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Biodiversity of soil and air-borne fungi in the northern border region of Saudi Arabia.

Soil fungi are important component of the soil habitat as ecologically their role to control the nutritional cycle to maintain the soil fertility and structure (1,2). If we remember that only about 6- 7% of the total fungal species on earth suggested to be 1.5 million are known (3). Thus, mycologists ever where are strongly urged to work very hard to search for new species in different ecosystems around them. Several studies on soil fungi has been investigated from various points of view in many parts of the world (4-10).

The term "Air-born fungi" is namely that the spores of fungi carrying by atmosoheric air. The intensity of fungal spores increases depending on air pollutionand vary with time of day, weather, season, geographical location and flora combination (11-13). The study of aeromycology is important in plant pathology and in disease forecasting of plant diseases. Aerobiological studies conducted in relation to respiratory allergic diseases (14). Aeromycological researchs from the Middle East area are scattered, in Egypt (15,16), in Kuwait (17), in Qatar (18), in Saudi Arabia (14,19), in Yemen (20), In Libya (21), in Turkey (11, 22-24), in Iran (25) , and in Jordan (26). In the aerospora several fungal genera and species were found to be the most dominant (27,28).

Aflatoxins are a group of mycotoxins that produce by toxigenic strains ofAspergiullus flavus and A. parasiticus (29-32) and other species are also reported as AFs producers (33). Aflatoxins contaminate different types of food and feed commodities, especially in hot and humid regions of the world (34). The major AFs are characterized as [B.sub.1], [B.sub.2], [G.sub.1], and [G.sub.2] of which aflatoxin B is the best known because of its hepatocarcinogenic nature (35). From golobal prospective of food safty and security, aflatoxins contamination of food has gained much attention as potential health hazard for humans and animals (36).

In Saudi Arabia, especially the northern border region, information on the fungal ecology of desert and reclaimed soil and air borne fungi is limited. Thus, the aim of the present work was designed to investigate the diversity of fungi in soil of the northern border region. Seasonal fluctuations of fungi over these regions was carred out bimonthly during October--December 2015. Also, the potentionality of the commonest fungi for aflatoxins production was evaluated.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Sampling location

This study was carried out in four cities (Rafha, Lina, Al-Uwaygilah and Arar), the Northern border region of Saudi Arabia, bordering Iraq and Jordan. Sampling was conducted bimonthly during the period from October to December 2015.

Collection of soil samples

A total of 40 soil samples were collected from the four governorates (10 for each). At least five samples were taken at random from each place, then the five soil samples were brought into one compsite sample which mixed thoroughly several times. Soil samples were put directly each into a clean plastic bages and brought into the laboratory and kept at 5[degrees]C till fungal analysis.

Determination of soil moisture content (MC)

The moisture content of soil was determined by drying replicates of freshly collected samples in an oven at 105 C till constant weight. The loss of weight was determined, and then the percentage of moisture content was calculated from the following equation:

% Moisture content = {(A - B) / B} X100 Where

A = weight of sample before drying and B = weight of sample after drying.

Determination of total soluble salts (TSS)

The specific electrical conductance was measured in the soil extract using the conductance meter (YSI, model 35). The percentage TSS in the samples were estimated using this equation: % TSS in dry sample = 0.064 X EC X extract ratio. The conversion factor to percentage salts (0.064) fairly applied for solutions extracted from the soil (37).

Isolation of soil fungi

The dilution- plate method was used for enumeration of soil fungi as described by Johnson et al. 38and employed by Moubasher and his collaborators. The plates (5 plates for each type of medium) were incubated at 28 C for 1- 3 weeks after which the developing fungi were counted and the number of colony forming units (CFUs) was calculated per g dry soil.

Isolation of air-borne fungi

Sampling was conducted bimonthly during the period from October to December 2015. Fifteen replicate plates of 9 cm diameter of the three media (Czapek's, Cellulose and 10% NaCl, 5 each) were exposed for 15 minutes at a height of 60 cm above the ground level at each of the four sites. The plates were then sealed and brought back to the laboratory and incubated at 28[degrees]C for 7-15 days, during which, the developing colonies were counted (CFU, per 5 plates each medium), isolated and identified.

Media used for isolation of fungi

The three types of media used for isolation of fungi were: 1) Modified Czapek's agar of the following composition (g/l): glucose 10, sodium nitrate 3.0, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 1.0, magnesium sulphate 0.5, potassium chloride 0.5, ferrous sulphate 0.01, agar 15.0), to which rose bengal (1/15000) and chloramphenicol (25 [micro]g/ml) were added as bacteriostatic agents; 2) Czapek's agar of which sucrose was replaced by cellulose for isolation of cellulose decomposing fungi and 3) Modified Czapek's agar medium supplemented with 10% sodium chloride was used for isolation of halophilic and halotolerant fungi.

Identification of fungi

The following references were used for the identification of fungal genera and species (39-45)

Screening of aflatoxins six strains related to Aspergillus flavus, isolated in the current study, were screened for aflatoxin-producing capability according to the method of Zohri (46). Cultures were observed for fluorescence under long-wave UV light (365 nm) after 7 days. The positive results were shown as blue and green flourescences.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Chemical analysis of desert soil samples collected from the four regions revealed that water content and tatal soluble salts in the tested samples were very low levels. MC in the examined samples ranging from 0.4-1.8; 0.2-1.9; 0.5-3.6; and 0.6-3.0 % in the four regions, respectively. Also, as in MC, total soluble salts were remarkably higher in Al-Uwaygilah and Arar than the other two regions ranging between 0.2- 1.0 ; and 0.4-1.2 and 0.2- 1.1 . Relatively high means MC and total TSS was found in Arar (2.04 and 0.82) followed by Al-Uwaygilah (1.76 and 0.83) (Table 1). Our results were greatly harmony with the finding of AbdelHafez4 who reported that soil of Saudi Arabia were generally poor total soluble salts (0.05- 0.46 %). Gherbawy et al.47 indicated that the soil moisture content is low in all habitats of Taif area. Moubasher et al (4) stated that MC of cultivated, desert and salt marsh soils were higher than those in Saudi Arabia and ranged from 7.5 - 22.4; 1.5- 9.5 and 5.5-19.3%, respectively. Whereas, TSS fluctuated from low value (0.2- 1.3%) in cultivated; low or moderate values in desert (0.2- 7.6%) and high or very high in salt marsh soils (4.6-46.7%). Ismail (49) rated that MC of air dust fluctuated between 0.5- 9.0% while, TSS varied from 0.03- 31.7% and most samples contained less than 02.0% of total soluble salts.

Fungi recovered from soil

Using three types of media incubated at 28[degrees]C, it could isolate 56 species and one variety appertaining to 20 genera from 40 soil sample collected from 4 regions (10 each) at the Northerns border of Saudi Arabia (Table 2). The results revealed that the highest counts and number of genera and species were recorded in Arar (13 genera and 25 species) and Linah (12 and 260) followed by Al-Uwaygilah (12 and 22) and Rafha (9 and 16). 1n soil the hyaline fungi were predominant over the dark-coloured ones. It may be due to the soil is densely populated by microorganisms and competition for extence is very sever. On the other hand, fungi are relatively protected from the injurious effects of atmospheric conditions, high light intensity, and deep diurnal fluctuations of temperature and humidity. These conditions may selectively favour hyaline fungi over the dark-coloured (melanin-containing) fungi.

There was remarkably high incidence of fugal total counts in soil samples gathered from Arar (1065 conlonis/ g) and Linah (850) followed by Al- Uwaygilah (760) and Rafha (320). This may be associated with the high activities of human and animals which led to increased amount of nutrients in the remains of plant, animal and man in this area providing the optimal condations for microbial growth (50). In this respect, Comprehensive studies on soil fungi began with work of Adametz (51) who isolated 11 species of fungi from expermintal farm for purpose of making biochemical studies. Since that, the number of publications on soil fungi has grown significantly, such as: Azaz and Pekel (7) from soil samples taken from burnt forest land in Turkey; Szewczyk (8) on soil from young Scots pine plantations affected with root rot in Poland; Puangsombat et al. (9) from soil of Tha Kum-Haai; Hemida et al. (10), Abdel-Hafez et al. (52,53), Al-Khateeb (54) on soil collected from different habitats in Egypt.

Incidence of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Alternaria and Ulocladium and its member were the common in the studied regions. Some species were encountered only on one media and prevalent on other one. Also, numerous species were found only from one region and not from the others and vis versa.. These results were harmony with those obtained by El-Gali and Abdullrahman (21) who studied the soil fungi in El-Beida, Libya and showed that the most abundant fungi were Alternaria, Aspegillus, Fusarium and Penicillium spp. The distribution of these fungi in such habitats which are in close association with human activities supports that contact with such habitats is a risk factor for the infections caused by these fungal species. Therefore careful contact with such habitats especially for immunocompromised individuals must be controlled to avoid funal infections. Sharma et al. (55) found that dominant soil colonizers from subtropical forest were Cladosporium, Trichoderma and Penicillium.

Also, the results indicated that the widest spectrum of genera and species being isolated on Cz, followed by cellulose and the narrowest on 10% NaCl media. It is worthmentioin that Ulicladium species were prevalent on Czapek's medium supplemented with10 %NaCl. This indicated that these members were able to tolerate high salte stress and called haloterant fungi. The same results were obtained by Moubasher et al. (6). They could isolate 87 species related to 31 genera from 96 newly reclaimed soil samples from Wadi El-Natrun, Egypt on three isolation media.

In the current work, the widest spectrum of total counts being isolated on Czapek's cellulose and the narrowest on 10% NaCl media, whereas Czapek's with 1% glucose medium was intermediate. Aspergillus, Fusarium, Myrothecium, Stachybotrys, Penicillium and Emericella were regularly the most dominant genera possessing the highest proportions of propagules on the three isolation media. Numerous species were found only on one medium and not on the others media (Table 2).Also, in the literature a great number of fungi recorded in the present investigation on 10% NaCl medium were also identified in different parts of the world on high salt concentrations from Purerto Rico (56), Dead Sea (57), Red sea shore (58), Salt marsh soil in Egypt48, solar salterns (59), saline environments in Slovenia60 and Mondovi estuary (61,62). From the previous genera the most prevalent species were: A. flavus,, A. fumigatus, A. ochraceus, A. terreus, P.chrysogenum, P funiculosum, P oxalicum, F. sambacinum, P. solani, A. alternata, A. chlamydospora, U. atrum and U. botrytis. Some species were encountered from three cities such as: A. carneus, A. ochraceus, A. terreus, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Myrothecium verrucaria, P chrysogenum, and P funiclosum., or two cities like: A. alternata, A. brasiliensis, B. piluliferum, C. specifer, E. nidulans, Humicola fusco-atra, P oxalicum, P glomerata, Stachybotrys chartarum and U. tuberculatum and not on the others. The remaining genera and species were isolated in rare frequency of occurrence found only in one city (Table 2). These species were also, isolated in high or rare frequency of occurrence from different habitats as reported by several researchers all over the world (4,53,63).

The isolated species have been increasingly reported recently to be the etiologic agents of serious diseases in human through traumatic inoculation (64-66). There have been many reports of infection caused by black moulds in healthy individuals and in immunocompromised patients (67). Also skin infections due to Alternaria in kidney transplant recipient have been reported by some investigators (68). The prevalent clinical features caused by C. herbarum, C. cladosporioides, and C. sphaerospermum included, infection of skin (65), corneal ulcer (69), brain abscesses (70), pulmonary ball (71) and dental granuloma (72). Therefore careful contact with such habitats especially for immunocompromised individuals must be controlled to avoid funal infections.

Fungi recovered from air

Airborne microbial contamination is a significant issue in the crowded centers and cities, as air serves as a transmission vehicle for pathogens that have linked with adverse health effects ranging from infectious diseases to allergies (19).

Knowledge of species and density of outdoor airborne fungi in the studied environment can be especially important in the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. In the present work the distribution of air fungal flora were performed during October--December 2015 over four governorates at the Northern border region, Saudi Arabia. Gravtational setting method using Pitridishes containing three isolation media wrer applied.

Exposed culture plates in various locations at the four cities as previously described produced a total of 28 species related to 18 genera on the three types of media used. Al-Falih (73) screened the air-borne fungal flora inhabiting school environments at different places in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. He could isolate 36 species belonging to 6 genera from the examined area. In Turkey, Topbas et al. (23) evaluated the prevalent species of airborne in the outdoor environment in Trabzon city, Turkey. Twelve genera of fungi were identified. It has been reported that the above genera should always be considered as a cause of fungal allergy (74). In Iraq Muhsin and Adlan (28) made an assessment of air quality by examining outdoor airborne fungi among three sites over four seasons of the year 2009 in Basrah city (Iraq). They noticed that nine fungal genera including 16 species were prevalent in the air samples.

As shown in Table (3) the highest level of reproduction in the terms of the number of colonies was observed in Rafha (274, 359, 269 colonies) followed by Arar (256, 351, 190 colonies), and the less was shown in Linah (266, 232, 282 colonies) and Al-Uwaygilah (231, 216, 122 colonies) on the three media, respectively. Also, when the the results analyzed with respect to the number of fungi found, Rafha ranked first with 28 species and 19 genera, and Arar occupied the second with 23 species and 16 genera. Regions Linah and Aluwaygilah came the third and the fourth with 22 and 21 species and 13 and 12 genera, respectively. In most regions studied the high total counts and the widest spectrum of genera and species being isolated on Czapek's-glucose agar and the narrowest was encountered on Czapek's glucose with 10% NaCl, whereas Czapek's -cellulose media was intermediate. In the air, the dematiaceous fungi outnumbered the hyaline ones. Environmental factors such as atmospheric conditions, high light intensity, and deep diurnal fluctuations of temperature, wind and humidity may induce selective effects for advantage of the dematiaceous fungi over the hyaline like. Also, the melanin-containing fungi are more adapted to survive the injurious effects of these conditions. The present study showed similarities in both quantitative and qualitative compositions to many comparable investigations in tropical and subtropical areas such as Iraq, Iran, Laybia, Turkey, Kuwait, Egypt, as well as other studies in Saudi Arabia (6,64,75).

In the current study the most reproductive genera were Alternaria, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Ulocladium, Humicola followed by Derchslera, Fusarium, Stachybotrys and Penicillium. From the above genera A. alternata, A. niger, A. fumigatus, A. terreus, C. cladosporioides, U. atrum, H. grisea, A. spicifera, F monoliforme, S. chartarum and P. chrysogenum were the most prevalent species. These results are comparable to those obtained from several studies in the world. These genera also exhibited a high level of reproduction allover the world. In Riyadh, Hasnain et al. (76) in a study performed in outdoor air In Riyadh, it was reported that the genera of Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium, and Ulocladium were the most common. Hasanain et al. (77) found that the genus Ulocladium emerged to be one of the five most prevalent fungi in the outdoor environment of three rgions (Riyad, Jeddah and Al-Khbar), Saudi Arabia. They observed that the percentage of Ulocladium in the air varied at all sites studied with highest composition being 7% of the total air spora. Alternaria is known to be a potent allergen world-wide and considered to be the third important allergen, after ragweed and grass pollen, as a natural cause of allergy in the United states (78). Al-Suwaine et al. (75) studied the allergenic fungi and their seasonal fluctuation at two different sites (Al-Batha and Al-Ulia) in Riyadh city. They indicated that airborne fungi were grouped into major and minor components depending upon their frequency of appearance and catch percentage in the air. Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Alternaria and Ulocladium spp.were included as major components. While, minor components included Drechslera, Rhizopus, Fusarium and Stachybotrys spp. In a study performed in Ankara, Turkey, Mete et al. (79) reported that the most prevalent fungal genera were of Rhizopus (54%), Cldosporium (14.3%), Penicillium (12.4%), and Alternaria (4.7%). In a study conducted with 339 school children in Australia, Downs et al. (74) idicated that Alternaria allergens contributed to severe asthma in regions were exposure to the fungus was high. Also, In Turkey, Topbas et al. (23) evaluated the prevalent species of airborne in the outdoor environment in Trabzon city, Turkey and noticed that Alternaria (26.3%), Cladosporium (8.1%), Penicillium (26.8%) and Fusarium (13.2%) were the most prevalent fungal genera. In Iraq, Muhsin and Adlan (28) made an assessment of air quality by examining outdoor airborne fungi among three sites over four seasons of the year 2009 in Basrah city (Iraq). They noticed that the most predominant fungi belonged to the genera Cldosporium, Penicillium, Alternaria and Aspergillus. Also, highest counts of the fungal isolates were recorded for C. cladosporioides (31.3 % frequency), followed by P. notatum (= P chrysogenum, 11.9%), A. alternata (10.0%) and A. niger (5.8%). In Libya, El-gali and Abdullr (21) assessed the culturable airborne fungal colony and types in different seasons of 15 homes in different localities from April 2013 to March 2014 in Lybia. Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Fusarium solani, Penicillium chrysogenum and P. digitatum were the predominant genera and the abundance of genera varied by season. Spores of the previous species are generally considered to be important causes of allergic rhinitis and asthma80 .These genera have been reported among the predominant soil dematiaceus hyphomycetes in Eastern Tibet (81). It may be attributed to size and nature of their conidia (small, dry and carried in long chains) which facilitate thir dispersal by air (82).

The remaining genera and species were isolated in low or rare frequency of occurrence. Also, some species were recovered from one city and not from the other and on one medium and not on the other (Table 3). These results are nearly similar to those obtained from different places all over the world (16,83,86).

Aflatoxins

The fluorescence at 365 nm of 6 Aspergillus flavus strains recoverd in the present work indicated that 3 showed intense blue colour indicating aflatoxins B1, B2 production and fluoresced green colour indicating aflatoxin G1, G2 production. From the positive results 1 strain produced aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 (500 [micro]g/ L); one strain produced B1 (50 [micro]g/ L)and one istrain produced B1 and G1 (200 [micro]g/ L) which isolated from soil of Linah and Al-uwagilah on Cz and Cz+ Nacl media (Table 4 and Fig. 1). The remaining tested strains (3) showed negative results. In this respect, Riba et al. (87) screened 150 strains isolates that related to A. flavus (144 isolates) and A. tamari (6) for aflatoxin production and found only 45 isolates were aflatoxigenic. In the screening of Ezekiel et al. (88) on 90 isolates ofAspergillus section Flavi found that only 35.6 % of the isolates produced the characteristic fluorescence of aflatoxins under 365 nm UV. More recently, Ismail et al. (89) screened 43 fungal strains and noticed that all A. flavus strains showed blue colour with different intensities indicating aflatoxin B production and one of them fluoresced greenish yellow colour indicating aflatoxin G production.

CONCLUSION

In soil the hyaline fungi were predominant over the dark-coloured ones. It may be due to the soil is densely populated by microorganisms and competition for extence is very sever. On the other hand, fungi are relatively protected from the injurious effects of atmospheric conditions, high light intensity, and deep diurnal fluctuations of temperature and humidity. These conditions may selectively favour hyaline fungi over the darkcoloured (melanin-containing) fungi Chimatic factors influence the overall levels of airborne microorganisms causing allergic diseases. Hmide climates offer more opportunities for growth of varous groups of allergen producing organisms, especially fungi. Coastal areas have high humidty and horticultural practices throughout the year also provide sufficient moisture for fungal growth. This study provided some information regarding the air borne fungal composition at the Northern border region of Saudi Arabia and suggesting a further investigation to correlate between the common human allergies among the population and the incidence of airborne fungi in the environment of this cities. Knowledge on airborne fungi is important as it is considered a potential public health problem and data can be used as a base to develop criteria for assessing outdoor air quality in Saudi Arabia. Also, some of the isolated species especially related to Aspergillus flavus group are well-known as toxeginic and constitute a health hazard for human and animal.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Many thanks to Deanship of Scientific Research, Northern Border University, Arar, KSA for financial support this research project No. (827-1436-5).

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S.K. Hemida [1,2] and M. A. Abdel-Sater [2]

[1] Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts & Science (Rafha), University of Northern Border, Saudi Arabia.

[2] Department of Botany & Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt.

(Received: 06 March 2016; accepted: 29 April 2016)

* To whom all correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: samehhemida@yahoo.com

Caption: Fig. 1. Alfatoxin detected on thin layer chromotography (TLC) plates,Lane -1.,2 (negative); Lane 3 (mixture of flatoxins [B.sub.1], [B.sub.2], [G.sub.1], [G.sub.2]), Lane 4 (aflatoxin [B.sub.1]), Lane 5 (aflatoxin [B.sub.1] and [G.sub.1]) and Lane 6 (negative)

Table 1. Percentage moisture content (MC%) and total
soluble salts (TSS%) of the examined soil samples

             Rafha         Linah       Al-Uwaygilah      Arar

Samples   MC%    TSS%   MC%    TSS%    MC%     TSS%   MC%    TSS%
No.

1         1.8    0.2    1.8    0.9     1.5     0.5    2.1    1.1
2         0.9    0.2    0.7    1.0     1.3     0.6    1.8    1.2
3         1.6    0.3    1.9    0.8     0.9     0.2    2.6    0.9
4         1.5    0.9    0.9    0.4     1.8     1.0    2.2    0.6
5         1.6    0.3    0.2    0.3     0.5     0.7    1.7    0.7
6         1.0    1.0    1.3    0.2     2.2     0.6    2.5    1.0
7         0.4    0.6    1.1    0.5     3.6     0.8    3.0    0.8
8         0.8    0.3    0.9    0.6     1.9     1.0    0.6    0.9
9         1.2    0.4    1.8    0.7     2.1     1.1    2.0    0.4
10        1.3    0.9    1.0    0.9     1.8     0.9    1.9    0.6
Mean      1.21   0.51   1.16   0.63   1.76     0.83   2.04   0.82

Table 2. Total counts (TC, calculated per g) and percentage
frequency (F %, out of 10 samples) of fungal genera and species
isolated from desert soil of the four regions on Czapek's- glucose
(Cz), Czapek's -cellulose (Cell) and Czapek's- glucose supplemented
with 10% NaCl agar media at 28 : C

                                            Rafha

Texa *                        Cz            Cell.        10% NaCl

                              Cz
                               TC     F      TC    F    TC   F    TC
Alternaria                     26     5                           46
A. altemata                    16     3                           20
A. chlamvdospora
Alternaria spp.                10     2                           26
Aspergillus                   100     9     100    9              158
A. brasiliensis                4      2                           60
A. cameus                                    8     2
A, flavus                      4      2      6     3               6
A. fumigatus                   18     7      34    4              56
A. ochraceus                                 8     3              10
A. terreus                                   38    3               4
Botrvotri chum piluliferum
Cladosporium                                 6     1              20
C. cladosporioides                           6     2              10
Cochliobolus
C. spicifer
Emericella                     2      1      4     2               2
Fusarium                       4      1                 4    1    10
F. sambucinum
F. solani                      4      1                            6
Fusarium sp.                                            4    1
Humicola fusco-atra
Alucor                         12     1                            8
M. circinellioides             12     1                            8
Mvrothecium                                                        2
M. verrucaria                                                      2
P enicillium                   30     3      28    7              52
P. chrvsogenum                 8      1      28    4               2
P. funiculosum                 6      1
P. oxalicum                    16     1
P enicillium spp.                                                 48
Phoma                                        4                    28
P. glomerata                                 4     1              18
Staclrvbotrvs chartarum                                            6
Ulocladium                                                        28
U. atrum                                                          28
U. botrvtis
U. tuberculatum
Total CFUs                    174     10    142    10   4    10   348
No. of genera                  6      5      1     11   8    3    13
No. of species+var.            12     10     1     25   20   3    16
Total genera =20               9      12     12    13
Total spp. 56+lvar.            16     26    2224+lvar.

                                      LinahA1-UwaygilahArar

Texa *                        Cz             Cz          Cell.

                               F     TC      F      TC     F     TC
Alternaria                     4                    4      2
A. altemata                    1
A. chlamvdospora
Alternaria spp.                4                    4      2
Aspergillus                    7    302      10                  18
A. brasiliensis                1
A. cameus                                                         6
A, flavus                      3    120      5                    2
A. fumigatus                   5     90      6                   10
A. ochraceus                   1     22      2
A. terreus                     2     68      4
Botrvotri chum piluliferum           6       1                    2
Cladosporium                   4     2       1
C. cladosporioides             1
Cochliobolus                                                      2
C. spicifer                                                       2
Emericella                     1     6       2
Fusarium                       3                    2      1     26
F. sambucinum                                                     4
F. solani                      3                                 16
Fusarium sp.                                        2      1
Humicola fusco-atra
Alucor                         2     8       1
M. circinellioides             2     8       1
Mvrothecium                    1
M. verrucaria                  1
P enicillium                   7     96      3                   116
P. chrvsogenum                 1                                 38
P. funiculosum
P. oxalicum                                                       4
P enicillium spp.              4     96      3                   50
Phoma                         10
P. glomerata                   2
Staclrvbotrvs chartarum        2
Ulocladium                     3     62      5                   106
U. atrum                       3     32      2                   84
U. botrvtis                          30      3
U. tuberculatum                                                  22
Total CFUs                    10    492      10     8     10     276
No. of genera                 12     4       13     12     5
No. of species+var.           15     5     18 + 1   20   8 + 1
Total genera =20
Total spp. 56+lvar.

Texa *                               10% NaCl             CzCz

                               F      TC     F      TC     F
Alternaria                            2      1      20     2
A. altemata
A. chlamvdospora                      2      1      20     2
Alternaria spp.
Aspergillus                    4      40     7      2      1
A. brasiliensis
A. cameus                      1                    2      1
A, flavus                      1      2      1
A. fumigatus                   2      38     5
A. ochraceus
A. terreus
Botrvotri chum piluliferum     1      16     1
Cladosporium                          4      1
C. cladosporioides                    4      1
Cochliobolus                   1      2      1
C. spicifer                    1
Emericella
Fusarium                       4      6      2
F. sambucinum                  1      6      2
F. solani                      3
Fusarium sp.
Humicola fusco-atra                   4      1
Alucor                                8      3
M. circinellioides                    8      3
Mvrothecium                           38     4
M. verrucaria                         38     4
P enicillium                   9      2      1      4      2
P. chrvsogenum                 3                    4      2
P. funiculosum                        2      1
P. oxalicum                    1
P enicillium spp.              3
Phoma
P. glomerata
Staclrvbotrvs chartarum               32     1
Ulocladium                     7     102     6     202     8
U. atrum                       5      60     3      34     2
U. botrvtis                           38     3     168     6
U. tuberculatum                2      4      1
Total CFUs                     10    256     10    228     10
No. of genera
No. of species+var.
Total genera =20
Total spp. 56+lvar.

Texa *                              Cell.             10% NaCl

                              TC     F     TC    F     TC    F
Alternaria                    16     3     24    3     38    3
A. altemata
A. chlamvdospora              16     3     24    3     38    3
Alternaria spp.
Aspergillus                   14     3     24    4     40    5
A. brasiliensis
A. cameus
A, flavus                                              8     2
A. fumigatus                               14    2
A. ochraceus                                           10    1
A. terreus                     6     3     10    1     4     1
Botrvotri chum piluliferum
Cladosporium
C. cladosporioides
Cochliobolus                  12     2      6    1
C. spicifer                    8     1      6    1
Emericella                                             2     1
Fusarium                       4     1     38    5
F. sambucinum                              16    3
F. solani                                  14    2
Fusarium sp.
Humicola fusco-atra            8     2      2    1
Alucor                        22     3     14    4
M. circinellioides             8     3      2    1
Mvrothecium                   28     3     72    4
M. verrucaria                 14     2     30    2
P enicillium                               32    5
P. chrvsogenum
P. funiculosum                             26    3
P. oxalicum                                 6    1
P enicillium spp.
Phoma                         24            8
P. glomerata
Staclrvbotrvs chartarum
Ulocladium                    113    10    92    8    398    7
U. atrum                      64     7     72    5    358    5
U. botrvtis                   14     2      6    2     40    2
U. tuberculatum               35     3     14    2
Total CFUs                    253    10    324   10   488    10
No. of genera
No. of species+var.
Total genera =20
Total spp. 56+lvar.

* Genera and species encountered from one City were omitted.

Table 3.Total counts (calculated/30 plates/ 20 min)
of fungal genera and species isolated from the air of
the four regions on Czapek's-glucose agar (Cz), Czapek's
- Cellulose agar (Cell) and Czapek's with 10 % NaCl
agar (10% NaCl) media at 28 [degrees]C.

                                    Rafha                Linah

Genera & Species              Cz    Cell.   10 %   Cz    Cell.   10 %
                                            NaCl                 NaCl

Alternaria alternata          88     83      62    67     86      58
Aspergillus                   26     45      52    62     26      53
A. flavipes                   13      -      -     14      -      -
A. flavus                      3     12      -      3      4      -
A. fumigatus                   1      4      20     7      3      11
A. niger                       6     25      17    24     10      36
A. terreus                     1      4      7     11      6      6
A. ustus                       4      -      8      3      -      -
Chaetomium globosum            -      2      3      -      1      5
Cladosporium                  46     37      50    31     22      37
C. cladosporioides            43     37      48    31     22      37
C. herbarum                    3      -      2      -      -      -
Curvularia lunata              2     11      1      2      -      -
Derchslera                    11      8      6      8     14      17
D. halodes                     5      -      3      2      3      9
D. spicifera                   6      8      3      6     11      8
Fusarium                       8     22      22    17      7      25
F. moniliforme                 -     22      -      -      6      -
F.oxysporum                    -      -      -      6      -      13
F. solani                      8      -      22    11      1      12
Humicola grisea               17     18      4      7      3      10
Myrothecium roseum             -      -      7      1      3      2
Paecilomyces variotii          -      7      2      -      -      -
Penicillium                    9      9      6     13      -      5
P. chrysogenum                 4      9      6     13      -      5
P. funiculosum                 5      -      -      -      -      -
Phoma humicola                 9     14      10     9      4      -
Scopulariopsis brevicaulis            -      4      -      -      -
Stachybotrys chartarum        16     31      -     20     16      -
Sterile mycelia               17      9      16     7      9      18
Torula herbarum                -     10      -      2      -      -
Trichothecium roseum           -      -      -      -      -      -
Trichoderma hamatum            -      -      -      -      -      -
Ulocadium atrum               22     49      28    23     46      52
Total counts                  274    359    269    266    232    282
No. of genera                 12     15      13    11     11      10
No. of species                20     18      18    18     16      14
Total genera = 18             19     13      12    16
Total species = 28            28     22      21    23

                                Al-Uwaygilah             Arar

Genera & Species              Cz    Cell.   10 %   Cz    Cell.   10 %
                                            NaCl         NaCl

Alternaria alternata          74     95      33    84     72      32
Aspergillus                   32     27      13    39     61      6
A. flavipes                    4      2      6      3      -      3
A. flavus                      8      3      -      3     14      -
A. fumigatus                   6      -      -      6     10      3
A. niger                      12     22      7     21     13      -
A. terreus                     2      -      -      6     24      -
A. ustus                       -      -      -      -      -      -
Chaetomium globosum            -      -      -      -      4      -
Cladosporium                  28     10      11    25     45      19
C. cladosporioides            24     10      11    25     34      19
C. herbarum                    4      -      -      -     11      -
Curvularia lunata              -     13      -      2     11      -
Derchslera                     6     11      7     13     15      5
D. halodes                     -      -      7      5     12      2
D. spicifera                   6     11      -      8      3      3
Fusarium                      32      3      19    30     18      24
F. moniliforme                21      3      -     20     18      -
F.oxysporum                    6      -      -      -      -      -
F. solani                      5      -      19    10      -      24
Humicola grisea                5      5      10     7     11      -
Myrothecium roseum             -      -      -      -      -      -
Paecilomyces variotii          -      -      -      -      -      -
Penicillium                   10      2      2      5      -      3
P. chrysogenum                 4      2      2      5      -      3
P. funiculosum                 6      -      -      -      -      -
Phoma humicola                10      2      -      7      9      -
Scopulariopsis brevicaulis     -      6      -      -      4     - 3
Stachybotrys chartarum         4      8      -     13     28      -
Sterile mycelia                -      -      -      9      6      25
Torula herbarum                -      -      -      -      5      -
Trichothecium roseum           -      -      -      1      -      1
Trichoderma hamatum            -      -      -      -      7      5
Ulocadium atrum               24     40      27    17     70      68
Total counts                  231    216    122    256    351    190
No. of genera                 11     11      8     13     12      9
No. of species                19     13      9     19     17      11
Total genera = 18
Total species = 28

Table 4. Flourescence (at 365 nm) ofAspergillus flavus
strains isolated from the examined soil samples

Isolates (No.)              Flourescence        Source      Medium
                             on plates

Aspergilus flavus (1)           -ve              Rafha        Cz

Aspergilus flavus (2)           -ve              Rafha        Cz

Aspergilus flavus (3)      Aflatoxins B1,        Linah        Cz
                             B2, G1, G2
                          (500 [micro]g/L)

Aspergilus flavus (4)    B1 (50 [micro]g/L)   Al-Uwagilah     Cz

Aspergilus flavus (5)          B1, G1         Al-Uwagilah   Cz+NaCl
                          (200 [micro]g L)

Aspergilus flavus (6)           -ve              Arar       Cz+NaCl
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Author:Hemida, S.K.; Abdel-Sater, M.A.
Publication:Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7SAUD
Date:Jun 1, 2016
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