
  H.Rob. *#
Lepidaploa argyrotricha (Sch.Bip.                X          X
  ex Baker) H.Rob.
Lepidaploa aurea (Mart, ex                       X          X
  DC.) H.Rob.
L-epidaploa bahiana ll.Rob. *#                   X          X
Lepidaploa barbata (Less.) H.Rob.                X          X
Lepidaploa chalybaea (Mart, ex                   X          X
  DC.) H.Rob.
Lepidaploa cotoneaster (Willd. ex                X
  Spneng.) H.Rob.
Lepidaploa edmundoi (G.M.Barroso)                X          X
   H.Rob.
Lepidaploa hagei (H.Rob.)                        X          X
  H.Rob. *#
Lepidaploa lilacina (Mart, ex                    X          X
  DC.) H.Rob.
Lepidaploa muricata (DC.) H.Rob.                 X          X
Lepidaploa nitens (Gardner) H.Rob.               X          X
Lepidaploa pinheiroi (H.Rob.)                    X          X
   H.Rob.
Lepidaploa remotiflora (Rich.)                   X
   H.Rob.
Lepidaploa rufogrisea (A.St.-Hil.)               X          X
   H.Rob.
Lepidaploa salzmannii (DC.) H.Rob.               X
Lepidaploa tombadorensis (H.Rob.)                X          X
   ll.Rob.*#
Lessingianthus adenophyllus (Mart,               X          X
  ex DC.) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus ammophilus                        X          X
  (Gardner) H.Rob
Lessingianthus bardanoides                       X
  (Less.) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus barrosoanus Dematt.               X          X
Lessingianthus brevipetiolatus                   X          X
  (Sch.Bip. ex Baker) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus buddleiifolius                    X          X
  (Mart, ex DC.) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus carvalhoi                         X          X
  (H.Rob.) H.Rob. *#
Lessingianthus clavatus (Gardner)                X          X
   Dematt *#
Lessingianthus cordiger (Mart,                   X          X
  ex DC.) H.Rob. *#
Lessingianthus coriaceus                         X          X
  (Less.) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus elegans                           X          X
  (Gardner) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus farinosus                         X          X
  (Baker) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus graminifolius                     X          X
  (Gardner) Dematt.
Lessingianthus hatschbachii                      X          X
  H.Rob.
Lessingianthus hoveaefolius                      X          X
  (Gardner) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus laevigatus (Mart,                 X
  ex DC.) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus lanuginosus Dematt.               X          X
Lessingianthus lapinhensis                       X          X
  Dematt. *#
Lessingianthus linearifolius                     X          X
  (Less.) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus linearis (Spreng.)                X          X
  H.Rob.
Lessingianthus morii (H.Rob.)                    X          X
   H.Rob.
Lessingianthus obtusatus (Less.)                 X
  H.Rob.
Lessingianthus polyphvllus (Sch.Bip.             X          X
  ex Baker) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus psilophvllus (DC.)                X          X
  H.Rob.
Lessingianthus pulverulentus (Baker)             X          X
  H.Rob.
Lessingianthus pumillus (Veil.)                  X          X
  H.Rob.
Lessingianthus pycnostachyus (DC.)               X          X
   H.Rob.
Lessingianthus regis (H.Rob.)                    X          X
  H.Rob. *#
Lessingianthus roseus (Mart, ex DC.)             X          X
  H.Rob.
Lessingianthus rosmarinifolius                   X          X
  (Less.) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus santosii (H.Rob.)                 X          X
  H.Rob. *#
Lessingianthus tomentellus (Mart,                X          X
  ex DC.) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus venosissimus                      X          X
  (Sch.Bip.ex Baker) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus vepretorum (Mart, ex              X          X
  DC.) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus virgulatus (Mart, ex              X          X
  DC.) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus warmingianus                      X          X
  (Baker) H.Rob.
Lucilia lycopodioides (Less.)                    X
  S.E.Freire
Lychnophora hishopii H.Rob. *#                   X          X
Lychnophora blanehetii Sch.Bip. *#               X          X
Lychnophora crispa Mattf. *#                     X          X
Lychnophora diamantinana Coile                   X          X
  & Jones *#
Lychnophora ericoides Mart.                      X          X
Lychnophora gardneri Sch.Bip. *#                 X          X
Lychnophora granmogolensis                       X          X
  (Duarte) Semir
Lychnophora harleyi H.Rob. *#                    X          X
Lychnophora humiUima Sch.Bip. *#                 X          X
Lychnophora jeffreyi H.Rob. *#                   X          X
Lychnophora morii H.Rob. *#                      X          X
Lychnophora nanuzae Semir *#                     X          X
Lychnophora passerina (Mart, ex                  X          X
  DC.) Gardner *#
Lychnophora phylicifolia DC. *#                  X          X
Lychnophora pinaster Mart. *#                    X          X
Lychnophora pohlii Sch.Bip. *#                   X          X
Lychnophora ramosissima Gardner *#               X          X
Lychnophora regis H. Rob. *#                     X          X
Lychnophora reticulata Gardner *#                X          X
Lychnophora rosmarinifolia Mart. *#              X          X
Lychnophora rupestris Semir *#                   X          X
Lychnophora salicifolia Mart.                    X          X
Lychnophora santosii H.Rob. *#                   X          X
Lychnophora seUowii Sch.Bip. *#                  X          X
Lychnophora sericea DJ.N.Hind *#                 X          X
Lychnophora souzae H.Rob. *#                     X          X
Lychnophora staavioides Mart. *#                 X          X
Lychnophora svncephaJa (Sch.Bip.)                X          X
  Sch.Bip. *#
Lychnophora tomentosa (Mart, ex DC.)             X          X
 Sch.Bip. *#
Lychnophora triflora (Mattf.)                    X          X
  H.Rob. *#
Lychnophora uniflora Sch.Bip. *#                 X          X
Lychnophoriopsis candelabrum                     X          X
  (Sch.Bip.) H.Rob. *#
Lychnophoriopsis damazioi (Beauverd)             X          X
  H.Rob. *#
Lychnophoriopsis hatschbachii                    X          X
   H.Rob. *#
Maschalostachys markgrajii (G.M.                 X          X
  Barroso) Loeuille & Roque
Mattfeldanthus mutisioides H. Rob.               X          X
  & R. M. King
Melanthera latifolia (Gardner)                   X
  Cabrera
Mikania acuminata DC.                            X          X
Mikania alvimii R.M.King & H.Rob.                X          X
Mikania arrojadoi Mattf. *#                      X          X
Mikania hadiniana G.S.S. Almeida &               X          X
  Carvalho-Okan *#
Mikania cipoensis G.M.Barroso *#                 X          X
Mikania cordifblia (L.f.) Willd.                 X
Mikania elliptica DC.                            X          X
Mikania glabra DJ.N.Hind *#                      X          X
Mikania glandulosissima W.C.Holmes               X          X
  & D.J.N.Hind
Mikania glauca Mart, ex Baker *#                 X          X
Mikania grazielae R.M.King & H.Rob.              X          X
Mikania hagei R.M.King & H.Rob.                  X          X
Mikania hirsutissima DC.                         X
Mikania itambana Gardner *#                      X          X
Mikania jeffreyi D.J.N.Hind                      X          X
Mikania leiolaena DC.                            X          X
Mikania iindbergii Baker                         X          X
Mikania luetzelburgii Mattf.                     X          X
Mikania macedoi G.M.Barroso                      X          X
Mikania microphylla Sch.Bip.                     X          X
Mikania nelsonii D.J.N.Hind *#                   X          X
Mikania neurocaula DC.                           X          X
Mikania nummularia DC.                           X          X
Mikania oblongifoiia DC.                         X
Mikania obovata DC.                              X          X
Mikania obtusata DC.                             X          X
Mikania officinalis Mart.                        X
Mikania parviflora (Aubl.) H.Karet.              X
Mikania parvifolia Baker                         X          X
Mikania phaeoclados Mart.                        X          X
Mikania premnifolia Gardner                      X          X
Mikania pseudogracilis R.M.King                  X          X
  & H.Rob. *#
Mikania psilostachya DC.                         X
Mikania purpurascens (Baker)                     X          X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Mikania ramosissima Gardner                      X          X
Mikania reticulata Gardner                       X          X
Mikania rothii G.M. Barroso                      X          X
Mikania schenckii Hieron.                        X          X
Mikania sessilifolia DC.                         X          X
Mikania subverticillata Baker                    X          X
Mikania triphvlla Spreng. ex Baker               X          X
Mikania warmingii Sch.Bip.                       X          X
Mikania salzmanniifblia DC.                      X          X
Minasia alpestris (Gardner)                      X          X
  H.Rob. *#
Minasia cabralensis H.Rob. *#                    X          X
Minasia lewinsohnii Semir &                      X          X
  de Jesus *#
Minasia pereirae H.Rob. *#                       X          X
Minasia ramosa Loeuille, H. Rob.,                X          X
  Semir *#
Minasia scapigera H.Rob. *#                      X          X
Minasia splettiae H.Rob. *#                      X          X
Moquinia racemosa (Spreng.) DC.                  X          X
Moquiniastrum blanchetianum                      X          X
  (DC.) G. Sancho
Moquiniastrum densicephalum                      X          X
  (Cabrera) G. Sancho
Moquiniastrum Jloribundum                        X
  (Cabrera) G. Sancho
Moquiniastrum hatschbachii                       X          X
  (Cabrera) G. Sancho
Moquiniastrum paniculatum                        X          X
  (Less.) G. Sancho
Morithamnus crassus R.M.King                     X          X
  et al. *#
Morithamnus ganophyllus                          X          X
  (Mattf.) R.M.King & H.Rob. *#
Orthopappus angustifolius                        X
  (Sw.) Gleason
Paralychnophora atkinsiae                        X          X
  D.J.N.Hind *#
Paralvchnophora bicolor (DC.)                    X          X
  MacLeish
Paralychnophora glaziouana                       X          X
  Loeuille *#
Paralychnophora harlevi (H.Rob.)                 X          X
  D.J.N.Hind
Paralychnophora patriciana                       X          X
  D.J.N.Hind *#
Paralychnophora reflexoauriculata                X          X
  (G.M.Barroso) MacLeish
Piptolepis buxoides (Less.)                      X          X
  Sch.Bip. *#
Piptolepis campestris Semir                      X          X
  & Loeuille *#
Piptolepis ericoides Sch.Bip. *#                 X          X
Piptolepis gardneri Baker *#                     X          X
Piptolepis glaziouana Beauverd *#                X          X
Piptolepis imbrieata (Gardner)                   X          X
  Sch.Bip. *#
Piptolepis leptospermoides                       X          X
  (Mart, ex DC.) Sch.Bip. *#
Piptolepis oleaster (Mart, ex DC.)               X          X
  Sch.Bip. *#
Piptolepis sehultziana Loeuille                  X          X
   & D.J..V Hind *#
Platypodanthera melissifolia                     X          X
  (DC.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Porophvllum angustissimum Gardner                X
Porophvllum hahiense DJ.N.Hind *#                X          X
Porophvllum obscurum (Spreng.) DC.               X
Porophvllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass.               X
Praxelis capillaris (DC.) Sch.Bip.               X          X
Praxelis clematidea (Griseb.)                    X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Praxelis diffusa (Rich.) Pruski                  X
Prestelia eriopus Sch.Bip. *#                    X          X
Prolobus nitidulus (Baker) R.M.                  X          X
  King & H. Rob.
Proteopsis argentea Mart. &                      X          X
  Zucc. ex Sch.Bip. *#
Pseudobrickellia angustissima                    X          X
  (Spreng. ex Baker) R.M.King &
Pseudostifftia kingii H.Rob. *#                  X          X
Pseudostifftia kingii H.Rob. *#                  X          X
Raulinoreitzia tremula (Hook. &                  X
  Am.) R.M.King & ii.Ro
Riehterago angustifolia                          X          X
  (Gardner) Roque *
Riehterago arenaria (Baker)                      X          X
  Roque *#
Riehterago campestris Roque                      X          X
  & J.N.Nakaj
Riehterago caulescens Roque *#                   X          X
Riehterago conduplicata                          X          X
  Roque *#
Richterago discoidea (Less.)                     X          X
  Kuntze
Richterago elegans Roque *#                      X          X
Richterago hatschbachii                          X          X
  (Zardini) Roque *#
Richterago lanata Roque *#                       X          X
Richterago po/vmorpha (Less.)                    X          X
  Roque
Richteragopolyphyila (Baker)                     X          X
  Ferreyra *#
Richterago radiata (Veil.) Roque                 X          X
Richterago riparia Roque                         X          X
Richterago stenophylla                           X          X
  (Cabrera) Roque
Riencourtia tenuifolia Gardner                   X          X
Scherya bahienses R.M.King                       X          X
   & H.Rob. *#
Semiria viscosa DJ.N.Hind *#                     X          X
Senecio adamantinus Bong.                        X          X
Senecio almasensis Mattf. *#                     X          X
Senecio colpodes Bong.                           X          X
Senecio dumetorum Gardner                        X          X
Senecio gertii Zardini *#                        X          X
Senecio macrotis Baker *#                        X          X
Senecio pohlii Sch.Bip. ex Baker                 X          X
Senecio regis H.Rob. *#                          X          X
Senecio stigophlebius Baker                      X          X
Simsia dombevana DC.                             X
Sotidago chilensis Meyen                         X
Stenocephalum megapotamicum                      X          X
  (Spreng.) Sch.Bip.
Stenophalium chionaeum (DC.) Anderb.             X          X
Stenophaiium eriodes (Mattf.)                    X          X
  Anderb. *#
Stenophalium gardneri (Baker)                    X          X
  DJ.N.Hind *#
Stevia alexii G.S.S. Almeida &                   X          X
  Carvalho-Okan *#
Stevia claussenii Sch.Bip. ex Baker              X
Stevia crenulata Baker                           X          X
Stevia grazielae Quaresma &                      X          X
  J.N. Nakaj. *#
Stevia heptachaeta DC.                           X          X
Stevia morii R.M.King & H.Rob.                   X          X
Stevia mvriadenia Sch.Bip. ex Baker              X          X
Stevia resinosa Gardner                          X          X
Stevia riedelli Sch.Bip. ex Baker                X          X
Stilpnopappus laiseae R.Barros                   X          X
  & R.Esteves
Stilpnopappus pratensis Mart, ex DC.             X          X
Stiipnopappus scaposus DC.                       X          X
Stilpnopappus semirianus                         X          X
  R.Esteves *#
Stiipnopappus tomentosus Mart,                   X          X
  ex DC. *#
Stilpnopappus trichospiroides                    X          X
  Mart, ex DC.
Stomatanthes dictyophyllus (DC.)                 X          X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Stomatanthes polvcephalus (Sch.Bip.              X          X
  ex B.L.Rob.) H.Rob.
Strophopappus glomeratus (Gardner)               X          X
  R.Esteves
Strophopappus speciosus (Less.)                  X
  R.Esteves
Stylotrichium corymbosum (DC.)                   X          X
   Mattf. *#
Stylotriehium edmundoi                           X          X
  G.M.Barroso *#
Stylotrichium glomeratum                         X          X
  Bautista et al. *#
Stylotrichium rotundifolium                      X          X
  Mattf. *#
Stylotrichium sucrei R.M.King                    X          X
  & H.Rob. *#
Symphyopappus angustifolius Cabrera              X          X
Symphyopappus hrasiliensis                       X          X
  (Gardner) R.M.King & H.Rob. *#
Symphyopappus compressus (Gardner)               X          X
  B.L.Rob.
Symphyopappus cuneatus (DC.)                     X          X
  Sch.Bip. ex Baker
Symphyopappus cuneatus (DC.)                     X          X
  Sch.Bip. ex Baker
Symphyopappus decemflorus                        X          X
  ll.Rob. *#
Symphyopappus decussatus Turcz.                  X          X
Symphyopappus reticularis Baker                  X          X
Symphyopappus uncinatus II.Rob. *#               X          X
Tagetes erecta L.                                X
Tagetes minuta L.                                X
Tithonia rotundifolia (Mill.)                    X
  S.F.Blake
Trichogonia attenuata G.M.Barroso                X          X
Trichogonia campestris Gardner                   X          X
Trichogonia hirtiflora (DC.)                     X          X
  Sch.Bip. ex Baker *#
Trichogonia salviifolia Gardner                  X
Trichogonia tombadorensis                        X          X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Trichogonia villosa (Spreng.)                    X          X
  Sch.Bip. ex Baker *#
Trichogoniopsis adenantha                        X          X
  (DC.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Trichogoniopsis morii R.M.King                   X          X
  & H.Rob. *#
Tridax procumbens L.                             X
Trixis antimenorrhoea (Schrank)                  X
  Kuntze
Trixis calycina D.Don *#                         X          X
Trixis forzzae Borges &                          X          X
  Saavedra *#
Trixis glaziovii Baker                           X          X
Trixis glutinosa D.Don                           X          X
Trixis lessingii DC.                             X          X
Trixis nobilis (Veil.) Katinas                   X          X
Trixis vauthieri DC.                             X          X
Verbesina baccharifolia Mattf.                   X          X
Verbesina clausseni Sch.Bip.                     X
  ex Baker
Verbesina glabrata Hook. & Arn.                  X
Verbesina luetzelburgii Mattf.                   X          X
Verbesina macrophylla (Cass.)                    X          X
  S.F.Blake
Vernonanthura discolor (Spreng.)                 X          X
  H.Rob
Vernonanthura fagifolia                          X          X
  (Gardner) H.Rob. *#
Vernonanthura ferruginea (Less)                  X
  H.Rob.
Vernonanthura ignobilis (Less.)                  X          X
  H.Rob.
Vernonanthura laxa (Gardner) H.Rob.              X          X
Vernonanthura mariana (Mart, ex                  X          X
  Baker) H.Rob.
Vernonanthura polvanthes (Sprengel)              X
  Vega & Dematteis
Vernonanthura subverticillata                    X          X
  (Sch.Bip. ex Baker) H.Rob.
Vernonanthura laxa (Gardner) H.Rob.              X          X
Vernonanthura mariana (Man.                      X          X
  ex Baker) H.Rob.
Vernonanthura polvanthes (Sprengel)              X
  Vega & Dematteis
Vernonanthura subverticillata                    X          X
  (Sch.Bip. ex Baker) H.Rob.
Vernonanthura warmingiana Dematteis              X          X
Vinicia tomentosa Dematt. *  #                   X          X
Wunderlichia azulensis Maguire                   X          X
  & G.M.Barroso
Wunderlichia crulsiana Taub.                     X          X
Wunderlichia mirabilis Riedel                    X          X
  ex Baker
Wunderlichia senae Glaz. ex                      X          X
  Maguire & G.M.Barroso

Species                                 Phytophysiognomies where
                                        the species was recorded

Acanthospennum australe                 AA
  (Loefl.) Kuntze
Acanthospermum hispidum D.C             AA
Achyrocline alata (Kunth) DC.           CR-DIS-CE-CS-CA-AA
Achyrocline albicans Griseb.            CR-CE-CS-CA-AA
Achyrocline chionaea (DC.) Deble        CR-CE-GF
  & Marchiori
Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC.     CR-D1S-CS-CA-RE-AA
Achyrocline tombadorensis Deble         CR-CE
  & Marchiori
Achyrocline vargasiana DC.              CR-CE-OF-CA-AA
Achyrocline vauthieriana DC             CR-CE
Acmella uliginosa (Sw.) Casar.          CR-DIS-CE-OF
Acritopappus catolesemis                CR-D1S
  D.J.N.Hind & Bautista
Acritopappus confertus (Gardner)        CR-DIS-RE-OF
  R.M. King & H. Rob.
Acritopappus connatifolius              CR
  (Soar.Nunes) R.M.King & H.Rob. *#
Acritopappus diamantinicus Bautista,    CR
  S.Ortiz & Rodr.Oubin *#
Acritopappus heterolepis (Baker)        CR
  R.M.King & H.Rob.*#
Acritopappus irwinii                    CR-CE
  R.M.King & H.Rob.

Species                                 Phytophysiog-nomies where
                                        they occur

Acritopappus irwinii R.M.King           CR-CE
  & H.Rob.
Acritopappus longifolius (Gardner)      CR-DIS
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Acritopappus mori R.M.King &            CR
  H.Rob. *#
Acritopappus pintoi Bautista &          CR-OF
  DJ.N.Hind
Acritopappus prunifolius R.M.King       CR-CE-OF
  & H.Rob.
Acritopappus santosii R.M.King          CR-CE
   & H.Rob.
Acritopappus subtomentosus              CR-CE
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Acritopappus teixeirae                  CR-CE-CAA-OF
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratum conyzoides L.                  CR-CE-CA-AA
Ageratum fastigiatum (Gardner)          CR-DIS-CE-AA
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratum myriadenium (Sch.Bip. ex       CR-CE
  Baker) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Agrianthus almasensis DJ.N.Hind *#      CR
Agrianthus campestris Mart,             CR
  ex DC. *#
Agrianthus carvalhoi DJ.N.Hind *#       CR
Agrianthus empetrifolius Mart,          CR
  ex DC. *#
Agrianthus giuliettiae                  CR
  D.J.N.Hind *#
Agrianthus luetzelburgii Mattf. *#      CR
Agrianthus microlicioides               CR
  Mattf. *#
Agrianthus myrtoides Mattf. *#          CR
Agrianthus pungens Mattf. *#            CR
Agrianthus pungens Mattf. *#            CR
Albertinia brasiliensis Spreng.         CR-GF-SF
Aldama bracteata (Gardner)              CR-DIS-CE-AA
  E.E.Schill. & Panero
Aldama grandijlora (Gardner)            CR-DIS-CE
  E.E.Schill. & Panero
Aldama laxicvmosa (H.Rob. &             CR-CE
  A.J.Moore) E.E.Schil
Aldama oblongifolia (Gardner)           CR-CE
  E.E.Schill. & Panero
Aldama robusta (Gardner)                CR-DIS-CE-GF
  E.E.Schill. & Panero
Ambrosia polystachva DC.                CR-CE-AA
Arctium minus (Hill) Bemh.              AA
Arrojadocharis praxeUtides (Mattf.)     CR
  Mattf. *#
Arrojadocharis santosii R.M.King        CR
  & II.Rob. *#
Aspilia almasensis DJ.N.Hind *#         CR
Aspilia cordifolia J.U.Santos *#        CR
Aspilia cylindracephala H.Rob. *#       CR
Aspilia diniz-cruzeanae J.U.Santos      CR-CE

Aspilia eglerii J.U. Santos *#          CR
Aspilia Jloribunda (Gardner) Baker      CR-CE-CAA-GF
Aspilia foliosa (Gardner) Baker *#      CR
Aspilia fruticosa (Gardner) Baker       CR-DIS-CE-CA-GF
Aspilia hispidantha H.Rob.              CR-CE
Aspilia jolyana G.M.Barroso             CR-CE
Aspilia laevissima (Less, ex            CR-DIS-CE
  Baker) Baker
Aspilia martii Baker                    CR-CE-RE
Aspilia monlevidensis                   CR-CE-CS-CA-RE-AA
  (Spreng.) Kuntze
Aspilia ovalifolia (DC.) Baker          CR-CE
Aspilia riedelii Baker                  CR-DIS-CE-OF
Aspilia squarrosa Baker                 CR-CE
Aspiiia subalpestris Baker *#           CR
Aspilia subpetiolata Baker              CR-CA
Austrocritonia angulicaulis             CR-SF-OF
  (Sch.Bip. ex Baker)
R.M.King & H.Rob
Austroeupatorium inulaejolium           CR-CE-SF-OF
  (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ayapana amygdalina (Lam.)               CR-DIS-CE-CA-CAA-CAM-OF-SF-AA
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Avapanopsis oblongifolia (Lam.)         CR-CE-SF
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Baccharis alleluia                      CR
  A.S.OIiveira & Deble *#
Baccharis aphytla (Veil.) DC.           CR-DIS-CE-CA
Baccharis brevifolia DC.                CR-DIS-CE-CS-CA
Baccharis catvescens DC.                CR-CE-CA-RE
Baccharis cinerea DC.                   CR-SF
Baccharis concinna G.M.Barroso          CR-CE
Baccharis crispa Spreng.                CR-CE-OF-CA-RE-AA
Baccharis dracunculijolia DC.           CR-DIS-CE-CS-SFOF-CA-RE-AA
Baccharis elliptiea Gardner *#          CR
Baccharis genistelloides                NI
  (Lam). Pers.
Baccharis helichrysoides DC.            CR-DIS-CE-CS-OF-CA-AA
Baccharis intermixta Gardner            CR-CE-CA-OF
Baccharis italiaiae Wawra               CR-CA
Baccharis ligustrina DC.                CR-DIS-DIS
Baccharis linearifolia (Lam.) Pers.     CR-DIS-CE-CS-CA-CAA-RE-CAM
Baccharis lychnophora Gardner           CR-DIS-OF-CA
Baccharis minutiflora Mart,             CR
  ex Baker *#
Baccharis myricifolia DC.               CR-DIS-CA-GF
Baccharis ohdeltata G. lit id en *#     CR
Baccharis oblongifolia (Ruiz            CR-OF-CA
  & Pav.) Pers.
Baccharis orhiculata Deble &            CR
  A.S. Oliveira *#
Baccharis orbignvana Klatt              CR-CE
Baccharis perlata Sch.Bip.              CR
  ex Baker *#
Baccharis pingraea DC.                  CR-CE-CS-RE
Baccharis platypoda DC.                 CE-CA-RE
Baccharis polyphylla Gardner *#         CR
Baccharis pseudomyriocephala            CR-CA
  Malag.
Baccharis reticularia DC.               CR-DIS-CE-CA-RE-OF
Baccharis retusa DC.                    CR-DIS-CE-CA-OF
Baccharis rujidula (Spreng)             CR-CE-CA-OF-SF
  Joch. Mull.
Baccharis sagittalis (Less.) DC.        CR-CE-CS-CA-CAA -CAM-RE
                                         -OF-SF-AA
Baccharis sessiliflora Vahl             CR-CE-CS-CA-CAA
Baccharis simplex G. Heiden *#          CR
Baccharis singularis (Veil.)            CR-CS-RE-OF
  G.M. Barroso
Baccharis subdentala DC.                CR-DIS-CE-CA-CAA
Baccharis trinervis Pers.               CR-CE-CAA-RE-OF-SF-AA
Baccharis Iruncata Gardner              CR-CE

Baccharis xiphophyUa Baker *#           CR
Bahianthus viscosus (Spreng.)           CR-RE
  R.M. King & H. Rob.
Barmsoa organensis (Gardner)            CR-CE-CA-SF
  R.M. King & H. Rob.
Biderts cynapiifolia Kunth              CR-OF-AA
Bidens flagellars Baker                 CR-CE
Bidens pilosa L.                        AA
Bidens mhifolia Kunth                   CR-DIS-CE
Bidens segetum Mart, ex Colla           CR-DIS-GF-SF
Bishopiella elegans R.M.                CR
  King & H. Rob.*
Calea brittoniana Pruski *#             CR
Calea candolleana (Gardner) Baker       CR-CE-OF-AA
Calea ferruginea Sch. Bip.              CR-DIS-CE
  ex Baker
Calea fruticosa (Gardner)               CR-CE
  Urbatsch Zlotsky &
Calea graminifolia Sch. Bip.            CR-DIS
  ex Krasch.
Calea grazielae J.LI. Santos *#         CR
Calea harleyi H. Rob.                   CR-CE-CAA-AA
Calea hatschbachii Pruski &             CR-CE
  D.J.N.Hind
Calea heteropappa Pruski &              CR
 Urbatsch *#
Calea hymenolepis Baker                 CR-DIS-CE
Calea monocephala Dusen                 CR-CE-CA
Calea morii H.Rob.                      CR-CE-CAA
Calea nitida Less.                      CR-CE
Calea parvifolia (DC.) Baker            CR-CE-CA
Calea pilosa Baker                      CR-RE-SF-AA
Calea reticulata Gardner                CR-CE
Calea rotundifolia (Less.) Baker        CR-CE
Calea semirii Pruski & Hind *#          CR
Calea senecioides Baker                 CR-DIS

Calea tomentosa Gardner                 NI
Calea triantha (Veil.) Pruski           CR-CE-CS
Calea tridactylita Sch.Bip. ex          CR
  Kraseh. *#
Calea villosa Sch.Bip. ex Baker         CR-CE
Campuloclinium hatschbachii             CR
  H.Rob. *#
Campuloclinium irwinii                  CR-CE
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Catolesia huperzioides Roque,           CR
  H. Robinson & A.A. Conceicao *#
Catolesia mentiens DJ.N.Hind *#         CR
Centratherum punctatum Cass.            CR-DIS-CE-OF-SF-CAA-AA
Chaptalia araneosa Casar. *#            CR
Chaptalia vhapadensis D-J.N.Hind *#     CR
Chaptalia cipoensis Roque *#            CR
Chaptalia cordifolia (Baker)            CR-OF
  Cabrera
Chaptalia denticulata (Baker)           CR-CA
  Zardini
Chaptalia integerrima (Veil.)           CR-D1S-CE-OF-CA-AA
  Burkart
Chaptalia martii (Baker)                CR
  Zardini *#
Chaptalia nutans (L.) Pol.              CR-CE-CA-OF-SF-AA
Chionolaena arbuscula DC.               CR-CA
Chionolaena jeffreyi II.Rob. *#         CR
Chresta harleyi H. Rob.                 CR-CAA
Chresta pacourinoides (Mart,            CR-CAA
  ex DC.) niscalchi & L
Chresta plantaginifolia                 CR-DIS-CE
  (Less.) Gardner
Chresta pycnocephala DC.                CR-CE
Chresta sphaerocephala DC.              CR-DIS-AA
Chromolaena adenolepis DC.              CR-DIS
Chromolaena alvimii R.M.King            CR
  & H.Rob. *#
Chromolaena ascendens (Sch.Bip.         CR-CE-CA
  ex Baker)
R.M.King & H.Rob.
ChromolaeTia barbacensis (Hieron.)      CR-DIS-CE
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Chromolaena barrosoae R.M.King          CR
  & H.Rob. *#
Chromolaena chaseae (B.L.Rob.)          CR-DIS-CE
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Chromolaena cinereoviridis (Sch.Bip.    CR-DIS-CE
  ex Baker) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Chromolaena cryptantha (Sch.Bip.        CR-CE-CA
  ex Baker) R.M.King &
Chromolaena cylindrocephala             CR-DIS-CE-AA
  (Sch.Bip. ex Baker)
R.M.King & H.Rob.
Chromolaena decumbens Gardner           CR-DIS-CE-CA-RE
Chromolaena horminoides DC.             CR-DIS-CE
Chromolaena laevigata (Lam.)            CR-DIS-CE-CA-CAM-AA
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Chromolaena morii R.M.King &            CR
  H.Rob. *#
Chromolaena multijlosculosa (DC.)       CR-CE-CA
  R.M. King & H. Rob.
Chromolaena myriocephala (Gardner)      CR-CE
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Chromolaena pedalii (Sch.Bip. ex
  Baker) R.M.King & .Rob.
Chromolaena pedunculosa (Hook.          CR-CE-CS
  & Am.) R.M.King & H.Rob
Chromolaena pungens (Gardner)           CR-CE-AA
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Chromolaena sagittifera (B.L.Rob.)      CR
  R.M.King & H.Rob. *#
Chromolaena squalida (DC.)              CR-DIS-CE-SF-AA
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Chromolaena stachyophylla (Spreng.)     CR-DIS-CE
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Chrvsolaena desertorum (Mart,           CR-DIS-CE-CA
  ex DC.) Dematt.
Chrysolaena obovata (Less.) Dematt.     CR-DIS-CE-CS-CA-CAM
Chrvsolaena simplex (Less.) Dematt.     CR-DIS-CE
Conocliniopsis prasiifolia (DC.)        CR-CE-CAA
   R.M.King & H.Rob.
Convza primulifolia (Lam.)              CR-CE -CA-RE-OF-AA
  Cuatrec. & Lourteig
Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E.Walker     CR-CS-CA-RE-OF AA
Cyrtocymura harleyi (H.Rob.) H.Rob.     CR-CE
Cyrtocymura mattos-silvae               CR-OF
  (H.Rob.) H.Rob.
Cyrtocymura scorpioides (Lam.)          CR-DIS-CE-CA-RE-OF-SF
  H.Rob.
Dasyphyllum diamantinense               CR
  Saavedra & M.Monge *#
Dasyphyllum donianum (Gardner)          CR-CE-SF-GF
  Cabrera
Dasyphyllum flagellare (Casar.)         CR-GF-SF
  Cabrera
Dasyphyllum J'odinarum (Gardner)        CR-SF
  Cabrera
Dasyphyllum diamantinense               CR
  Saavedra & M.Monge *#
Dasyphyllum donianum (Gardner)          CR-CE-SF-GF
  Cabrera
Dasyphyllum Jlagellare (Casar.)         CR-GF-SF
  Cabrera
Dasyphyllum J'odinarum (Gardner)        CR-SF
  Cabrera
Dasyphyllum leptacanthum (Gardner)      CR-CA
  Cabrera
Dasyphyllum reticulatum (DC.)           CR
  Cabrera *#
Dasyphyllum sprengelianum               CR-DIS-CE-CAA-GF-SF
  (Gardner) Cabrera
Dasyphyllum trichophyilum               CR
  (Baker) Cabrera *#
Dimerostemma brasilianum Cass.          CR-DIS-CE
Dimerostemma episcopate (H.Rob.)        CR-CE
   H.Rob.
Echinocorvne holosericea (Mart,         CR-CE-GF
  ex DC.) H.Rob.
Echinocoryne pungens (Gardner)          CR-DIS-CE
  H.Rob.
Echinocorvne schwenkiifolia             CR-DIS-CE-GF
  (Mart, ex DC.) H.Rob.
Echinocoryne stricta                    CR-DIS
  (Gardner) H.Rob.
Elephantopus hirtiflorus DC.            CR-CE-RE-OF-AA
Elephantopus mollis Kunth               CR-DIS-CE-CS-CA-CAA-RE-CAM-AA
Emilia Josbergii Nicolson               CR-CE-CAA-RE-SF-AA
Emilia sonchijolia (L.) DC.             CR-CE-CAA-RE-SF-AA
  ex Wight
Erechtites hieracifolius (L.)           CR-CS-CAM-RE-SF
  Raf. ex DC.
Erechtites missionum Malme              CR-CS
Erechtites valerianij'olius             CR-CE-CS-RE-OF-AA
  (Wolf) DC.
Eremanthus brevifolius Locuilie *#      CR
Eremanthus capitatus (Spreng.)          CR-CE-RE-SF
   MaeLeish
Eremanthus cinctus Baker                CR-CE
Eremanthus crotonoides (DC.)            CR-CE-GF-SF
  Sch.Bip.
Eremanthus etaeagnus (Mart,             CR-DIS-CE
  ex DC.) Sch.Bip.
Eremanthus erythropappus (DC.)          CR-D1S-CE-GF-SF
  MacLeish
Eremanthus glomerulars Less.            CR-DIS-CE
Eremanthus hatschbachii H.Rob. *#       CR
Eremanthus incanus (Less.) Less.        CR-DIS-CE-RE-GF-SF
Eremanthus leucodendron Mattf. *#       CR
Eremanthus polycephalus (DC.)           CR-CE
  MacLeish
Galinsoga parviflora Cav.               NI
Gamochaeta americana (Mill.)            CR-CS-CA-RE-AA
  Wedd.
Gvptidium trichobasis (Baker)           CR-SF-AA
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Heterocoma alhida (DC. ex               CR
  Pers.) DC. *#
Heteroeoma erecta (H. Rob.)             CR
  Loeuille, J. N. Naka *#
Heterocoma gracilis Loeuille,           CR
  J. N. Nakaj. & Semir *#
Heterocoma lanuginosa (Glaz.            CR
  ex Oliv.) Loeuille. J.N *#
Heterocondylus alatus (Veil.)           CR-DIS-CE-SF-OF-AA
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Heterocondylus amphidyctius (DC.)       CR-DIS-CE
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Heterocondylus macrocephalus            CR
  H.Rob. *#
Heterocondylus pumilus (Gardner)        CR-DIS-CE-CA
   R.M.King & H.Rob.
Hoehnephvtum almasense                  CR-CE
  D.J.N.Hind
Hoehnephytum trixoides                  CR-DIS-CE-CA
  (Gardner) Cabrera
Hololepispedunculata (DC. ex            CR-GF-CA
  Pers.) DC.
Hvpochaeris lutea (Veil.) Britton       CR-DIS-CE-RE-OF-SF
Koanophyllon thysanolepis (B.L.Rob.)    CR-CE-CA
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ichthvothere integrifolia               CR-DIS-CE
  (DC.) Baker
Inulopsis camporum (Gardner)            CR-DIS-CE-CA
  G.L.Nesom
Inulopsis scaposa (DC.) O.Hoffin.       CR-DIS-CE-CA
Isostigma peucedanifolium               CR-CE-CS
  (Spreng.) Less.
Lapidia apicifvlia Roque &              CR
  S.C. Ferreira. *#
Lasiolaena blanehetii                   CR
  (Sch.Bip. ex Baker)
R.M.King & H. Rob *#
Lasiolaena earvalhoi                    CR
  DJ.N.Hind *#
Lasiolaena duartei R.M.King             CR
  & H.Rob. *#
Lasiolaena lychnophorioides             CR
  Roque et al. *#
Lasiolaena morii R.M.King               CR
  & H.Rob. *#
Lasiolaena pereirae R.M.King            CR
  & II.Rob. *#
Lasiolaena santosii R.M.King            CR
  & H.Rob. *#
Lepidaploa acutangula (Gardner)         CR-CE
  H.Rob.
Lepidaploa almasensis (DJ.N.Hind)       CR
  H.Rob. *#
Lepidaploa argyrotricha (Sch.Bip.       CR-DIS-CF.-CA-SF
  ex Baker) H.Rob.
Lepidaploa aurea (Mart, ex              CR-DIS-CF.-OF-SF
  DC.) H.Rob.
L-epidaploa bahiana ll.Rob. *#          CR
Lepidaploa barbata (Less.) H.Rob.       CR-DIS-CE
Lepidaploa chalybaea (Mart, ex          CR-CE-CAA
  DC.) H.Rob.
Lepidaploa cotoneaster (Willd. ex       CR-DIS-CE
  Spneng.) H.Rob.
Lepidaploa edmundoi (G.M.Barroso)       CR-CE
   H.Rob.
Lepidaploa hagei (H.Rob.)               CR
  H.Rob. *#
Lepidaploa lilacina (Mart, ex           CR-CE
  DC.) H.Rob.
Lepidaploa muricata (DC.) H.Rob.        CR-CE
Lepidaploa nitens (Gardner) H.Rob.      CR-CE
Lepidaploa pinheiroi (H.Rob.)           CR-CE
   H.Rob.
Lepidaploa remotiflora (Rich.)          CR-DIS
   H.Rob.
Lepidaploa rufogrisea (A.St.-Hil.)      CR-DIS-CE-RE
   H.Rob.
Lepidaploa salzmannii (DC.) H.Rob.      CR-SF
Lepidaploa tombadorensis (H.Rob.)       CR
   ll.Rob.*#
Lessingianthus adenophyllus (Mart,      CR-CE
  ex DC.) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus ammophilus               CR-CE-CAA
  (Gardner) H.Rob
Lessingianthus bardanoides              CR-DIS-CE
  (Less.) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus barrosoanus Dematt.      CR-DIS
Lessingianthus brevipetiolatus          CR-DIS-CE
  (Sch.Bip. ex Baker) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus buddleiifolius           CR-DIS-CE
  (Mart, ex DC.) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus carvalhoi                CR
  (H.Rob.) H.Rob. *#
Lessingianthus clavatus (Gardner)       CR
   Dematt *#
Lessingianthus cordiger (Mart,          CR
  ex DC.) H.Rob. *#
Lessingianthus coriaceus                CR-DIS-CE
  (Less.) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus elegans                  CR-DIS-CE
  (Gardner) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus farinosus                CR-CE
  (Baker) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus graminifolius            CR-CE
  (Gardner) Dematt.
Lessingianthus hatschbachii             CR-CE
  H.Rob.
Lessingianthus hoveaefolius             CR-DIS-CE
  (Gardner) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus laevigatus (Mart,        CR-DIS-CE
  ex DC.) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus lanuginosus Dematt.      CR-DIS
Lessingianthus lapinhensis              CR
  Dematt. *#
Lessingianthus linearifolius            CR-DIS-CE
  (Less.) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus linearis (Spreng.)       CR-DIS-CE-CA
  H.Rob.
Lessingianthus morii (H.Rob.)           CR-DIS-CAA
   H.Rob.
Lessingianthus obtusatus (Less.)        CR-CE
  H.Rob.
Lessingianthus polyphvllus (Sch.Bip.    CR-CE-CS
  ex Baker) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus psilophvllus (DC.)       CR-DIS-CE
  H.Rob.
Lessingianthus pulverulentus (Baker)    CR-CE
  H.Rob.
Lessingianthus pumillus (Veil.)         CR-CE
  H.Rob.
Lessingianthus pycnostachyus (DC.)      CR-CE
   H.Rob.
Lessingianthus regis (H.Rob.)           CR
  H.Rob. *#
Lessingianthus roseus (Mart, ex DC.)    CR-DIS-CE
  H.Rob.
Lessingianthus rosmarinifolius          CR-DIS-CE
  (Less.) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus santosii (H.Rob.)        CR
  H.Rob. *#
Lessingianthus tomentellus (Mart,       CR-CE
  ex DC.) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus venosissimus             CR-CE
  (Sch.Bip.ex Baker) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus vepretorum (Mart, ex     CR-DIS
  DC.) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus virgulatus (Mart, ex     CR-DIS-CE
  DC.) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus warmingianus             CR-DIS-CE
  (Baker) H.Rob.
Lucilia lycopodioides (Less.)           CR-DIS-CA-RE
  S.E.Freire
Lychnophora hishopii H.Rob. *#          CR
Lychnophora blanehetii Sch.Bip. *#      CR
Lychnophora crispa Mattf. *#            CR
Lychnophora diamantinana Coile          CR
  & Jones *#
Lychnophora ericoides Mart.             CR-DIS
Lychnophora gardneri Sch.Bip. *#        CR
Lychnophora granmogolensis              CR-CE
  (Duarte) Semir
Lychnophora harleyi H.Rob. *#           CR
Lychnophora humiUima Sch.Bip. *#        CR
Lychnophora jeffreyi H.Rob. *#          CR
Lychnophora morii H.Rob. *#             CR
Lychnophora nanuzae Semir *#            CR
Lychnophora passerina (Mart, ex         CR
  DC.) Gardner *#
Lychnophora phylicifolia DC. *#         CR
Lychnophora pinaster Mart. *#           CR
Lychnophora pohlii Sch.Bip. *#          CR
Lychnophora ramosissima Gardner *#      CR
Lychnophora regis H. Rob. *#            CR
Lychnophora reticulata Gardner *#       CR
Lychnophora rosmarinifolia Mart. *#     CR
Lychnophora rupestris Semir *#          CR
Lychnophora salicifolia Mart.           CR-DIS-CE
Lychnophora santosii H.Rob. *#          CR
Lychnophora seUowii Sch.Bip. *#         CR
Lychnophora sericea DJ.N.Hind *#        CR
Lychnophora souzae H.Rob. *#            CR
Lychnophora staavioides Mart. *#        CR
Lychnophora svncephaJa (Sch.Bip.)       CR
  Sch.Bip. *#
Lychnophora tomentosa (Mart, ex DC.)    CR
 Sch.Bip. *#
Lychnophora triflora (Mattf.)           CR
  H.Rob. *#
Lychnophora uniflora Sch.Bip. *#        CR
Lychnophoriopsis candelabrum            CR
  (Sch.Bip.) H.Rob. *#
Lychnophoriopsis damazioi (Beauverd)    CR
  H.Rob. *#
Lychnophoriopsis hatschbachii           CR
   H.Rob. *#
Maschalostachys markgrajii (G.M.        CR-CAA
  Barroso) Loeuille & Roque
Mattfeldanthus mutisioides H. Rob.      CR-CE
  & R. M. King
Melanthera latifolia (Gardner)          CR-CE-SF
  Cabrera
Mikania acuminata DC.                   CR-DIS-CE-GF
Mikania alvimii R.M.King & H.Rob.       CR-CAA-CARR
Mikania arrojadoi Mattf. *#             CR
Mikania hadiniana G.S.S. Almeida &      CR
  Carvalho-Okan *#
Mikania cipoensis G.M.Barroso *#        CR
Mikania cordifblia (L.f.) Willd.        CR-CE-CS-CAA-RE-GF
Mikania elliptica DC.                   CR-DIS-CA
Mikania glabra DJ.N.Hind *#             CR
Mikania glandulosissima W.C.Holmes      CR-CARR
  & D.J.N.Hind
Mikania glauca Mart, ex Baker *#        CR
Mikania grazielae R.M.King & H.Rob.     CR-CE-CAA
Mikania hagei R.M.King & H.Rob.         CR-CE-CAA
Mikania hirsutissima DC.                CR-CE-GF-OF
Mikania itambana Gardner *#             CR
Mikania jeffreyi D.J.N.Hind             CR-GF
Mikania leiolaena DC.                   CR-CE
Mikania iindbergii Baker                CR-DIS-CE-CA-CAA-RE-OF-AA
Mikania luetzelburgii Mattf.            CR-CE
Mikania macedoi G.M.Barroso             CR-CE
Mikania microphylla Sch.Bip.            CR-CE
Mikania nelsonii D.J.N.Hind *#          CR
Mikania neurocaula DC.                  CR-DIS-CE
Mikania nummularia DC.                  CR-DIS-CA
Mikania oblongifoiia DC.                CR-DIS-CE-CA
Mikania obovata DC.                     CR-CE-CAA
Mikania obtusata DC.                    CR-DIS-CE
Mikania officinalis Mart.               CR-DIS-CE-CS-CA
Mikania parviflora (Aubl.) H.Karet.     CR-GF
Mikania parvifolia Baker                CR-CE-OF
Mikania phaeoclados Mart.               CR-CA
Mikania premnifolia Gardner             CR-CE
Mikania pseudogracilis R.M.King         CR
  & H.Rob. *#
Mikania psilostachya DC.                CR-CE-CAM-GF
Mikania purpurascens (Baker)            CR-CE
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Mikania ramosissima Gardner             CR-CE
Mikania reticulata Gardner              CR-CS
Mikania rothii G.M. Barroso             CR-CE
Mikania schenckii Hieron.               CR-SF
Mikania sessilifolia DC.                CR-DIS-CE-CAA-GF-AA
Mikania subverticillata Baker           CR-CA
Mikania triphvlla Spreng. ex Baker      CR-DIS-CE
Mikania warmingii Sch.Bip.              CR-DIS-CE-OF
Mikania salzmanniifblia DC.             CR-OF
Minasia alpestris (Gardner)             CR
  H.Rob. *#
Minasia cabralensis H.Rob. *#           CR
Minasia lewinsohnii Semir &             CR
  de Jesus *#
Minasia pereirae H.Rob. *#              CR
Minasia ramosa Loeuille, H. Rob.,       CR
  Semir *#
Minasia scapigera H.Rob. *#             CR
Minasia splettiae H.Rob. *#             CR
Moquinia racemosa (Spreng.) DC.         CR-CE
Moquiniastrum blanchetianum             CR-CE-CAA
  (DC.) G. Sancho
Moquiniastrum densicephalum             CR-CE
  (Cabrera) G. Sancho
Moquiniastrum Jloribundum               CR-DIS-CE
  (Cabrera) G. Sancho
Moquiniastrum hatschbachii              CR-CE
  (Cabrera) G. Sancho
Moquiniastrum paniculatum               CR-CE
  (Less.) G. Sancho
Morithamnus crassus R.M.King            CR
  et al. *#
Morithamnus ganophyllus                 CR
  (Mattf.) R.M.King & H.Rob. *#
Orthopappus angustifolius               CR-RE-AA
  (Sw.) Gleason
Paralychnophora atkinsiae               CR
  D.J.N.Hind *#
Paralvchnophora bicolor (DC.)           CR-RE
  MacLeish
Paralychnophora glaziouana              CR
  Loeuille *#
Paralychnophora harlevi (H.Rob.)        CR-CE
  D.J.N.Hind
Paralychnophora patriciana              CR
  D.J.N.Hind *#
Paralychnophora reflexoauriculata       CR-DIS
  (G.M.Barroso) MacLeish
Piptolepis buxoides (Less.)             CR
  Sch.Bip. *#
Piptolepis campestris Semir             CR
  & Loeuille *#
Piptolepis ericoides Sch.Bip. *#        CR
Piptolepis gardneri Baker *#            CR
Piptolepis glaziouana Beauverd *#       CR
Piptolepis imbrieata (Gardner)          CR
  Sch.Bip. *#
Piptolepis leptospermoides              CR
  (Mart, ex DC.) Sch.Bip. *#
Piptolepis oleaster (Mart, ex DC.)      CR
  Sch.Bip. *#
Piptolepis sehultziana Loeuille         CR
   & D.J..V Hind *#
Platypodanthera melissifolia            CR-CE-CAA
  (DC.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Porophvllum angustissimum Gardner       CR-DIS-RE
Porophvllum hahiense DJ.N.Hind *#       CR
Porophvllum obscurum (Spreng.) DC.      CR-DIS-CE
Porophvllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass.      CR-AA
Praxelis capillaris (DC.) Sch.Bip.      CR-DIS-CE
Praxelis clematidea (Griseb.)           CR-DIS-CE-CAA-AA
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Praxelis diffusa (Rich.) Pruski         CR-DIS-CE-CAA-CAM
Prestelia eriopus Sch.Bip. *#           CR
Prolobus nitidulus (Baker) R.M.         CR-RE
  King & H. Rob.
Proteopsis argentea Mart. &             CR
  Zucc. ex Sch.Bip. *#
Pseudobrickellia angustissima           CR-CE
  (Spreng. ex Baker) R.M.King &
Pseudostifftia kingii H.Rob. *#         CR-CE-CAM
Pseudostifftia kingii H.Rob. *#         CR
Raulinoreitzia tremula (Hook. &         CR-CE-OF-SF-AA
  Am.) R.M.King & ii.Ro
Riehterago angustifolia                 CR
  (Gardner) Roque *
Riehterago arenaria (Baker)             CR
  Roque *#
Riehterago campestris Roque             CR-CE
  & J.N.Nakaj
Riehterago caulescens Roque *#          CR
Riehterago conduplicata                 CR
  Roque *#
Richterago discoidea (Less.)            CR-DIS-CE
  Kuntze
Richterago elegans Roque *#             CR
Richterago hatschbachii                 CR
  (Zardini) Roque *#
Richterago lanata Roque *#              CR
Richterago po/vmorpha (Less.)           CR-CE
  Roque
Richteragopolyphyila (Baker)            CR
  Ferreyra *#
Richterago radiata (Veil.) Roque        CR-DIS
Richterago riparia Roque                CR-DIS-CE
Richterago stenophylla                  CR-DIS-CE
  (Cabrera) Roque
Riencourtia tenuifolia Gardner          CR-DIS-CE
Scherya bahienses R.M.King              CR
   & H.Rob. *#
Semiria viscosa DJ.N.Hind *#            CR
Senecio adamantinus Bong.               CR-CE-CA
Senecio almasensis Mattf. *#            CR
Senecio colpodes Bong.                  CR-CE-CA
Senecio dumetorum Gardner               CR-CA
Senecio gertii Zardini *#               CR
Senecio macrotis Baker *#               CR
Senecio pohlii Sch.Bip. ex Baker        CR-DIS-CE-CA
Senecio regis H.Rob. *#                 CR
Senecio stigophlebius Baker             CR-CA-OF
Simsia dombevana DC.                    CR-DIS-CE-CAA
Sotidago chilensis Meyen                CR-DIS-CA-RE-GF-OF-SF-AA
Stenocephalum megapotamicum             CR-DIS-CE-CA
  (Spreng.) Sch.Bip.
Stenophalium chionaeum (DC.) Anderb.    CR-CA
Stenophaiium eriodes (Mattf.)           CR
  Anderb. *#
Stenophalium gardneri (Baker)           CR
  DJ.N.Hind *#
Stevia alexii G.S.S. Almeida &          CR
  Carvalho-Okan *#
Stevia claussenii Sch.Bip. ex Baker     CR-CE
Stevia crenulata Baker                  CR-CE
Stevia grazielae Quaresma &             CR
  J.N. Nakaj. *#
Stevia heptachaeta DC.                  CR-DIS-CE
Stevia morii R.M.King & H.Rob.          CR-CE
Stevia mvriadenia Sch.Bip. ex Baker     CR-DIS-CE-CA
Stevia resinosa Gardner                 CR-DIS-CE-CA
Stevia riedelli Sch.Bip. ex Baker       CR-CA
Stilpnopappus laiseae R.Barros          CR-CE
  & R.Esteves
Stilpnopappus pratensis Mart, ex DC.    CR-CAA-OF
Stiipnopappus scaposus DC.              CR-RE
Stilpnopappus semirianus                CR
  R.Esteves *#
Stiipnopappus tomentosus Mart,          CR
  ex DC. *#
Stilpnopappus trichospiroides           CR-CE-CAA-CARR
  Mart, ex DC.
Stomatanthes dictyophyllus (DC.)        CR-DIS-CE
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Stomatanthes polvcephalus (Sch.Bip.     CR-CE
  ex B.L.Rob.) H.Rob.
Strophopappus glomeratus (Gardner)      CR-DIS-CE
  R.Esteves
Strophopappus speciosus (Less.)         CR-DIS-CE
  R.Esteves
Stylotrichium corymbosum (DC.)          CR
   Mattf. *#
Stylotriehium edmundoi                  CR
  G.M.Barroso *#
Stylotrichium glomeratum                CR
  Bautista et al. *#
Stylotrichium rotundifolium             CR
  Mattf. *#
Stylotrichium sucrei R.M.King           CR
  & H.Rob. *#
Symphyopappus angustifolius Cabrera     CR-CE-AA
Symphyopappus hrasiliensis              CR
  (Gardner) R.M.King & H.Rob. *#
Symphyopappus compressus (Gardner)      CR-DIS-CA-SF-AA
  B.L.Rob.
Symphyopappus cuneatus (DC.)            CR-DIS-CE-OF-AA
  Sch.Bip. ex Baker
Symphyopappus cuneatus (DC.)            CR-DIS-CE-OF-AA
  Sch.Bip. ex Baker
Symphyopappus decemflorus               CR
  ll.Rob. *#
Symphyopappus decussatus Turcz.         CR-CE-CA
Symphyopappus reticularis Baker         CR-DIS-AA
Symphyopappus uncinatus II.Rob. *#      CR
Tagetes erecta L.                       AA
Tagetes minuta L.                       AA
Tithonia rotundifolia (Mill.)           NI
  S.F.Blake
Trichogonia attenuata G.M.Barroso       CR-DIS-CE-OF
Trichogonia campestris Gardner          CR-CE-CAA
Trichogonia hirtiflora (DC.)            CR
  Sch.Bip. ex Baker *#
Trichogonia salviifolia Gardner         CR-DIS-CE-CAA
Trichogonia tombadorensis               CR-CE
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Trichogonia villosa (Spreng.)           CR
  Sch.Bip. ex Baker *#
Trichogoniopsis adenantha               CR-CE-OF
  (DC.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Trichogoniopsis morii R.M.King          CR
  & H.Rob. *#
Tridax procumbens L.                    CR-AA
Trixis antimenorrhoea (Schrank)         CR-DIS-CE-RE-OF-SF
  Kuntze
Trixis calycina D.Don *#                CR
Trixis forzzae Borges &                 CR
  Saavedra *#
Trixis glaziovii Baker                  CR-CA-OF-AA
Trixis glutinosa D.Don                  CR-DIS-CE
Trixis lessingii DC.                    CR-CA
Trixis nobilis (Veil.) Katinas          CR-DIS-CE-SF
Trixis vauthieri DC.                    CR-DIS-CE
Verbesina baccharifolia Mattf.          CR-GF
Verbesina clausseni Sch.Bip.            CR-CA-GF
  ex Baker
Verbesina glabrata Hook. & Arn.         CR-CAA-RE-GF-OF-SF
Verbesina luetzelburgii Mattf.          CR-CE
Verbesina macrophylla (Cass.)           CR-CE
  S.F.Blake
Vernonanthura discolor (Spreng.)        CR-OF-SF
  H.Rob
Vernonanthura fagifolia                 CR
  (Gardner) H.Rob. *#
Vernonanthura ferruginea (Less)         CR-DIS-CE-CAM
  H.Rob.
Vernonanthura ignobilis (Less.)         CR-CE
  H.Rob.
Vernonanthura laxa (Gardner) H.Rob.     CR-CE
Vernonanthura mariana (Mart, ex         CR-DIS-CE
  Baker) H.Rob.
Vernonanthura polvanthes (Sprengel)     NI
  Vega & Dematteis
Vernonanthura subverticillata           CR-DIS
  (Sch.Bip. ex Baker) H.Rob.
Vernonanthura laxa (Gardner) H.Rob.     CR-CE
Vernonanthura mariana (Man.             CR-DIS-CE
  ex Baker) H.Rob.
Vernonanthura polvanthes (Sprengel)     NI
  Vega & Dematteis
Vernonanthura subverticillata           CR-DIS
  (Sch.Bip. ex Baker) H.Rob.
Vernonanthura warmingiana Dematteis     NI
Vinicia tomentosa Dematt. *  #          CR
Wunderlichia azulensis Maguire          CR-DIS-CAA
  & G.M.Barroso
Wunderlichia crulsiana Taub.            CR-CE-CAA
Wunderlichia mirabilis Riedel           CR-DIS-CE-CAA
  ex Baker
Wunderlichia senae Glaz. ex             CR-CE
  Maguire & G.M.Barroso

Species                                 CD      ES      EM

Acanthospennum australe                 X               X
  (Loefl.) Kuntze
Acanthospermum hispidum D.C             X
Achyrocline alata (Kunth) DC.           X       X       X
Achyrocline albicans Griseb.                            X
Achyrocline chionaea (DC.) Deble        X               X
  & Marchiori
Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC.     X       X       X
Achyrocline tombadorensis Deble         X
  & Marchiori
Achyrocline vargasiana DC.              X               X
Achyrocline vauthieriana DC             X               X
Acmella uliginosa (Sw.) Casar.          X
Acritopappus catolesemis                X
  D.J.N.Hind & Bautista
Acritopappus confertus (Gardner)        X
  R.M. King & H. Rob.
Acritopappus connatifolius              X
  (Soar.Nunes) R.M.King & H.Rob. *#
Acritopappus diamantinicus Bautista,                    X
  S.Ortiz & Rodr.Oubin *#
Acritopappus heterolepis (Baker)        X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.*#
Acritopappus irwinii                            X       X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.

Species                                 CD      ES      EM

Acritopappus irwinii R.M.King                   X       X
  & H.Rob.
Acritopappus longifolius (Gardner)      X               X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Acritopappus mori R.M.King &            X
  H.Rob. *#
Acritopappus pintoi Bautista &          X
  DJ.N.Hind
Acritopappus prunifolius R.M.King       X
  & H.Rob.
Acritopappus santosii R.M.King          X
   & H.Rob.
Acritopappus subtomentosus                              X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Acritopappus teixeirae                  X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratum conyzoides L.                  X       X
Ageratum fastigiatum (Gardner)                  X       X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratum myriadenium (Sch.Bip. ex       X               X
  Baker) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Agrianthus almasensis DJ.N.Hind *#      X
Agrianthus campestris Mart,                     X
  ex DC. *#
Agrianthus carvalhoi DJ.N.Hind *#       X
Agrianthus empetrifolius Mart,          X
  ex DC. *#
Agrianthus giuliettiae                  X
  D.J.N.Hind *#
Agrianthus luetzelburgii Mattf. *#      X
Agrianthus microlicioides               X
  Mattf. *#
Agrianthus myrtoides Mattf. *#          X       X
Agrianthus pungens Mattf. *#            X
Agrianthus pungens Mattf. *#            X
Albertinia brasiliensis Spreng.         X       X
Aldama bracteata (Gardner)                      X       X
  E.E.Schill. & Panero
Aldama grandijlora (Gardner)            X               X
  E.E.Schill. & Panero
Aldama laxicvmosa (H.Rob. &                             X
  A.J.Moore) E.E.Schil
Aldama oblongifolia (Gardner)                   X
  E.E.Schill. & Panero
Aldama robusta (Gardner)                                X
  E.E.Schill. & Panero
Ambrosia polystachva DC.                X               X
Arctium minus (Hill) Bemh.              X
Arrojadocharis praxeUtides (Mattf.)     X
  Mattf. *#
Arrojadocharis santosii R.M.King        X
  & II.Rob. *#
Aspilia almasensis DJ.N.Hind *#         X       X
Aspilia cordifolia J.U.Santos *#                        X
Aspilia cylindracephala H.Rob. *#                       X
Aspilia diniz-cruzeanae J.U.Santos                      X

Aspilia eglerii J.U. Santos *#                          X
Aspilia Jloribunda (Gardner) Baker              X       X
Aspilia foliosa (Gardner) Baker *#      X       X       X
Aspilia fruticosa (Gardner) Baker               X       X
Aspilia hispidantha H.Rob.              X
Aspilia jolyana G.M.Barroso                             X
Aspilia laevissima (Less, ex                            X
  Baker) Baker
Aspilia martii Baker                            X
Aspilia monlevidensis                                   X
  (Spreng.) Kuntze
Aspilia ovalifolia (DC.) Baker                          X
Aspilia riedelii Baker                  X               X
Aspilia squarrosa Baker                 X
Aspiiia subalpestris Baker *#           X
Aspilia subpetiolata Baker                              X
Austrocritonia angulicaulis             X
  (Sch.Bip. ex Baker)
R.M.King & H.Rob
Austroeupatorium inulaejolium           X
  (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ayapana amygdalina (Lam.)               X       X       X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Avapanopsis oblongifolia (Lam.)                 X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Baccharis alleluia                      X       X
  A.S.OIiveira & Deble *#
Baccharis aphytla (Veil.) DC.                           X
Baccharis brevifolia DC.                X               X
Baccharis catvescens DC.                X       X       X
Baccharis cinerea DC.                   X
Baccharis concinna G.M.Barroso          X               X
Baccharis crispa Spreng.                                X
Baccharis dracunculijolia DC.                           X
Baccharis elliptiea Gardner *#                          X
Baccharis genistelloides                X
  (Lam). Pers.
Baccharis helichrysoides DC.                    X
Baccharis intermixta Gardner            X
Baccharis italiaiae Wawra                               X
Baccharis ligustrina DC.                X               X
Baccharis linearifolia (Lam.) Pers.     X       X       X
Baccharis lychnophora Gardner                           X
Baccharis minutiflora Mart,                             X
  ex Baker *#
Baccharis myricifolia DC.                               X
Baccharis ohdeltata G. lit id en *#                     X
Baccharis oblongifolia (Ruiz            X
  & Pav.) Pers.
Baccharis orhiculata Deble &            X
  A.S. Oliveira *#
Baccharis orbignvana Klatt              X
Baccharis perlata Sch.Bip.                              X
  ex Baker *#
Baccharis pingraea DC.                  X       X       X
Baccharis platypoda DC.                 X       X       X
Baccharis polyphylla Gardner *#         X               X
Baccharis pseudomyriocephala            X
  Malag.
Baccharis reticularia DC.               X       X       X
Baccharis retusa DC.                    X       X       X
Baccharis rujidula (Spreng)                             X
  Joch. Mull.
Baccharis sagittalis (Less.) DC.                        X

Baccharis sessiliflora Vahl             X       X
Baccharis simplex G. Heiden *#                          X
Baccharis singularis (Veil.)            X               X
  G.M. Barroso
Baccharis subdentala DC.                X               X
Baccharis trinervis Pers.                       X
Baccharis Iruncata Gardner              X

Baccharis xiphophyUa Baker *#           X               X
Bahianthus viscosus (Spreng.)           X
  R.M. King & H. Rob.
Barmsoa organensis (Gardner)                            X
  R.M. King & H. Rob.
Biderts cynapiifolia Kunth                              X
Bidens flagellars Baker                                 X
Bidens pilosa L.                        X       X       X
Bidens mhifolia Kunth                                   X
Bidens segetum Mart, ex Colla                   X       X
Bishopiella elegans R.M.                X
  King & H. Rob.*
Calea brittoniana Pruski *#                     X       X
Calea candolleana (Gardner) Baker       X       X
Calea ferruginea Sch. Bip.                              X
  ex Baker
Calea fruticosa (Gardner)                               X
  Urbatsch Zlotsky &
Calea graminifolia Sch. Bip.                            X
  ex Krasch.
Calea grazielae J.LI. Santos *#                         X
Calea harleyi H. Rob.                   X       X       X
Calea hatschbachii Pruski &                     X
  D.J.N.Hind
Calea heteropappa Pruski &                              X
 Urbatsch *#
Calea hymenolepis Baker                 X
Calea monocephala Dusen                                 X
Calea morii H.Rob.                      X
Calea nitida Less.                      X               X
Calea parvifolia (DC.) Baker                            X
Calea pilosa Baker                              X
Calea reticulata Gardner                                X
Calea rotundifolia (Less.) Baker                        X
Calea semirii Pruski & Hind *#                  X
Calea senecioides Baker                                 X

Calea tomentosa Gardner                                 X
Calea triantha (Veil.) Pruski                           X
Calea tridactylita Sch.Bip. ex                          X
  Kraseh. *#
Calea villosa Sch.Bip. ex Baker         X
Campuloclinium hatschbachii                             X
  H.Rob. *#
Campuloclinium irwinii                                  X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Catolesia huperzioides Roque,           X
  H. Robinson & A.A. Conceicao *#
Catolesia mentiens DJ.N.Hind *#         X
Centratherum punctatum Cass.            X       X
Chaptalia araneosa Casar. *#                            X
Chaptalia vhapadensis D-J.N.Hind *#     X
Chaptalia cipoensis Roque *#                            X
Chaptalia cordifolia (Baker)                            X
  Cabrera
Chaptalia denticulata (Baker)           X
  Zardini
Chaptalia integerrima (Veil.)           X               X
  Burkart
Chaptalia martii (Baker)                X               X
  Zardini *#
Chaptalia nutans (L.) Pol.              X
Chionolaena arbuscula DC.                               X
Chionolaena jeffreyi II.Rob. *#         X
Chresta harleyi H. Rob.                 X       X       X
Chresta pacourinoides (Mart,            X
  ex DC.) niscalchi & L
Chresta plantaginifolia                                 X
  (Less.) Gardner
Chresta pycnocephala DC.                X
Chresta sphaerocephala DC.                              X
Chromolaena adenolepis DC.                              X
Chromolaena alvimii R.M.King            X
  & H.Rob. *#
Chromolaena ascendens (Sch.Bip.                         X
  ex Baker)
R.M.King & H.Rob.
ChromolaeTia barbacensis (Hieron.)                      X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Chromolaena barrosoae R.M.King                          X
  & H.Rob. *#
Chromolaena chaseae (B.L.Rob.)                          X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Chromolaena cinereoviridis (Sch.Bip.                    X
  ex Baker) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Chromolaena cryptantha (Sch.Bip.                        X
  ex Baker) R.M.King &
Chromolaena cylindrocephala                             X
  (Sch.Bip. ex Baker)
R.M.King & H.Rob.
Chromolaena decumbens Gardner                   X       X
Chromolaena horminoides DC.             X       X       X
Chromolaena laevigata (Lam.)            X               X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Chromolaena morii R.M.King &            X
  H.Rob. *#
Chromolaena multijlosculosa (DC.)                       X
  R.M. King & H. Rob.
Chromolaena myriocephala (Gardner)                      X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Chromolaena pedalii (Sch.Bip. ex                X
  Baker) R.M.King & .Rob.
Chromolaena pedunculosa (Hook.                          X
  & Am.) R.M.King & H.Rob
Chromolaena pungens (Gardner)                           X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Chromolaena sagittifera (B.L.Rob.)                      X
  R.M.King & H.Rob. *#
Chromolaena squalida (DC.)              X               X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Chromolaena stachyophylla (Spreng.)     X               X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Chrvsolaena desertorum (Mart,                           X
  ex DC.) Dematt.
Chrysolaena obovata (Less.) Dematt.                     X
Chrvsolaena simplex (Less.) Dematt.     X               X
Conocliniopsis prasiifolia (DC.)        X       X
   R.M.King & H.Rob.
Convza primulifolia (Lam.)              X
  Cuatrec. & Lourteig
Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E.Walker     X       X
Cyrtocymura harleyi (H.Rob.) H.Rob.     X
Cyrtocymura mattos-silvae               X
  (H.Rob.) H.Rob.
Cyrtocymura scorpioides (Lam.)          X               X
  H.Rob.
Dasyphyllum diamantinense               X
  Saavedra & M.Monge *#
Dasyphyllum donianum (Gardner)                  X
  Cabrera
Dasyphyllum flagellare (Casar.)                         X
  Cabrera
Dasyphyllum J'odinarum (Gardner)                        X
  Cabrera
Dasyphyllum diamantinense               X
  Saavedra & M.Monge *#
Dasyphyllum donianum (Gardner)                  X
  Cabrera
Dasyphyllum Jlagellare (Casar.)                         X
  Cabrera
Dasyphyllum J'odinarum (Gardner)                        X
  Cabrera
Dasyphyllum leptacanthum (Gardner)      X
  Cabrera
Dasyphyllum reticulatum (DC.)                           X
  Cabrera *#
Dasyphyllum sprengelianum               X       X       X
  (Gardner) Cabrera
Dasyphyllum trichophyilum                       X       X
  (Baker) Cabrera *#
Dimerostemma brasilianum Cass.          X               X
Dimerostemma episcopate (H.Rob.)        X
   H.Rob.
Echinocorvne holosericea (Mart,         X               X
  ex DC.) H.Rob.
Echinocoryne pungens (Gardner)                          X
  H.Rob.
Echinocorvne schwenkiifolia                     X       X
  (Mart, ex DC.) H.Rob.
Echinocoryne stricta                                    X
  (Gardner) H.Rob.
Elephantopus hirtiflorus DC.            X
Elephantopus mollis Kunth               X
Emilia Josbergii Nicolson               X
Emilia sonchijolia (L.) DC.             X               X
  ex Wight
Erechtites hieracifolius (L.)           X               X
  Raf. ex DC.
Erechtites missionum Malme              X
Erechtites valerianij'olius             X
  (Wolf) DC.
Eremanthus brevifolius Locuilie *#                      X
Eremanthus capitatus (Spreng.)          X       X       X
   MaeLeish
Eremanthus cinctus Baker                X
Eremanthus crotonoides (DC.)                            X
  Sch.Bip.
Eremanthus etaeagnus (Mart,                             X
  ex DC.) Sch.Bip.
Eremanthus erythropappus (DC.)          X               X
  MacLeish
Eremanthus glomerulars Less.            X       X       X
Eremanthus hatschbachii H.Rob. *#       X
Eremanthus incanus (Less.) Less.        X               X
Eremanthus leucodendron Mattf. *#       X
Eremanthus polycephalus (DC.)                   X       X
  MacLeish
Galinsoga parviflora Cav.               X
Gamochaeta americana (Mill.)                            X
  Wedd.
Gvptidium trichobasis (Baker)                           X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Heterocoma alhida (DC. ex                               X
  Pers.) DC. *#
Heteroeoma erecta (H. Rob.)             X
  Loeuille, J. N. Naka *#
Heterocoma gracilis Loeuille,                           X
  J. N. Nakaj. & Semir *#
Heterocoma lanuginosa (Glaz.                            X
  ex Oliv.) Loeuille. J.N *#
Heterocondylus alatus (Veil.)           X       X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Heterocondylus amphidyctius (DC.)                       X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Heterocondylus macrocephalus                            X
  H.Rob. *#
Heterocondylus pumilus (Gardner)                        X
   R.M.King & H.Rob.
Hoehnephvtum almasense                  X
  D.J.N.Hind
Hoehnephytum trixoides                  X               X
  (Gardner) Cabrera
Hololepispedunculata (DC. ex                            X
  Pers.) DC.
Hvpochaeris lutea (Veil.) Britton                       X
Koanophyllon thysanolepis (B.L.Rob.)                    X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ichthvothere integrifolia               X       X
  (DC.) Baker
Inulopsis camporum (Gardner)                            X
  G.L.Nesom
Inulopsis scaposa (DC.) O.Hoffin.                       X
Isostigma peucedanifolium                               X
  (Spreng.) Less.
Lapidia apicifvlia Roque &              X
  S.C. Ferreira. *#
Lasiolaena blanehetii                   X
  (Sch.Bip. ex Baker)
R.M.King & H. Rob *#
Lasiolaena earvalhoi                    X
  DJ.N.Hind *#
Lasiolaena duartei R.M.King             X
  & H.Rob. *#
Lasiolaena lychnophorioides             X
  Roque et al. *#
Lasiolaena morii R.M.King               X
  & H.Rob. *#
Lasiolaena pereirae R.M.King            X
  & II.Rob. *#
Lasiolaena santosii R.M.King            X
  & H.Rob. *#
Lepidaploa acutangula (Gardner)                         X
  H.Rob.
Lepidaploa almasensis (DJ.N.Hind)       X
  H.Rob. *#
Lepidaploa argyrotricha (Sch.Bip.                       X
  ex Baker) H.Rob.
Lepidaploa aurea (Mart, ex                      X       X
  DC.) H.Rob.
L-epidaploa bahiana ll.Rob. *#          X
Lepidaploa barbata (Less.) H.Rob.               X       X
Lepidaploa chalybaea (Mart, ex          X       X
  DC.) H.Rob.
Lepidaploa cotoneaster (Willd. ex       X       X       X
  Spneng.) H.Rob.
Lepidaploa edmundoi (G.M.Barroso)       X
   H.Rob.
Lepidaploa hagei (H.Rob.)               X       X
  H.Rob. *#
Lepidaploa lilacina (Mart, ex           X       X       X
  DC.) H.Rob.
Lepidaploa muricata (DC.) H.Rob.                        X
Lepidaploa nitens (Gardner) H.Rob.      X               X
Lepidaploa pinheiroi (H.Rob.)           X
   H.Rob.
Lepidaploa remotiflora (Rich.)                  X
   H.Rob.
Lepidaploa rufogrisea (A.St.-Hil.)              X       X
   H.Rob.
Lepidaploa salzmannii (DC.) H.Rob.      X
Lepidaploa tombadorensis (H.Rob.)       X
   ll.Rob.*#
Lessingianthus adenophyllus (Mart,                      X
  ex DC.) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus ammophilus                       X
  (Gardner) H.Rob
Lessingianthus bardanoides                              X
  (Less.) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus barrosoanus Dematt.      X
Lessingianthus brevipetiolatus                  X       X
  (Sch.Bip. ex Baker) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus buddleiifolius                   X       X
  (Mart, ex DC.) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus carvalhoi                X
  (H.Rob.) H.Rob. *#
Lessingianthus clavatus (Gardner)                       X
   Dematt *#
Lessingianthus cordiger (Mart,                          X
  ex DC.) H.Rob. *#
Lessingianthus coriaceus                                X
  (Less.) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus elegans                          X
  (Gardner) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus farinosus                X       X
  (Baker) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus graminifolius                            X
  (Gardner) Dematt.
Lessingianthus hatschbachii                             X
  H.Rob.
Lessingianthus hoveaefolius                             X
  (Gardner) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus laevigatus (Mart,                X       X
  ex DC.) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus lanuginosus Dematt.      X       X       X
Lessingianthus lapinhensis                              X
  Dematt. *#
Lessingianthus linearifolius            X               X
  (Less.) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus linearis (Spreng.)       X               X
  H.Rob.
Lessingianthus morii (H.Rob.)           X               X
   H.Rob.
Lessingianthus obtusatus (Less.)                X       X
  H.Rob.
Lessingianthus polyphvllus (Sch.Bip.                    X
  ex Baker) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus psilophvllus (DC.)               X       X
  H.Rob.
Lessingianthus pulverulentus (Baker)                    X
  H.Rob.
Lessingianthus pumillus (Veil.)                         X
  H.Rob.
Lessingianthus pycnostachyus (DC.)              X       X
   H.Rob.
Lessingianthus regis (H.Rob.)           X       X
  H.Rob. *#
Lessingianthus roseus (Mart, ex DC.)                    X
  H.Rob.
Lessingianthus rosmarinifolius          X
  (Less.) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus santosii (H.Rob.)        X
  H.Rob. *#
Lessingianthus tomentellus (Mart,                       X
  ex DC.) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus venosissimus                             X
  (Sch.Bip.ex Baker) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus vepretorum (Mart, ex             X       X
  DC.) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus virgulatus (Mart, ex                     X
  DC.) H.Rob.
Lessingianthus warmingianus                             X
  (Baker) H.Rob.
Lucilia lycopodioides (Less.)           X               X
  S.E.Freire
Lychnophora hishopii H.Rob. *#          X
Lychnophora blanehetii Sch.Bip. *#      X
Lychnophora crispa Mattf. *#            X
Lychnophora diamantinana Coile                          X
  & Jones *#
Lychnophora ericoides Mart.                     X       X
Lychnophora gardneri Sch.Bip. *#                        X
Lychnophora granmogolensis              X               X
  (Duarte) Semir
Lychnophora harleyi H.Rob. *#           X
Lychnophora humiUima Sch.Bip. *#                        X
Lychnophora jeffreyi H.Rob. *#          X
Lychnophora morii H.Rob. *#             X
Lychnophora nanuzae Semir *#                            X
Lychnophora passerina (Mart, ex         X               X
  DC.) Gardner *#
Lychnophora phylicifolia DC. *#         X
Lychnophora pinaster Mart. *#                           X
Lychnophora pohlii Sch.Bip. *#                          X
Lychnophora ramosissima Gardner *#      X       X
Lychnophora regis H. Rob. *#            X
Lychnophora reticulata Gardner *#                       X
Lychnophora rosmarinifolia Mart. *#     X               X
Lychnophora rupestris Semir *#                          X
Lychnophora salicifolia Mart.           X       X
Lychnophora santosii H.Rob. *#          X
Lychnophora seUowii Sch.Bip. *#                         X
Lychnophora sericea DJ.N.Hind *#        X
Lychnophora souzae H.Rob. *#                            X
Lychnophora staavioides Mart. *#                        X
Lychnophora svncephaJa (Sch.Bip.)                       X
  Sch.Bip. *#
Lychnophora tomentosa (Mart, ex DC.)                    X
 Sch.Bip. *#
Lychnophora triflora (Mattf.)           X
  H.Rob. *#
Lychnophora uniflora Sch.Bip. *#        X
Lychnophoriopsis candelabrum                            X
  (Sch.Bip.) H.Rob. *#
Lychnophoriopsis damazioi (Beauverd)                    X
  H.Rob. *#
Lychnophoriopsis hatschbachii                           X
   H.Rob. *#
Maschalostachys markgrajii (G.M.                X       X
  Barroso) Loeuille & Roque
Mattfeldanthus mutisioides H. Rob.              X       X
  & R. M. King
Melanthera latifolia (Gardner)          X
  Cabrera
Mikania acuminata DC.                                   X
Mikania alvimii R.M.King & H.Rob.       X
Mikania arrojadoi Mattf. *#             X
Mikania hadiniana G.S.S. Almeida &                      X
  Carvalho-Okan *#
Mikania cipoensis G.M.Barroso *#                        X
Mikania cordifblia (L.f.) Willd.        X               X
Mikania elliptica DC.                   X
Mikania glabra DJ.N.Hind *#                     X
Mikania glandulosissima W.C.Holmes      X
  & D.J.N.Hind
Mikania glauca Mart, ex Baker *#                        X
Mikania grazielae R.M.King & H.Rob.     X
Mikania hagei R.M.King & H.Rob.         X
Mikania hirsutissima DC.                                X
Mikania itambana Gardner *#                             X
Mikania jeffreyi D.J.N.Hind             X
Mikania leiolaena DC.                                   X
Mikania iindbergii Baker                        X
Mikania luetzelburgii Mattf.            X
Mikania macedoi G.M.Barroso             X
Mikania microphylla Sch.Bip.                            X
Mikania nelsonii D.J.N.Hind *#          X
Mikania neurocaula DC.                                  X
Mikania nummularia DC.                                  X
Mikania oblongifoiia DC.                                X
Mikania obovata DC.                     X
Mikania obtusata DC.                            X       X
Mikania officinalis Mart.               X               X
Mikania parviflora (Aubl.) H.Karet.                     X
Mikania parvifolia Baker                                X
Mikania phaeoclados Mart.               X       X       X
Mikania premnifolia Gardner                             X
Mikania pseudogracilis R.M.King                         X
  & H.Rob. *#
Mikania psilostachya DC.                X
Mikania purpurascens (Baker)                            X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Mikania ramosissima Gardner                             X
Mikania reticulata Gardner              X               X
Mikania rothii G.M. Barroso             X               X
Mikania schenckii Hieron.                               X
Mikania sessilifolia DC.                X               X
Mikania subverticillata Baker                           X
Mikania triphvlla Spreng. ex Baker                      X
Mikania warmingii Sch.Bip.              X               X
Mikania salzmanniifblia DC.             X
Minasia alpestris (Gardner)                             X
  H.Rob. *#
Minasia cabralensis H.Rob. *#                           X
Minasia lewinsohnii Semir &                             X
  de Jesus *#
Minasia pereirae H.Rob. *#                              X
Minasia ramosa Loeuille, H. Rob.,                       X
  Semir *#
Minasia scapigera H.Rob. *#                             X
Minasia splettiae H.Rob. *#                             X
Moquinia racemosa (Spreng.) DC.         X               X
Moquiniastrum blanchetianum             X       X       X
  (DC.) G. Sancho
Moquiniastrum densicephalum                             X
  (Cabrera) G. Sancho
Moquiniastrum Jloribundum               X               X
  (Cabrera) G. Sancho
Moquiniastrum hatschbachii                              X
  (Cabrera) G. Sancho
Moquiniastrum paniculatum               X               X
  (Less.) G. Sancho
Morithamnus crassus R.M.King            X
  et al. *#
Morithamnus ganophyllus                 X
  (Mattf.) R.M.King & H.Rob. *#
Orthopappus angustifolius                               X
  (Sw.) Gleason
Paralychnophora atkinsiae               X
  D.J.N.Hind *#
Paralvchnophora bicolor (DC.)           X               X
  MacLeish
Paralychnophora glaziouana                              X
  Loeuille *#
Paralychnophora harlevi (H.Rob.)        X
  D.J.N.Hind
Paralychnophora patriciana              X
  D.J.N.Hind *#
Paralychnophora reflexoauriculata       X
  (G.M.Barroso) MacLeish
Piptolepis buxoides (Less.)                             X
  Sch.Bip. *#
Piptolepis campestris Semir                             X
  & Loeuille *#
Piptolepis ericoides Sch.Bip. *#                X       X
Piptolepis gardneri Baker *#                            X
Piptolepis glaziouana Beauverd *#                       X
Piptolepis imbrieata (Gardner)                          X
  Sch.Bip. *#
Piptolepis leptospermoides                              X
  (Mart, ex DC.) Sch.Bip. *#
Piptolepis oleaster (Mart, ex DC.)                      X
  Sch.Bip. *#
Piptolepis sehultziana Loeuille                         X
   & D.J..V Hind *#
Platypodanthera melissifolia            X       X
  (DC.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Porophvllum angustissimum Gardner       X               X
Porophvllum hahiense DJ.N.Hind *#       X
Porophvllum obscurum (Spreng.) DC.      X       X
Porophvllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass.      X               X
Praxelis capillaris (DC.) Sch.Bip.                      X
Praxelis clematidea (Griseb.)           X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Praxelis diffusa (Rich.) Pruski                         X
Prestelia eriopus Sch.Bip. *#                           X
Prolobus nitidulus (Baker) R.M.         X
  King & H. Rob.
Proteopsis argentea Mart. &                     X       X
  Zucc. ex Sch.Bip. *#
Pseudobrickellia angustissima           X       X       X
  (Spreng. ex Baker) R.M.King &
Pseudostifftia kingii H.Rob. *#                 X       X
Pseudostifftia kingii H.Rob. *#         X
Raulinoreitzia tremula (Hook. &         X
  Am.) R.M.King & ii.Ro
Riehterago angustifolia                                 X
  (Gardner) Roque *
Riehterago arenaria (Baker)                             X
  Roque *#
Riehterago campestris Roque                             X
  & J.N.Nakaj
Riehterago caulescens Roque *#                          X
Riehterago conduplicata                                 X
  Roque *#
Richterago discoidea (Less.)            X       X       X
  Kuntze
Richterago elegans Roque *#                             X
Richterago hatschbachii                                 X
  (Zardini) Roque *#
Richterago lanata Roque *#                              X
Richterago po/vmorpha (Less.)                           X
  Roque
Richteragopolyphyila (Baker)                            X
  Ferreyra *#
Richterago radiata (Veil.) Roque                        X
Richterago riparia Roque                                X
Richterago stenophylla                                  X
  (Cabrera) Roque
Riencourtia tenuifolia Gardner          X
Scherya bahienses R.M.King              X
   & H.Rob. *#
Semiria viscosa DJ.N.Hind *#            X
Senecio adamantinus Bong.                               X
Senecio almasensis Mattf. *#            X
Senecio colpodes Bong.                                  X
Senecio dumetorum Gardner                               X
Senecio gertii Zardini *#                       X
Senecio macrotis Baker *#                               X
Senecio pohlii Sch.Bip. ex Baker                        X
Senecio regis H.Rob. *#                 X
Senecio stigophlebius Baker                             X
Simsia dombevana DC.                    X
Sotidago chilensis Meyen                X
Stenocephalum megapotamicum                     X       X
  (Spreng.) Sch.Bip.
Stenophalium chionaeum (DC.) Anderb.                    X
Stenophaiium eriodes (Mattf.)           X
  Anderb. *#
Stenophalium gardneri (Baker)           X
  DJ.N.Hind *#
Stevia alexii G.S.S. Almeida &                          X
  Carvalho-Okan *#
Stevia claussenii Sch.Bip. ex Baker                     X
Stevia crenulata Baker                                  X
Stevia grazielae Quaresma &                             X
  J.N. Nakaj. *#
Stevia heptachaeta DC.                                  X
Stevia morii R.M.King & H.Rob.          X
Stevia mvriadenia Sch.Bip. ex Baker                     X
Stevia resinosa Gardner                                 X
Stevia riedelli Sch.Bip. ex Baker                       X
Stilpnopappus laiseae R.Barros          X
  & R.Esteves
Stilpnopappus pratensis Mart, ex DC.            X
Stiipnopappus scaposus DC.              X
Stilpnopappus semirianus                X       X
  R.Esteves *#
Stiipnopappus tomentosus Mart,          X       X
  ex DC. *#
Stilpnopappus trichospiroides           X
  Mart, ex DC.
Stomatanthes dictyophyllus (DC.)                        X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Stomatanthes polvcephalus (Sch.Bip.             X       X
  ex B.L.Rob.) H.Rob.
Strophopappus glomeratus (Gardner)                      X
  R.Esteves
Strophopappus speciosus (Less.)                         X
  R.Esteves
Stylotrichium corymbosum (DC.)          X
   Mattf. *#
Stylotriehium edmundoi                  X
  G.M.Barroso *#
Stylotrichium glomeratum                X
  Bautista et al. *#
Stylotrichium rotundifolium             X
  Mattf. *#
Stylotrichium sucrei R.M.King           X
  & H.Rob. *#
Symphyopappus angustifolius Cabrera                     X
Symphyopappus hrasiliensis                              X
  (Gardner) R.M.King & H.Rob. *#
Symphyopappus compressus (Gardner)                      X
  B.L.Rob.
Symphyopappus cuneatus (DC.)            X               X
  Sch.Bip. ex Baker
Symphyopappus cuneatus (DC.)            X               X
  Sch.Bip. ex Baker
Symphyopappus decemflorus                               X
  ll.Rob. *#
Symphyopappus decussatus Turcz.         X       X       X
Symphyopappus reticularis Baker                         X
Symphyopappus uncinatus II.Rob. *#                      X
Tagetes erecta L.                       X
Tagetes minuta L.                       X
Tithonia rotundifolia (Mill.)           X
  S.F.Blake
Trichogonia attenuata G.M.Barroso                       X
Trichogonia campestris Gardner          X
Trichogonia hirtiflora (DC.)                    X       X
  Sch.Bip. ex Baker *#
Trichogonia salviifolia Gardner         X       X       X
Trichogonia tombadorensis               X
  R.M.King & H.Rob.
Trichogonia villosa (Spreng.)           X               X
  Sch.Bip. ex Baker *#
Trichogoniopsis adenantha                               X
  (DC.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Trichogoniopsis morii R.M.King          X
  & H.Rob. *#
Tridax procumbens L.                    X       X       X
Trixis antimenorrhoea (Schrank)         X               X
  Kuntze
Trixis calycina D.Don *#                X
Trixis forzzae Borges &                                 X
  Saavedra *#
Trixis glaziovii Baker                                  X
Trixis glutinosa D.Don                                  X
Trixis lessingii DC.                                    X
Trixis nobilis (Veil.) Katinas                          X
Trixis vauthieri DC.                    X               X
Verbesina baccharifolia Mattf.          X
Verbesina clausseni Sch.Bip.                            X
  ex Baker
Verbesina glabrata Hook. & Arn.         X
Verbesina luetzelburgii Mattf.          X
Verbesina macrophylla (Cass.)           X
  S.F.Blake
Vernonanthura discolor (Spreng.)                        X
  H.Rob
Vernonanthura fagifolia                 X
  (Gardner) H.Rob. *#
Vernonanthura ferruginea (Less)         X
  H.Rob.
Vernonanthura ignobilis (Less.)                         X
  H.Rob.
Vernonanthura laxa (Gardner) H.Rob.     X               X
Vernonanthura mariana (Mart, ex                         X
  Baker) H.Rob.
Vernonanthura polvanthes (Sprengel)     X       X       X
  Vega & Dematteis
Vernonanthura subverticillata           X               X
  (Sch.Bip. ex Baker) H.Rob.
Vernonanthura laxa (Gardner) H.Rob.     X               X
Vernonanthura mariana (Man.                             X
  ex Baker) H.Rob.
Vernonanthura polvanthes (Sprengel)     X       X       X
  Vega & Dematteis
Vernonanthura subverticillata           X               X
  (Sch.Bip. ex Baker) H.Rob.
Vernonanthura warmingiana Dematteis                     X
Vinicia tomentosa Dematt. *  #                          X
Wunderlichia azulensis Maguire                          X
  & G.M.Barroso
Wunderlichia crulsiana Taub.            X
Wunderlichia mirabilis Riedel                   X       X
  ex Baker
Wunderlichia senae Glaz. ex                             X
  Maguire & G.M.Barroso

Note: Species endemic of the campos rupestres of the
Espinhaco Range are in #

Table 2 Distribution of tribes (evolutionary order) and genera
of the Astcraceae in the rocky fields of the Espinhaso Range.
CD, Chapada Diamantina; ES, Espinhaco Septentrional; EM,
Espinhago Meridional. The numbers indicate the quantity of
species. The black lines are associated with the species unique
to one of the blocks, the gray lines to the shared species and
the dashed line indicates absence in the Espinhaco Septentrional
* Endemic genus and ** monospecific genus of the campos rupestres
of Espinhaco Range

Tribe                         Genus               CD     ES     EM

Barnadesieae            Dasyphyllum Kunth         2      1      3

Mutisieae                Chaptalia Vent.          3             3
                           Chionolaena            1             1

Nassauvieae              Trixis P.Browne          1             5

Wunderlichieae         Wunderlichia Riedel        1             2
                            ex Benth.
                    Moquiniastrum (Cabrera) G.                  2

Gochnatieae                   Sancho
                        Riehterago Kuntze                       13

Cardueae                    Arctium L.            1
                        Albertinia Spreng.
                        Centratherum Cass.        1
                       Chresta Veil, ex DC.       2             2

Vernonieae              Chrysolaena H.Rob.                      2
                        Cyrtocymura H.Rob.        2
                       Echinocoryne H.Rob.                      2
                         Elephantopus L.          2
                         Eremanthus Less.         3             3
                         Eremanthus Less.                2
                          Heterocoma DC.          1             3
                          Hololepis DC.                         1
                          Hypochaeris L.                        1
                                                  6      1      3
                        Lepidaploa Willd.
                                                  4      2      17
                       Lessingianths H.Rob.
                          Lucilia Cass.
                                                  12            13

Vernonieae           Lychnophora Mart, ex DC.
                        Lychnophoriopsis                        3
                            Sch.Bip. *
                    Maschalostachys Loeuille
                             & Roque
                     Mattfeldanthus H.Rob. &
                            R.M. King
                         Melanthera Rohr          1
                         Minasia H.Rob. *                       7
                       Orthopappus Gleason                      1
                     Paralychnophora MacLeish     4             1
                       Piptolepis Sch.Bip.                      8
                       Prestelia Sch.Bip **                     1
                        Proteopsis Mart. &
                       Zucc. Ex Sch.Bip. **
                      Stenocephalum Sch.Bip.
                    Stilpnopappus Mart, ex DC.    3      1
                        Strophopappus DC.                       2
                                                  2             4

Vernonieae             Vernonanthura H.Rob.
                        Vinicia Dematt. **                      1

Moquinieae                 Moquinia DC.
                     Pseudostifftia H.Rob. **     1
                       Emilia (Cass.) Cass.       1
                         Erechtites Raf.          2

Senecioneae
                       Hoehnephvtum Cabrera       1
                          Senecio Cass.           2      1      6
                     Achyrocline (Less.) DC.      1             2

Gnaphalieae              Gamochaeta Wedd.                       1
                       Gyptidium R.M.King                       1
                             & H.Rob.
                       Stenophalium Anderb.       1             1
                                                  8      1      14

Astereae                   Baccharis L.
                           Conyza Less.           1
                     Inulopsis (DC) O.Hoffm.                    2
                           Solidago L.            1

Inuleae                   Pluchea Cass.
                       Pterocaulon Elliott        1

Coreopsideae                Bidens L.             1             3
                         Isostigma Less.                        1

                                                  3      3      13
Neurolaeneae                 Calea L.

Tageteae                Porophyllum Guett.        1
                            Tagetes L.            2
                      Acmella Rich, ex Pers.      1
                                                         1      2
                      Aldama La Llave & Lex.
                           Ambrosia L.
                                                  2      1      9

Heliantheae
                         Aspilia Thouars
                        Dimerostemma Cass.                      1
                        Riencourlia Cass.         1
                           Simsia Pers.           1
                     Tithonia Desf. ex Juss.      1
                           Verbesina L.           4             1
                      Acanthospermum Schrank      1
                      Galinsoga Ruiz & Pav.       1
                        Ichthyothere Mart.
                            Tridax L.
                                                  9             2
                     Acritopappus R.M.King &                    1
                              H.Rob.

Eupatorieae
                           Ageratum L.
                           Ageratum L.
                    Agrianthus Mart, ex DC. *     7      1
                      Arrojadocharis Mattf.*      2
                         Austrocritonia           1
                        R.M.King & H.Rob.
                        Austroeupatorium          1
                        R.M.King & H.Rob.
                          Ayapana Spach
                      Ayapanopsis R.M.King               1
                             & H.Rob
                       Bahianthus R.M.King        1
                             & H.Rob
                    Barrosoa R.M.King & H.Rob                   1
                      Bishopiella R.M.King        1
                           & H.Rob. **
                        Campuloclinium DC.                      2
                      Catolesia D.J.N.Hind *      2

Eupatorieae              Chromolaena DC.          2             14

                     Conocliniopsis R.M.King
                             & H.Rob.
                     Heterocondylus R.M.King                    3
                       Koanophyllon Arruda        1             1
                       Lapidia Roque & S.C.       1
                           Ferreira **
                      Lasiolaena R.M.King &       7
                             H.Rob. *

                                                  13     1      22
                          Mikania Wiild.

                       Morithamnus R.M.King       2
                             et al. *
                    Platypodanthera R.M.King
                             & H.Rob.
                          Praxelis Cass.          1             2
                       Prolobus R.M.King &        1
                              H.Rob.
                    Pseudobrickellia R.M.King
                             & H.Rob.
                     Raulinoreitzia R.M.King      1
                             & H.Rob.
                       Scherya R.M.King &         1
                            H.Rob. **
                      Semiria D.J.N.Hind **       1

Eupatorieae                Stevia Cav.            1             8
                      Stomatanthes R.M.King                     1
                             & H.Rob.
                      Stylotrichium Mattf. *      5
                       Symphyopappus Turcz.                     6
                       Trichogonia Gardner        2             1

                    Trichogoniopsis R.M.King      1             1
                             & H.Rob.

Table 3 RDA summary for different composition of Asteraceae species
in campos rupestres of Espinhapo Range. The relation between the
environmental variables and the axes is given by the canonical
coefficient. We adopted p = 0.05 as a level of significance VIF,
Inflation factors of the variable

                                                Total

Variance total from data                        0.8444
Variance explained                              0,2663
Unexplained variance                            0,5781
Environmental variables select     Axis 1       Axis 2       Axis 3
Precipitation of Wettest           0,2510       0.0216       -0,2534
  Month (c113)
Mean Temperature of Coldest        0.0280       -0,1578      -0,2577
  Quarter (c111)
Precipitation of Driest            0.0005       -0,1505      0,1818
  Month (c114)
Annual Precipitation (e112)        0.0137       0,1576       -0,1075
Statistical summary of the axes
Autovalues                         0.1143       0.0600       0,0502
Variance explained                 42,92%       22,56%       18,87%
Cumulative Proportion              42,92%       65.48%       84,35%
Significance test                  F = 31,629   F = 16,625   F = 13,912
                                   p = 0,001    p = 0,003    p = 0,017

                                   Proportion

Variance total from data           10.000
Variance explained                 0.3153
Unexplained variance               0.6847
Environmental variables select     Axis 4         VIF
Precipitation of Wettest           -0,2551        3,856,497
  Month (c113)
Mean Temperature of Coldest        -0,1256        2.158.666
  Quarter (c111)
Precipitation of Driest            -0,0510        1,167,066
  Month (c114)
Annual Precipitation (e112)        -0,2778        2,276.929
Statistical summary of the axes
Autovalues                         0.0416
Variance explained                 15,64%
Cumulative Proportion              99,99%
Significance test                  F= 11,526
                                   p = 0,187

Table 4 Partial RDA results for the composition of the Asteraceae of
the campos rupestres of Espinhapo Range, [a] fraction of exclusive
explanation of climatic variables, [b] fraction of explanation of
climatic and pedogeomorphological variables, [c] fraction of
exclusive explanation of pedogeomorphological variables, [d]
residues

                      Df      [R.sup.2]   [R.sup.2]  F         P
                                          adjusted

[a + b]               5       0.37281     0.16374    1.7832    0.001
[b + c]               2       0.18238     0.09154    2.0076    0.001
[a + b + c]           7       0.46388     0.17520    1.6069    0.001
Individual fraction
[a]                   5       0.08366                1.3652    0.002
[b]                   0       0.08008                1.6069    0.001
[c]                   2       0.01145                1.1042    0.244
[d]                           0.82480

Fig. 2 a Number of genera and species in the tribes of Asteraceac
recorded in campos rupestres of the Espinhafo Range. Contribution
of the main tribes to the diversity of Asteraceac in the studied
area, b Asteraccac genera with the highest number of species in
campos rupestres of the Espinhaco Range, Brazil

A

                     Genus by tribe   Species by tribe

Eupatorieae               34               163
Vernonieae                29               171
Heliantheae                9                35
Astereae                   4                43
Gnaphalieae                4                12
Millerieae                 4                 5
Senecioneae                4                16
Coreopsideae               2                 6
Gochnatieae                2                19
Inuieae                    2                 2
Moquinieae                 2                 2
Mutisieae                  2                10
Tageteae                   2                 6
Barnadesieae               1                 8
Cardueae                   1                 1
Cichorieae                 1                 1
Nassauvieae                1                 8
Neuroleaneae               1                23
Wunderlichieae             1                 4

B

(Eup.) Mikania             43
(Ast.) Baccharis           38
(Ver.) Lessingianthus      36
(Ver.) Lychnophora         31
(Neu.) Calea               23
(Eup.) Chromolaena         22
(Ver.) Lepidaploa          18
(Hel.) Aspilia             18
(Goc.) Richterago          14
(Eup.) Acritopappus        13
(Ver.) Eremanthus          11

Note: Table made from bar graph.

Fig. 5 a Number of species shared between campos rupestres of the
Espinhaco Range and other Brazilian phytophysiognomies. b NMDS
analysis (stress: 0.08295206) shows the relationship between campos
rupestres of the Espinhaco Range and other Brazilian
phytophysiognomies. CA: Campo de altitude, CAA: Caatinga s.s., CAM:
Campinarana, CARR: Carrasco, CE: Cerrado s.l., CR: Campo rupestre,
CS: Campo sulino, GF: Gallery forest, OF: Ombrophilous forest, RE:
Rcstinga, SF: Seasonal forest

a

CE         251
DIS        140
CA          82
OF          53
SF          45
RE          40
CAA         36
CS          24
GF          24
CAM         11
CARR         3

Note: Table made from bar graph.
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Author:Campos, Lidia; Moro, Marcelo Freire; Funk, Vicki A.; Roque, Nadia
Publication:The Botanical Review
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:3BRAZ
Date:Dec 1, 2019
Words:18733
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