Biodiversity of marine gastropods along the Uran coast, Navi Mumbai, west coast of India.
In the present study, survey of marine gastropods for biodiversity was done along three substations; Sheva creek, Peerwadi coast and Dharamtar creek of Uran (Raigad), Navi Mumbai, west coast of India. Marine gastropods were collected during spring low tides from intertidal regions and shallow coastal waters monthly from June 2013 to May 2015. A total of 60 species of gastropods representing 38 genera, 25 families and 8 orders were identified. Of these, 10 species belongs to family Muricidae, 9 species to Neritidae, 6 species to Trochidae and 4 species to Bursidae. Families Cypraeidae and Lottiidae were represented by 3 species each. 2 species each were reportedfrom families Turbinidae, Cerithidae, Potamididae, Naticidae, Conidae and Volemidae whereas 1 species each belongs to remaining 13 families. Maximum species diversity of gastropods is recorded during post-monsoon and pre-monsoon from rocky substratum of Peerwadi coast and Dharamtar creek than open mud flats of Sheva creek. This could be attributed to the habitat preference by gastropods to the rocky substratum with abundance of sea grass beds than open mud flats. The variation in abundance of gastropods at Uran coast could result from anthropogenic activities of Jawaharlal Nehru Port (JNPT), port related establishments, sedimentation, disposal of domestic sewage, industrial wastes, overharvesting, habitat loss, overfishing and tourism. This study reveals that gastropods from Uran coast are facing threat due to industrial pollution and anthropogenic activities.
Gastropods, biodiversity, mollusca, Jawaharlal Nehru Port, Uran,
Benthos represents a major component of the marine environment and plays a vital role in the overall food chain in the sea .The benthic organisms contribute to a greater extent of total macrofaunal population forming an important role in nutrient cycles. The demersalfishery production potential of an aquatic ecosystem is virtually determined by the benthic animals living in close association with the bottom of estuaries .Macrobenthos consume all kinds of organic matter and in turn act as a food for many fishes, birds and other marine invertebrates.They act as a connecting link between the biotopes of substratum and water column in the aquatic systems. Benthos takes part in breakdown of particulate organic material and export energy to higher trophic level and can potentially support off-shore and pelagic communities.
The molluscs are soft - bodied, heterogeneous group of animals with great antiquity and diversity.They represent one of the most diverse and species-rich phyla of the animal kingdom and are only second to the arthropods. Due to their ubiquitous distribution and enormous species number, molluscs play important ecological roles in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems of the world.They provide key species for ecosystem functioning, e.g. food for echinoderms, fish, birds and mammals.Molluscs are also used for biomonitoring and bioindication purposes like biological effects of environmental stress in general and of contaminant exposure in particular are measurable at various levels of biological organization .
About 80,000 to 100,000 species of molluscs have been recorded from various parts of the world. In India, till today, 5070 species of mollusca have been recorded of which 3370 species are from marine habitats .Molluscs frommarine habitat of India, belonging to 220 families and 591 genera, of which 1900 are gastropods, 1100 are bivalves, 210 are cephalopods, 41 are polyplacophores and 20 are scaphopods [2, 51].
Of the seven molluscan classes, gastropods make up more than 80% of the species and majority of gastropod species exhibit an extremely limited mobility or are completely sessile as adults. These molluscs represent the contamination of their habitat ideally .The gastropods seem to be the abundant animals in the intertidal pool and have worldwide distribution considering their wide adaptations[16, 28].
Some sea grass associated herbivore gastropods form an important links between the primary detritus and consumers and the energy assimilated by them plays a significant role in nutrient recycling at the sea grass area .Marine gastropods become a natural resource of economic importance and are exploited on the large scale for purposes like human consumption, medicinal uses, ornamental and other uses .
Marine edible gastropods of the Indian coasts include limpets, trochids, whelks, the sacred chank, olives, the green snail etc.Some species of Trochus and Turbo are exploited on a subsistence basis, for edible purposes by many fishermen families at Ramanathapuram, Rameswaram and Kanyakumari in Tamil Nadu .Flores-Garza et al  reported 18 species of edible gastropods along Acapulco's Bahia de Santa Lucia bay, Mexico.Tabugo et al  noted that in the Island of Hadji Panglima Tahil, in the province of Sulu, Philippines, natives fed edible gastropods to their young ones to strengthen the teeth as they are a good source of iodine and calcium.Similar results on edible gastropods were also reported by Koutsoubas , Lakshmi  and Hamli et al .
Marine gastropods are also very good source of bioactive compounds used as pharmacological products with antitumor, antileukemic, antibacterial and antiviral properties.Bioactive compounds from marine gastropods are also used in the treatment of Alzhimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, depression and epilepsy , asthma, rickets and certain skin ailments  and victims of strokes and heart disease.
Marine gastropods are most commercially attractive and important worldwide for ornamental purposes.Shells of gastropods are large, colourful, relatively cheap and available plentiful. Whole shells have been used for souvenir items, interior decorations, jewellery, currency, ornamental tools, horns, games, religious symbols and for shell crafts e. g. Tiger cowry, Cypraea tigris, Lambis lambis, Strombus spp. Conus spp. etc [26, 44, 50]. In India, ornamental molluscs were popular among common man as ornaments and currency. The ornaments and handicrafts made out of molluscan shells are becoming highly priced objects in Indian and foreign markets .
Molluscan shells have been found important for various commercial purposes like poultry feed, shell lime, cement, lime industries, calcium resources, industrial raw material, fisheries, handicrafts and interior decoration [15, 34, 38, 46].
Various species of gastropods have been recognized as a useful tool for monitoring of heavy metals pollution. These organisms accumulate comparatively higher concentrations of metals because of their sedentary nature, both from water and sediment. The extent of bioaccumulation thus can play key role in determining water and sediment quality criteria[9, 18].
The marine gastropod resources in India are exploited regularly for various purposes. This exploitation goes unnoticed in several places because it constitutes a very minor fishing when compared to other fishery resources. Many studies have shown how unregulated harvesting and habitat degradation can threaten the molluscan population.The recent increase in human activities such as tourism and fishing along the shoreline of Maharashtra has intensified the exploitation of natural resources without any control .
Coastal environment of Uran has been under considerablestress since the onset of Jawaharlal Nehru Port (JNPT, an International Port), Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC), LPGD istillation Plant, Grindwell NortonLtd., Gas Turbine Power Station (GTPS), Bharat Petroleum CorporationLimited (BPCL) Gas Bottling Plant, DP World, Container Freight Stations (CFS), sedimentation, tourism etc. These activities affect the ecology of gastropods from Uran coast, Navi Mumbai.
Although many studies have been undertaken to evaluate the species diversity of marine gastropods in India, no scientific studies have been carried out on the species composition of marine gastropods of Uran, Navi Mumbai; hence, the present study is undertaken. Objective of the study is to evaluate the impact of anthropogenic inputs on species composition of marine gastropods with respect to tidal and seasonal variability.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Geographically, Uran (Lat.18[degrees]50'5" to 18[degrees]50'20" N and Long. 72[degrees]57'5" to 72[degrees]57'15" E)with the population of 23,254 is locatedalong the eastern shore of Mumbai harbor opposite to Coloba. Uranis bounded by Mumbai harbor to the northwest, Thane creek to thenorth, Dharamtar creek and Karanja creek to the south, and theArabian Sea to the west. Uran is included in the planned metropolisof Navi Mumbai and its port, the Jawaharlal Nehru Port (JNPT) (Fig. 1).
The coast of Uran is a tide-dominated and thetides are semidiuranal. The average tide amplitude is 2.28 m. Theflood period lasts for about 6-7 h and the ebb period lasts for about5 h. The average annual precipitation is about 3884 mm of whichabout 80% is received during July to September. The temperaturerange is 12-36[degrees]C, whereas the relative humidity remains between61% and 86% and is highest in the month of August.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
The present study was carried out for a period of two years, i.e., from June 2013 to May 2015. Three study sites namely Sheva creek, site I (Lat.18[degrees]50'20"N and Long. 72[degrees] 57'5"E), Peerwadi coast, site II (Lat.18[degrees]50'10"N and Long. [degrees]57'1"E) and Dharamtar creek, site III (Lat.18[degrees]48'3"N and Long. 72[degrees]58'31"E) separated approximately by 10 km were selected along the coast.
The study siteswere surveyed monthly during springlow tides and gastropods were collected by hand picking method from intertidal regions and shallow coastal waters. Collected specimens were washed with seawater to remove the debris, and were transferred to the clean polythene bags; one sample per bagand were brought to the laboratory.
In the laboratory, morphological featuresof each specimen including shape, spiral length and shape, mouth opening, operculum shape, umbilicus shape and size and colourwere recorded . The specimens were washed under tap water and then fixed in 10% formaldehyde-seawater solution and transferred into 90% ethanol.Empty shells were washed in water containing mild detergent and were rinsed in diluted hydrochloric acid to remove the hard outer coatand to reveal the natural colours.
Identification of gastropods:
All collected gastropods were photographed with Cannon EOS1100D digital camera and were identified up to species level using standardtaxonomic keys of Subrahmanyam et al. [41, 42, 43], Apte , Crothers , Paterson et al , Krieg , Bowling  and Marine Species Identification Portal website(http://species-identification.org). Scientific names and classification of gastropods was adopted from World Register of Marine Species (WRoMS) website (http://www.marinespecies.org).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Total 60 species of gastropods belonging to 38 genera, 25 familiesand 8 orders were recorded from Uran coast (Table1, Fig.3).In present study, gastropods belonging toorder Archaeogastropoda, Caenogastropoda, Chitonida, Cycloneritimorpha, Littorinimorpha, Neogastropoda, Nudibranchia and Patellogastropodawere recorded.
Number of species of gastropods distributed in each family reveals that 10 species belongs to family Muricidae, 9 species to Neritidae, 6 species to Trochidae and 4 species to Bursidae. Families Cypraeidae and Lottiidae were represented by 3 species each. 2 species each were reported from families Turbinidae, Cerithidae, Potamididae, Naticidae, Conidae and Volemidae whereas 1 species each is contributed by remaining 13 families (Table 2, Fig. 2).
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
Sheva creek is characterized by extensive mud flats with sparse mangrove vegetation and less rocky stretches. Jawaharlal Nehru Port (JNPT) and other port related establishments are located in the stretch of the creek. Gharapuri Island (Elephanta caves), a famous tourist spot is present on the north side of the creek. Intertidal region of Peerwadi coast has major portion of rocky substratum. Dharamtar creek is with rocky and coral substratum towards the Dronagiri Mountain whereas remaining part of the creek is dominated by the marshy areas and mud flats. Towards the Revas and Karanja side, the Dharamtar creek has mangrove associated habitats due to presence of dense and natural mangrove habitat.
Diversespecies composition of gastropods reported from Uran coast is attributed to the depth, availability of suitable substratum, appropriate habitat and sediment nature. Ganesh and Raman  reported that several factors e.g. locality, depth, distance from the shore, river proximity and local oceanographic features such as bottom currents, etc., appeared important for determining benthos distribution patterns.
[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]
Maximum species of gastropods was recorded from rocky stretches of the Peerwadi coast and Dharamtar creek as compared to the open mudflats of Sheva creek. This is correlated to habitat preference of gastropods to the rocky substratum with abundance of sea grass beds than the open mudflats.Similar results were reported by Varadharajan et al  from Arukkattuthurai to Aiyyampattinam, south east coast of India and Long et al  in Sampadi Island, Lundu, Sarawak, South China Sea.Results of the study are in agreement with the work of Boehs et al  from Paranagua Bay, Parana, Brazil, Picardal and Dolorosa  from bays in Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Philippines and Mohanraj et al  from Gulf of Mannar Island coral reef associated gastropods.
Low species diversity of gastropods recorded from open mudflats of Sheva creek could be attributed to the environmental variables like depth, sand, sediment organic matter and mean particle size. Similar results were reported by Kurhe et al  from Ratnagiri coast Maharashtra, India, Trivedi and Vachhrajani  along the coastal Saurashtra, Gujarat, India and Lumeran  from Asry Beach, Kingdom of Bahrain.
Maximum species diversity of gastropods was recorded during post-monsoon (October to January) and premonsoon (February to May). This could be correlated to the stable environment factors such as dissolved oxygen and salinity and decomposition of organic sediments . Ganesh and Raman  noted that increased upwelling during March-May leads to annual phytoplankton production marked by impoverishment of dissolved oxygen, and an increase in nutrients and salinity at this time of the year. Results of the study are in agreement with the work of Elaiyaraja et al  from Southeast coast of India, Khade and Mane  from Raigad district, Maharashtra, west coast of India, Mohan et al  from Pulicat Lake, southeast coast of India, David  along the Goa coastline, India, Paul et al  in North-East Coast of India, Vanmali and Jadhav  from Dativare coast of Vaitarna estuary, Dist.-Palghar, Maharashtra and Banerjee et al  from maritime states of India.
Minimum diversity of gastropods recorded during monsoon (June to September) could be due to the heavy downpour, which caused drastic fluctuations in the temperature and salinity. Anbuchezhian et al  reported that temperature and salinity are important ecological factors which influence distribution of benthic organisms. Ganesh and Raman  noted that large scale discharges of silt by the rivers reduces the water transparency over large areas with a consequent fall in the rate and amount of photosynthesis affecting the diversity of benthos.
The biodiversity of marine organisms have been regularly monitored to study the climatic changes and pollution impacts .The marine gastropod are exploited for food, at the same time the beautiful shape and colour of the shells have attracted and aroused the imagination of man to use them for ornamental purpose also.Mehmaz et al  reported that trawling is believed to affect the stock abundances directly by removing or killing individuals. Dolorosa and Dangan-Galon  documented that unregulated harvesting, habitat degradation, improper waste disposal, plastic materials and broken bottles (of liquor) and oil pollution from boat discharge have threatened the marine gastropods from Iwahig River-Estuary, Palawan, the Philippines.
Sustainable use of marine and coastal living resources cannot be properly established without an adequate knowledge of biodiversity. Monitoring the biodiversity of a large ecosystem will allow a proper evaluation of the effects of natural and anthropogenic factors on species numbers, kinds and distribution .High market demand, coupled with a lack of awareness and inadequate enforcement were found to be the major driving forces behind the illegal marine curio trade [6, 20].Venkatraman and Venkataraman  stated that threats of problems to gastropods of Chennai coast include sedimentation, disposal of domestic sewage, industrial waste, over fishing and tourism. Similar results were reported by Kantor et al  in Nha Trang Bay, Vietnam.
The Sheva creek receives wastes and effluents from Asia's largest industrialized zone namely Thane Belapur industrialized area and Navi Mumbai Urban area .Waste water from petrochemical complex and other industries are disposed into Dharamtar creek .Peerwadi coast is in close proximity to human population and receives domestic waste and sewage from Nagaon, Kegaon and Uran.Maritime activities of Jawaharlal Nehru Port(JNP)affect the coastal ecosystem of Uran due to anthropogenic threat; still Uran coast harbours varied species diversity of gastropods.
Since no earlier reports are available on species diversity of gastropods from Uran coast, data presented here can be taken as a baseline data in knowing the status of gastropods and effect of industrial development on it and for a better management of gastropods.
In the present study, the results showed that the Uran coast harbors a diverse group of gastropods. Gastropodspecies belonging to family Muricidae and Neritidae were dominant followed by families Trochidae and Bursidae over all the families recorded in the study.The study also reveals that gastropods in close proximity to human populations consist of fewer species whereas the community at a site distant from human development shows more diverse assemblage of species.The variation in abundance of species could result from anthropogenic activities of Jawaharlal Nehru Port (JNP). Activities like overharvesting, habitat loss, disposal of sewage, wastes and effluents, sedimentation and tourism will affect the coastal ecosystem.Present information on species diversity of gastropodswould be helpful as a baseline data for further monitoring of anthropogenic inputs on gastropods from Uran coast.
Financial support provided by University Grants Commission, New Delhi [File No: 42-546/2013 (SR) dated 22nd Mar 2013] is gratefully acknowledged.The corresponding author is thankfulto The Principal, Veer Wajekar Arts, Science and Commerce College Mahalan Vibhag, Phunde (Uran), Navi Mumbai 400702for providing necessary facilities for the present study. Special thanks to Dr. Rahul B. Patil for providing healthy cooperation during field visits for photography of the study sites and gastropods.Thanks are due to Mr. Sanket S. Shirgaonkar, who worked as a Project Fellow for the present study. Thanks to Dr. Atul G. Babar for the help rendered during preparation of location map of study area.
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(1) Prabhakar R. Pawar and (2) Abdel Rahman Mohammad Said Al-Tawaha
(1) Veer Wajekar Arts, Science and Commerce College, Department of Zoology, Phunde (Uran), Raigad, Navi Mumbai - 400 702, India. (2) Department of Biological Sciences, Al Hussein Bin Talal University, Ma'an, P.O. Box 20, Jordan.
Received 12 January 2016; Accepted 31 March 2017; Available online 15 April 2017
Address For Correspondence:
Veer Wajekar Arts, Science and Commerce College, Department of Zoology, Phunde (Uran), Raigad, Navi Mumbai - 400 702, India
Copyright [c] 2017 by authors and American-Eurasian Network for Scientific Information.
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY).
Table 1: Checklist of gastropods faunal diversity during study period from Sheva creek, Peerwadi coast & Dharamtar Creek of Uran Order Family Archaeogastropoda Fissurellidae Archaeogastropoda Nacellidae Archaeogastropoda Trochidae Archaeogastropoda Trochidae Archaeogastropoda Trochidae Archaeogastropoda Trochidae Archaeogastropoda Trochidae Archaeogastropoda Trochidae Archaeogastropoda Turbinidae Archaeogastropoda Turbinidae Caenogastropoda Cerithiidae Caenogastropoda Cerithiidae Caenogastropoda Potamididae Caenogastropoda Potamididae Chitonida Ischnochitonidae Cycloneritimorpha Neritidae Cycloneritimorpha Neritidae Cycloneritimorpha Neritidae Cycloneritimorpha Neritidae Cycloneritimorpha Neritidae Cycloneritimorpha Neritidae Cycloneritimorpha Neritidae Cycloneritimorpha Neritidae Cycloneritimorpha Neritidae Littorinimorpha Bursidae Littorinimorpha Bursidae Littorinimorpha Bursidae Littorinimorpha Bursidae Littorinimorpha Cypraeidae Littorinimorpha Cypraeidae Littorinimorpha Cypraeidae Littorinimorpha Ficidae Littorinimorpha Naticidae Order Family Littorinimorpha Naticidae Littorinimorpha Rostellariidae Littorinimorpha Tonnidae Neogastropoda Buccinidae Neogastropoda Clavatulidae Neogastropoda Columbellidae Neogastropoda Conidae Neogastropoda Conidae Neogastropoda Mangeliidae Neogastropoda Muricidae Neogastropoda Muricidae Neogastropoda Muricidae Neogastropoda Muricidae Neogastropoda Muricidae Neogastropoda Muricidae Neogastropoda Muricidae Neogastropoda Muricidae Neogastropoda Muricidae Neogastropoda Muricidae Neogastropoda Nassariidae Neogastropoda Onchidiidae Neogastropoda Volemidae Neogastropoda Volemidae Nudibranchia Chromodorididae Patellogastropoda Lottiidae Patellogastropoda Lottiidae Patellogastropoda Lottiidae Order Scientific Name Archaeogastropoda Diodora gibberula (Lamarck, 1822) Archaeogastropoda Cellana radiata (Born, 1778) Archaeogastropoda Trochus radiates (Gmelin, 1791) Archaeogastropoda Trochus tentorium (Gmelin, 1791) Archaeogastropoda Umbonium vestiarium (Linnaeus, 1758) Archaeogastropoda Trochus stellatus (Gmelin, 1791) Archaeogastropoda Trochus maculates (Linnaeus, 1758) Archaeogastropoda Clanculus guineensis (Gmelin, 1791) Archaeogastropoda Astraea stellata (Gmlin, 1791) Archaeogastropoda Astraea semicostata (Kiener, 1850) Caenogastropoda Clypeomorus bifasciatus (Sowerby II, 1855) Caenogastropoda Clypeomorus moniliferus (Kiener, 1841) Caenogastropoda Telescopium telescopium (Linnaeus, 1758) Caenogastropoda Potamides cingulatus (Gmelin, 1791) Chitonida Ischnochiton australis (G.B. Sowerby II, 1833) Cycloneritimorpha Nerita undata (Linnaeus, 1758) Cycloneritimorpha Nerita albicilla (Linnaeus, 1758) Cycloneritimorpha Nerita crepidularia (Lamarck, 1816) Cycloneritimorpha Nerita oryzarum (Recluz, 1841) Cycloneritimorpha Nerita costata (Gmelin, 1791) Cycloneritimorpha Nerita chamaeleon (Linnaeus, 1758) Cycloneritimorpha Nerita aterrima (Gmelin, 1791) Cycloneritimorpha Neritina pulligera (Linnaeus, 1758) Cycloneritimorpha Neritina punctulata (Lamarck, 1816) Littorinimorpha Bursa tuberculata (Broderip, 1833) Littorinimorpha Bursa granularis (Roding, 1798) Littorinimorpha Bursa spinosa (Schumacher, 1817) Littorinimorpha Bursa lissostoma (E. A. Smith, 1914) Littorinimorpha Erosaria lamarckii (J.E. Gray, 1825) Littorinimorpha Luria lurida (Linnaeus, 1758) Littorinimorpha Cypraea tigris (Linnaeus, 1758) Littorinimorpha Ficus gracilis (G. B. Sowerby 1,1825) Littorinimorpha Natica didyma (Roding, 1798) Order Scientific Name Littorinimorpha Natica rufa (Born, 1778) Littorinimorpha Tibia curta (G. B. Sowerby II, 1842) Littorinimorpha Tonna dolium (Linnaeus, 1758) Neogastropoda Cantharus spiralis (Gray, 1839) Neogastropoda Makiyamaia arthopleura (Kilburn, 1983) Neogastropoda Parvanachis obesa (C. B. Adams, 1845) Neogastropoda Conus ambiguus (Reeve, 1844) Neogastropoda Conus circumactus (Iredale, 1929) Neogastropoda Propebela harpularia (Couthouy, 1838) Neogastropoda Drupa konkanensis (Melvill, 1893) Neogastropoda Indothais blanfordi (Melvill, 1893) Neogastropoda Murex brunneus (Link, 1807) Neogastropoda Murex bundharmai (Houart, 1992) Neogastropoda Purpura bufo (Lamarck, 1822) Neogastropoda Stramonita floridana (Conrad, 1837) Neogastropoda Thais carinifera (Lamarck, 1822) Neogastropoda Thais sacellum (Gmelin, 1791) Neogastropoda Thais gradate (Jonas, 1846) Neogastropoda Vasula deltoidea (Lamarck, 1822) Neogastropoda Nassarius vibex (Say, 1822) Neogastropoda Onchidium damelii (Semper, 1882) Neogastropoda Hemifusus pugilinus (Born, 1778) Neogastropoda Hemifusus cochlidium (Linnaeus, 1758) Nudibranchia Mexichromis mariei (Crosse, 1872) Patellogastropoda Lottia septiformis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1834) Patellogastropoda Lottia tenuisculpta (Sasaki & Okutani, 1994) Patellogastropoda Acmaea subrugosa (d'Orbigny, 1846) Table 2: Number of species of gastropods distributed in each family at Sheva creek, Peerwadi coast & Dharamtar Creek of Uran Order Family Genera Species % composition of species Archaeogastropoda Fissurellidae 1 1 1.67 Nacellidae 1 1 1.67 Trochidae 6 10.00 Turbinidae 1 2 3.33 Caenogastropoda Cerithiidae 1 2 3.33 Potamididae 2 3.33 Chitonida Ischnochitonidae 1 1 1.67 Cycloneritimorpha Neritidae 9 15.00 Littorinimorpha Bursidae 1 4 6.67 Cypraeidae 3 5.00 Ficidae 1 1 1.67 Naticidae 1 2 3.33 Rostellariidae 1 1 1.67 Tonnidae 1 1 1.67 Neogastropoda Buccinidae 1 1 1.67 Clavatulidae 1 1 1.67 Columbellidae 1 1 1.67 Conidae 1 3.33 Mangeliidae 1 1 1.67 Muricidae 10 16.67 Nassariidae 1 1 1.67 Onchidiidae 1 1 1.67 Volemidae 1 2 3.33 Nudibranchia Chromodorididae 1 1 1.67 Patellogastropoda Lottiidae 2 3 5.00 8 25 38 60 100
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|Author:||Pawar, Prabhakar R.; Al-Tawaha, Abdel Rahman Mohammad Said|
|Publication:||American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture|
|Date:||Jun 1, 2017|
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