Printer Friendly

Biochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of some mushrooms from Turkey: Agaricus spp., Pleurotus spp., Morchella esculenta and Terfezia boudieri.


Edible mushrooms are appreciated for their nutritional value and medical properties as well as their texture and flavor. They are considered healthy because they are low in fat and calories but rich in diatery fibre, vitamins, minerals and also protein. The nutritive components and taste properties of various mushrooms have been thoroughly studied (Barros et al. 2008; Grangeia et al. 2011; Reis et al. 2012; Kalogeropoulos et al. 2013; Heleno et al. 2015). In terms of their nutritional qualities, they have become increasingly important in the human diet; this may be explained by their antioxidant capacity to clear free radicals, which are responsible for the oxidative damage of lipids, proteins and nucleic acids of mushrooms (Wong and Chye 2009).

Oxidative stress caused by free radicals may be related to diseases such as aging, diabetes, cancer, cirrhosis and atherosclerosis etc. Organisms have developed antioxidant defenses and repair systems to protect against oxidative stress, but these systems are not sufficient to prevent damage completely (Wasser 2010; Wasser 2014; Sanchez 2017). However, antioxidant supplements or foods containing antioxidants can be used to help reduce the oxidative stress of the human body. Carotenoids, [alpha]-tocopherol, ascorbic acid and polyphenols are well protected against free radical damage by some oxidative enzymes (Tadhani et al. 2007). Epidemiological studies showed that the consumption of vegetable and fruits is associated with reduced risks of some diseases. Mushrooms accumulate a variety of tocopherols, steroids, phenols, polyketides, flavonoids, terpenesetc. (Wasser 2010; Vaz et al. 2011; Taofiq et al. 2016; Sanchez 2017). Nowadays, the use of edible mushrooms as nutrients have become more important due to the increase in diseases such as diabetes, fatty liver, obesity, heart disease, high blood pressure, cancer, immune systems etc. (Barros et al. 2008; Wasser 2014; Rathore et al. 2017).

Recently, it has been found that mushrooms are medically active in various treatments and used for diet therapy. Herein, we report the phenol, flavonoid, vitamin, fatty acid and sugar contents of mushrooms and their antioxidant capacity. For the identification of antioxidant properties, we also evaluated their DPPH, ABTS and MDA features.


Collection of Mushroom Samples

The mushrooms used in the present study were obtained from different cultural studies, collected from field work and purchased from a local grocery. Wet Pleurotus eryngii (DC. ex Fr.) Quel. var. ferulae Lanzi, Pleurotus eryngii (DC. ex Fr.) Quel. var. eryngii, Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm., Lentinus sajorcaju (Fr.) Fries. (syn. Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Sing.), and Pleurotus floridanus Singersamples were obtained from the Cultured Mushroom Laboratory of Bitlis Eren University, Bitlis - Turkey. In addition, commercial samples of Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange) Imbach were purchased from Bitlis - Turkey, wild samples of Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers.from Antalya, P. ostreatus and Agaricus campestris L.from Elazig, and Terfezia boudieri Chatinfrom Sanliurfa were collected and purchased from Turkey, respectively. The samples were dried at 25[degrees]C for 15-20 days, and then used in the study.


One gram of dry mushroom samples was homogenised with 10 ml of 80% methanol using a blender, and then the residues were filtered. After centrifugation (5000 rpm, 5 min.), the supernatant was separated from the residue, and the solvent removed with a rotary vacuum evaporator. The evaporated residue was dissolved in DMSO and stored until analysis.

Selected biochemical components and antioxidant activites were determined with appropriate methods, as described below: Flavonoid (DAD detector following RP-HPLC) by the chromatographic analysi sand total phenolic contents (The absorbance of the mixture was measured spectrophotometrically at 765 nm) (Singleton and Rossi 1965; Zu et al. 2006; Barros et al. 2007; Song et al. 2010), fatty acids (Methyl esters were analyzed with the SHIMADZU GC 17 Ver. 3 gas chromatography (Kyoto, Japan))by modified by Hara and Radin (1978), Christie (1992), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (The absorbance of the mixture was measured spectrophotometrically at 517 nm), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) (The absorbance of the mixture was measured spectrophotometrically at 734 nm), and malondialdehyde (MDA) (The equipment consisted of a pump (LC-10 ADVP), a UV-visible detector (SPD-10AVP), a column oven (CTO-10ASVP), an autosampler (SIL-10ADVP) a degasser unit (DGU-14A) and a computer system with class VP software (Shimadzu, Kyoto Japan) according to the method of Shimoi et al. (1994), Brand-Williams et al. (1995) and Re et al. (1999), free sugars (high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a refractive index detector (RID) and vitamins (DGU-14A and Class VP software (Shimadzu, Kyoto Japan) were determined by HPLC based on the method used by Sanchez-Machado et al. (2004) and Lopez-Cervantes et al. (2005), and the content of proteins was analysed according to Lowry procedure (The absorbance of the mixture was measured spectrophotometrically at 750 nm) (Lowry et al. 1951).


Vitamin A, D, E and K are essential micronutrients that have a wide variety of functions throughout the human body; the first helps the eyes adjust to light changes (blindness), in gene expression, cell division, reproduction, bone growth, tooth development, antioxidant, and regulation of the immune system; the second plays a critical role in the body's use of [Ca.sup.2+] and P in the maintenance of healthy bones and teeth; the third one benefits the body by acting as an antioxidant, protecting red blood cells, and essential fatty acids from destruction; and the fourth plays an essential role in promoting bone health, normal blood clotting, and other functions (Combs 2008). While there is a wealth of literature data regarding studies on the vitamin A, E, and C contents of mushroom species, those studies devoted to vitamin K, D and sterol contents are limited. Mushrooms rich in vitamins A, D, E and K along with ergosterol content are thought to be the only vegetarian source for vitamin D (Rathore et al. 2017). It has been well established as critical for bone health, in immune function and the prevention of certain types of cancer (Bischoff-Ferrari et al. 2006; Holick 2007; Urashima et al. 2010).

Vitamin (K1, K2, D2, D3, [alpha]-tocopherol, retinol and retinolast) and sitosterol (ergosterol, stigmasterol and [beta]-sitosterol) contents of Pleurotus spp., L. sajor-caju, Agaricus spp., M. esculenta and T. boudieri samples are shown in Table 1. The highest vitamin K1, K2, D2, D3, [alpha]-tocopherol, ergosterol and stigmasterol contents were 60.85 [micro]g/g in T. boudieri, 1.50 [micro]g/g in P. floridanus, 7.20 [micro]g/g in L. sajor-caju, 3.45 [micro]g/g in M. esculenta, 68.20 [micro]g/g in T. boudieri, 491.75 [micro]g/g in M. esculenta and 110.45 [micro]g/g in M. esculenta as shown in Table 1. The presence of sterols in mushrooms has previously been reported. The predominance of ergosterol and the presence of the minor related sterols in Russula delica (0.07-12.51 [micro]g/100 g fw), Suillus bellinii (0.05-12.31 [micro]g/100 g fw) and Lactarius species (0.02-18.0 [micro]g/100 g fw) was reported by Kalogeropoulos et al. (2013). Mushrooms contain several primary vitamins such as vitamin D, riboflavin, niacin, thiamine and tocopherol (Cheung, 2010). For various species, the niacin, ascorbic acid, thiamine and riboflavin content can vary (Zhu et al. 2007; Yin and Zhou 2008; Zhou and Yin 2008; Xu et al. 2012). The reported vitamin contents were 19.16-400.36 [micro]g/100 g dw ascorbic acid and tocopherol in wild edible mushroom (Grangeia et al. 2011; Vaz et al. 2011), 0.18-10.65 [micro]g/g dw tocopherol in commercial and wild mushrooms (Barros et al. 2008), 1.81-11.16 [micro]g/100 g fw in Flammulina velutipes, A. bisporus, Pleurotus spp. and Lentinula edodes (Reis et al. 2012), 0.70-5.1 mg/100 g ascorbic acid in Terfezia and Tirmania species (Sawaya et al. 1985; Hussain and Al-Ruqaie 1999), 4.7-194 mg/100 g dm tocopherol and vitamin D2 in Boletus species and Thelephora ganbajun (Wu et al. 2005; Zhou and Yin 2008). The wide variation in vitamin contents in edible wild, culture and commercial mushrooms might arise from the variety of the growing areas, stage of ripening, sample preparation, methods of analysis, as well as other factors (climate condition, sample collection, transportation, host plant) as stated in the aforementioned studies.

The sugar, total flavonoid, phenol and protein contents of the studied mushrooms, expressed on a dry weight basis, are presented in Table 2. It was observed that P. ostreatus and A. campestris have a higher amount of glucose, sucrose and maltose, when compared with the other species. Furthermore, sugars such as maltose and arabinose were not detected in Pleurotus-species (see Table 2). The accumulation of arabinose, mannitol, fructose, sucrose, trehalose, mannose, glucose in the fruit bodies of other species were already reported. The observed sugar values can vary within those considered as typical for culture, commercial and edible wild mushrooms (Barros et al. 2008; Grangeia et al. 2011; Vaz et al. 2011; Reis et al. 2012; Heleno et al. 2015). These differences might have been dependent on growing habitats, mushroom types and geographical areas as stated in the aforementioned reports.

It was determined that the amount of total flavonoid and phenol that Agaricus spp. (A. bisporus and A. campestris) contain are higher than the amount that other mushroom species (Pleurotus spp., L. sajor-caju, T. boudieri and M. esculenta) see Table 2. It has also been suggested that the antioxidant properties contribute to their vitamin, flavonoid and phenolic compounds Previous studies suggested a strong correlation between the vitamin, phenolic compounds and flavonoid in mushrooms and their antioxidant activity ((2,2-diphenyl-1-pic-rylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azinobis (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, antiradical, reducing power, chelating ability etc. (Grangeia et al. 2011; Vaz et al. 2011; Kalogeropoulos et al. 2013; Sanchez 2017). The total flavonoid and phenolic contents of the mushrooms was determined by growing conditions, time and manner of harvesting, maturity, variety and species. Even after harvest, many factors may affect composition. These include, variation in analytica methods, sample preparation, storage time and conditions and processing procedures as shown by others.

L sajor-caju, P. floridanus and P. ostreatus (culture) were the mushrooms with the highest amounts of protein (137.3-138.6 mg/g), while T. boudieri, P. eryngii var. ferulae, A. bisporus and P. eryngii war. eryngiiwere had relavitely lower protein contents (81.0-96.0 mg/g) than the other samples in our study as seen in Table 2. Mushroom protein was reported to vary according to especially analytical methods, the genetic structure of the species and the chemica and physical differences in growing habitat. It seems that the guantity of crude protein values are different to those reported by other researchers (Barros et al. 2008; Vaz et al. 2011; Reis et al. 2012; Heleno et al. 2015; Rathore et al. 2017).

The results for fatty acid composition of edible wild, culture and commercial mushrooms are shown in Table 3. Up to 18 fatty acids were found in mushroom lipids. The analysis of the obtained profiles showed that linoleic (37.08-76.72%), oleic (2.91-39.43%), palmitic (8.94-18.14%), stearic (1.32-5.53%) and palmitoleic acid (0.99-3.59%) were the main fatty acids in the species studied (Table 3). Other fatty acids were present in only low levels. The studied species revealed that linoleic acid was an important fatty acid. It was the preponderant fatty acid in P. ostreatus, A. bisporus, M. esculenta, L. sajor-caju, P. floridanus, A. campestris, T. boudieri, while oleic acid was the main component in P. eryngii var. ferulae, P. eryngii-var. eryngiiand T. boudieri species. Agaricus species were the mushroom with the highest amounts of stearic acid, while A. campestris and T. boudieri were the mushrooms with the highest amounts of palmitic acid. The fatty acid profiles of the different mushroom species appeared to be distinct. An abundance of these essential fatty acids in other edible wild, cultureand commercial mushrooms has been described (Barros et al. 2008; Vaz et al. 2011; Reis et al. 2012; Kalogeropoulos et al.2013). Regarding the species described above, their gualitative and guantitative fatty acids profiles have, to some extent, been found to be different from those described in literature. These are consistent with the observation that, in mushrooms, the unsaturated fatty acids predominate over the saturated, in the total fatty acids contents.

It was determined that their effect (A. bisporus, P. eryngii var. ferulae, P. ostreatus and P. eryngii var. eryngii) to remove the ABTS and DPPH radical was more efficient in groups to which samples of 25-200 [micro]L (12.36-99.53%) ABTS and 50-800 [micro]L (36.48-91.89%) DPPH were dose dependent (see Table 4). The present findings reveal that the extract of A. bisporus, L. sajor-caju, P. eryngii var. eryngii, P. ostreatus and P. eryngii var. ferulae possesses a profound antioxidant effect as seen in Table 4. Several studies suggested a strong correlation between the vitamin, flavonoid and phenolic compounds in mushrooms and their antioxidant activity (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, ORAC, antiradical, reducing power, chelating ability etc.(Grangeia et al. 2011; Vaz et al. 2011; Kalogeropoulos et al. 2013; Sanchez 2017). Our data (see Table 4) is different to that reported by other researchers. Large quantitative differences (probably due to the analytical methods used), and the heterogeneity of the samples analysed were found to be so in the cited studies. The geographic effect, climatic conditions, growing habitats and species are thought to be responsible for these differences. Our findings were supported by previous findings in the aforementioned studies.

In conclusion, the study results generally show that mushrooms can be a good antioxidant source to help an organism increase its overall antioxidant capacity and protect it against lipid peroxidation.

Peer-review: Externally peer-reviewed.

Author Contributions: Concept--M.A., S.K.; Design--M.A.; Supervision--M.A.; Resource--M.A.; Materials--M.A., S.K.; Data Collection and/or Processing--M.A., S.K.; Analysis and/or Interpretation--A.D.O.K., Z.G., O.Y.; Literature Search--M.A., S.K.; Writing--M.A.

Conflict of Interest: The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

Financial Disclosure: The authors declared that this study has received no financial support.


* Barros L, Calhelha C, Vaz J, Ferreira I, Baptista P, Estevinho L (2007). Antimicrobial activity and bioactive compounds of Portuguese wild edible mushrooms methanolic extracts. Eur Food Res Tech 225: 151-156. [CrossRef]

* Barros L, Cruz T, Baptista P, Estevinho LM, Ferreira IC (2008). Wild and commercial mushrooms as source of nutrients and nutraceuticals. Food Chem Toxicol 46: 2742-2747. [CrossRef]

* Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Giovannucci E, Willett WC, Dietrich T, Daw-son-Hughes B (2006). Estimation of optimal serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for multiple health outcomes. Am J Clin Nutr 84: 18-28. [CrossRef]

* Brand-Williams W, Cuvelier ME, Berset C (1995). Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. Lebensm WissTechnol 28: 25-30. [CrossRef]

* Christie WW (1992). Gas chromatography and lipids. The Oil Pres, Glaskow.

* Combs GF (2008). The vitamins: fundamental aspects in nutrition and health. Third Edition, Elsevier Academic Press, USA.

* Grangeia C, Heleno SA, Barros L, Martins A, Ferreira IC (2011). Effects of trophism on nutritional and nutraceutical potential of wild edible mushrooms. Food Res Inter 44: 1029-1035. [CrossRef]

* Hara A, Radin NS (1978). Lipid extraction of tissues with a lowtoxicity solvent. Anal Biochem 90: 420-426. [CrossRef]

* Heleno SA, Barros L, Martins A, Morales P, Fernandez-Ruiz V, Glamoclija J, Ferreira IC (2015). Nutritional value, bioactive compounds, antimicrobial activity and bioaccessibility studies with wild edible mushrooms. LWT-Food Sci Tech 63: 799-806. [CrossRef]

* Holick MF (2007). Vitamin D deficiency. New Engl J Med 357: 266-281. [CrossRef]

* Hussain G, Al-Ruqaie IM (1999). Occurrence, chemical composition, and nutritional value of truffles: an overview. Pakistan J Biol Sci 2: 510-514. [CrossRef]

* Kalogeropoulos N, Yanni AE, Koutrotsios G, Aloupi M (2013). Bio-active microconstituents and antioxidant properties of wild edible mushrooms from the island of Lesvos, Greece. Food Chem Toxicol 55: 378-385. [CrossRef]

* L'opez-Cervantes J, S'anchez-Machado DI, R'ios-V'azquez NJ (2006). High-performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous quantification of retinol, -tocopherol, and cholesterol in shrimp waste hydrolysate. J Chrom A 1105: 135-139. [CrossRef]

* Lowry OH, Rosenbrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ (1951). Protein measurement with the Folin-phenol reagent. J Biochem 193: 265-277.

* Rathore H, Prasad S, Sharma S (2017). Mushroom nutraceuticals for improved nutrition and better human health: a review. Pharma Nutr 5: 35-46. [CrossRef]

* Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, Rice-Evans C (1999). Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radic Biol Med 26: 1231-1237. [CrossRef]

* Reis FS, Barros L, Martins A, Ferreira IC (2012). Chemical composition and nutritional value of the most widely appreciated cultivated mushrooms: an inter-species comparative study. Food Chem Toxicol 50: 191-197. [CrossRef]

* Sanchez C (2017). Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant properties from mushrooms. Synthetic Syst Biotechnol 2: 13-22. [CrossRef]

* Sanchez-Machado DI, Lopez-Hernandez J, Paseiro-Losada P, Lopez-Cervantes J (2004). An HPLC method for the quantification of sterols in edible seaweeds. Biomed Chromatogr 18: 183-190. [CrossRef]

* Sawaya WN, Al-Shalhat A, Al-Sogair A, Mohammad M (1985). Chemical composition and nutritive value of truffles of Saudi Arabia. J Food Sci 50: 450-453. [CrossRef]

* Shimoi K, Masuda S, Furugori M, Esaki S, Kinae N (1994). Radioprotective effect antioxidative flavonoids in gamma-ray irradiated mice. Carcinogenesis 15: 2669-2672 [CrossRef]

* Singleton VL, Rossi JA (1965). Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. American Journal of Enology Viticulture 16: 144-158.

* Song FL, Gan RY, Zhang Y, Xiao Q, Kuang L, Li HB (2010). Total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of selected Chinese medicinal plants. Int J Mol Sci 11: 2362-2372. [CrossRef]

* Tadhani MB, Patel VH, Subhash R (2007). In vitro antioxidant activities of Stevia rebaidiana leaves and callus. J Food Compos Anal 20: 323-329. [CrossRef]

* Taofiq O, Martins A, Barreiro MF, Ferreira IC (2016). Anti-inflammatory potential of mushroom extracts and isolated metabolites. Trends Food Sci Technol 50: 193-210. [CrossRef]

* Urashima M, Segawa T, Okazaki M, Kurihara M, Wada Y, Ida H (2010). Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation to prevent seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren. Am J Clin Nutr 91: 1255-1260. [CrossRef]

* Vaz JA, Barros L, Martins A, Santos-Buelga C, Vasconcelos MH, Ferreira IC (2011). Chemical composition of wild edible mushrooms and antioxidant properties of their water soluble polysaccharidic and ethanolic fractions. Food Chem 126: 610-616. [CrossRef]

* Wasser SP (2010). Medicinal mushroom science: history, current status, future trends, and unsolved problems. Int J Med Mushrooms 12: 1-16. [CrossRef]

* Wasser SP (2014). Medicinal mushroom science: Current perspectives, advances, evidences, and challenges. Biomed J 37: 345-356. [CrossRef]

* Wong JY, Chye FY (2009). Antioxidant properties of selected tropical wild edible mushrooms. J Food Compos Anal 22: 269-277. [CrossRef]

* Wu SX, Wang BX, Guo SY, Li L, Yin JZ (2005). Yunnan wild edible Thelehhora ganhajun Zang nutrients analysis. Mod Prev Med 32: 1548-1549.

* Xu DX, Lin J, Duan ZM, Wan YP, Bai B, Sun C (2012). Detection of chemical compositions of wild Lactarius volemus from Yunnan province. Edible Fungi 4: 60-61.

* Yin JZ, Zhou LX (2008). Analysis of nutritional components of 4 kinds of wild edible fungi in Yunnan. Food Res Dev 29: 133-136.

* Zhou LX, Yin JZ (2008). Yunnan wild edible Boletus nutrition analysis and evaluation. Edible Fungi 4: 61-62.

* Zhu XQ, Wang XJ, Xiong Z (2007). Nutrient analysis of the wild Lentinula edodes. Forest by-product and speciality in China 2: 9-11.

* Zu Y, Li C, Fu Y, Zhao C (2006). Simultaneous determination of catechin, rutin, quercetin kaempferol and isorhamnetin in the extract of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) leaves by RPHPLC with DAD. J Pharm Biomed Anal 41: 714-719 [CrossRef]

Mehmet Akyuz (1*)[iD], Ayse Dilek Ozsahin Kirecci (1)[iD], Zehra Gokce (2)[iD], Sevda Kyrbag (3)[iD], Okkes Yilmaz (3)[iD]

(1) Department of Biology, Bitlis Eren University, Faculty of Arts & Science, 13000 Bitlis, Turkey

(2) Department of Health Administration, Kilis 7 Aralik University, Yusuf Serefoglu Faculty of Health Sciences, 79090 Kilis, Turkey

(3) Department of Biology, Firat University, Faculty of Science, 23119 Elazig, Turkey

ORCID IDs of the authors: M.A. 0000-0003-3986-3498; A.D.O.K. 0000-0002-1832-7082; Z.G. 0000-0001-7855-2700; S.K. 0000-0002-4337-8236; O.Y. 0000-0002-8276-4498.

Cite this article as: Akyuz M, Ozsahin Kirecci AD, Gokce Z, Kirbag S, Yilmaz O (2019). Biochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of some mushrooms from Turkey: Agaricus spp., Pleurotus spp., Morchella esculenta and Terfezia boudieri. Istanbul J Pharm 49 (1): 1-6.

Address for Correspondence:

Mehmet AKYUZ, e-mail:

Received: 12.04.2018

Accepted: 04.10.2018

DOI: 10.26650/istanbulJPharm.2019.19002
Table 1. Vitamin contents of some edible mushrooms from Turkey (dry

                       Vitamin ([micro]g/g)
Mushrooms              K1      K2     D2     D3     [alpha]      Retinol

P. eryngii             -       1.00   4.50   0.85   25.15        0.30
var ferulae (*)
P. eryngii              2.65   0.15   2.90   1.15    8.35        0.10
var. eryngii (*)
L. sajor-caju (*)       0.95   -      7.20   1.45   19.70        0.05
P. floridanus (*)       1.70   1.50   3.55   0.70   28.45        0.15
P. ostreatus (*)        0.90   -      3.95   0.60   34.60        0.10
P. ostreatus (b, **)    2.60   -      5.05   0.75   31.20        0.05
A. bisporus (d,*)       2.00   -      4.85   1.10   56.35        0.70
A. campestris (b,**)   20.75   1.15   1.35   1.05   24.90        0.20
T. boudieri (a,**)     60.85   0.60   3.95   0.60   68.20        0.55
M. esculenta (c,**)    21.05   0.95   6.75   3.45   43.65        0.10

                      Vitamin       Sitosterol ([micro]g/g)
Mushrooms             Retinolast    Ergosterol  Stigmasterol  [beta]-

P. eryngii            0.10          259.10        5.10        -
var ferulae (*)
P. eryngii            0.10           90.45        1.35        1.30
var. eryngii (*)
L. sajor-caju (*)     0.10          431.10        2.60        -
P. floridanus (*)     0.15          372.25      -             0.20
P. ostreatus (*)      0.05          448.65        5.55        -
P. ostreatus (b, **)  0.05          374.80        6.40        0.10
A. bisporus (d,*)     0.05          403.65       16.95        0.45
A. campestris (b,**)  0.10          169.75        3.10        0.15
T. boudieri (a,*,*)   0.05          103.70       36.30        1.10
M. esculenta (c,**)   0.05          491.75      110.45        -

(*): culture, (**): wild,
(a): Sanliurfa, (b): Elazig, (c): Antalya, (d): Bitlis
K1 : phylloquinone, K2 : menaquinone, D2 : ergocalciferol, D3 :

Table 2. Sugar, flavonoid, phenol and protein contents of some edible
mushroom from Turkey (dry weight)

Mushrooms              Glucose   Sucrose   Fructose  Maltose   Arabinose

P. eryngii var.          5.58     0.92     -           -       -
ferulae (*)
P. eryngii var.          1.77     5.17     0.42        -       -
eryngii (*)
L. sajor-caju (*)        -        -        -           -       -
P. floridanus (*)       27.57     -        -           -       -
P. ostreatus (*)       266.03    11.00     1.61        -       -
P. ostreatus (b,**)    207.72    17.19     0.64        -       -
A. bisporus (d,*)        -        1.42     0.48       31.16    -
A. campestris (b,**)     -       28.63     -         230.97    -
T. boudieri (a,**)      39.30     4.66     -           -       3.99
M. esculenta (c,**)     74.27     1.01     -          52.98    1.79

                       Total          Total
                       Flavonoid      Phenol             Protein
Mushrooms              ([micro]g/g)   ([micro]g/mL)      (mg/g)

P. eryngii var.        199.00         1.87[+ or -]0.10    82.82
ferulae (*)
P. eryngii var.         88.00         1.88[+ or -]0.13    96.05
eryngii (*)
L. sajor-caju (*)        2.00         1.39[+ or -]0.18   138.60
P. floridanus (*)        4.00         1.11[+ or -]0.04   137.37
P. ostreatus (*)         -            1.24[+ or -]0.13   137.36
P. ostreatus (b,**)     43.00         2.09[+ or -]0.12   114.21
A. bisporus (d,*)      611.00         2.11[+ or -]0.07    95.78
A. campestris (b,**)    18.00         3.78[+ or -]0.46   101.15
T. boudieri (a,**)      39.00         1.88[+ or -]0.20    81.05
M. esculenta (c,**)      6.00         2.02[+ or -]0.26   107.10

(*): culture, (**): wild,
(a): Sanliurfa, (b): Elazig, (c): Antalya, (d): Bitlis

Table 3. Fatty acid composition of some edible mushroom from Turkey
(dry weight)

                      Fatty acids (% dry weight)
Mushrooms             C14:0  C15:0  C15:1  C16:0  C16:1  C17:0   C18:0

P eryngii var.        -      1.31   0.13   13.55  1.78   -       2.77
ferulae (*)
P eryngii var.        -      1.43   0.15   12.83  2.11   -       3.01
eryngii (*)
L. sajor-caju (*)     -      -      -      10.49  1.19   -       1.96
P floridanus (*)      -      1.67   -      13.07  1.97   -       1.62
P ostreatus (*)       -      -      -       8.94  0.99   -       1.32
P ostreatus (b,**)    -      1.68   -      11.01  1.97   -       1.34
A. bisporus (d,*)     -      1.16   -      10.64  1.75   0.53    5.53
A. campestris (b,**)  -      -      -      18.14  3.59   -       4.43
T. boudieri (a,**)    -      -      -      16.35  3.40   -       2.89
M. esculenta (c,**)   -             -      12.54  3.49   -       2.51

                      Fatty acids (% dry weight)
Mushrooms             C18:1  C18:2  C18:3  C20:1  C20:2  C20:3  C20:5

P eryngii var.        39.43  37.08  0.32   0.18   1.60   -      -
ferulae (*)
P eryngii var.        35.07  43.58  0.18   -      0.68   -      -
eryngii (*)
L. sajor-caju (*)     13.75  70.04  -      -      -      -      1.62
P floridanus (*)      14.70  65.20  -      -      -      -      0.77
P ostreatus (*)       11.33  76.72  -      -      -      -      0.70
P ostreatus (b,**)    12.69  69.85  -      -      -      -      1.05
A. bisporus (d,*)      2.91  71.98  2.12   -      -      0.35   -
A. campestris (b,**)   4.09  59.02  1.61   -      -      -      0.63
T. boudieri (a,**)    21.42  53.88  0.52   0.15   0.28   0.13   -
M. esculenta (c,**)    8.31  71.41  0.45   -      0.28   -      -

                      Fatty acids (% dry weight)
Mushrooms             C21:0   C22:0   C22:6   C23:0   C24:0

P eryngii var.        0.23    0.55    -       0.40    0.67
ferulae (*)
P eryngii var.        0.22    0.36    -       0.28    0.11
eryngii (*)
L. sajor-caju (*)     -       0.95    -       -       -
P floridanus (*)      -       -       -       -       0.98
P ostreatus (*)       -       -       -       -       -
P ostreatus (b,**)    -       -       -       -       0.42
A. bisporus (d,*)     1.14    1.21    -       -       0.67
A. campestris (b,**)  1.10    2.95    -       2.98    1.47
T. boudieri (a,**)    0.15    0.61    0.10    0.12    -
M. esculenta (c,**)   0.99    -       -       -       -

(*): culture, (**): wild,
(a): Sanliurfa, (b): Elazig, (c): Antalya, (d): Bitlis
C14:0 myristic acid, C15:0 pentadecanoic acid, C15:1 pentadesenoic
acid, C16:0 palmitic acid, C16:1 palmitoleic acid, C17:0 margaric acid,
C18:0 stearic acid, C18:1 oleic acid, C18:2 linoleic acid, C18:3
linolenic acid
C20:1 eicosenoic acid, C20:2 eicosadienoic acid, C20:3 eicosatrienoic
acid, C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid, C21:0 heneicosanoic acid, C22:0
behenic acid, C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid, C23:0 tricosanoic acid, C24:0
lignoseric acid

Table 4. Antioxidant activies of some edible mushroom from Turkey (dry

Mushrooms             25[micro]L  50 [micro]L  100 [micro]L  200

P eryngii var         55.71       72.92        92.95         99.53
ferulae (*)
Peryngii var          44.33       70.26        95.77         97.96
eryngii (*)
L. sajor-caju (*)     45.38       77.93        92.48         97.65
P floridanus (*)      64.47       90.29        97.33         99.21
P ostreatus (*)       44.60       74.33        93.11         98.59
P ostreatus (b,**)    42.09       67.91        78.56         96.40
A. bisporus (d,*)     12.36       88.41        96.87         99.53
A. campestris (b,**)  73.86       94.83        98.12         99.16
T. boudieri (a,**)    74.80       69.32        84.50         97.18
M. esculenta (c,**)   76.21       96.71        91.70         92.33

Mushrooms             50[micro]L  100 [micro]L  200 [micro]L  400

P eryngii var         36.48       30.88         40.13         79.92
ferulae (*)
Peryngii var          54.05       70.65         64.67         80.50
eryngii (*)
L. sajor-caju (*)     57.14       76.44         77.60         80.30
P floridanus (*)      68.53       87.06         83.39         79.15
P ostreatus (*)       48.84       63.89         70.84         80.30
P ostreatus (b,**)    25.86       22.97         70.84         65.63
A. bisporus (d,*)     47.10       71.81         45.94         77.99
A. campestris (b,**)  77.41       90.92         76.44         78.37
T. boudieri (a,**)    42.47       42.85         44.98         72.00
M. esculenta (c,**)   40.92       42.08         37.83         73.93

                      DPPH           MDA (nmol/mL)
Mushrooms             800 [micro]L   MDA               FeCl

P eryngii var         91.89          3.12[+ or -]0.11
ferulae (*)
Peryngii var          91.69          4.23[+ or -]0.22
eryngii (*)
L. sajor-caju (*)     91.69          5.95[+ or -]0.46
P floridanus (*)      90.34          7.21[+ or -]0.34
P ostreatus (*)       91.89          4.94[+ or -]0.67  7.09[+ or -]0.37
P ostreatus (b,**)    91.50          7.30[+ or -]0.26
A. bisporus (d,*)     85.32          5.93[+ or -]1.47
A. campestris (b,**)  86.87          8.41[+ or -]0.94
T. boudieri (a,**)    86.29          7.04[+ or -]0.54
M. esculenta (c,**)   83.39          6.79[+ or -]0.37

Mushrooms              Control

P eryngii var
ferulae (*)
Peryngii var
eryngii (*)
L. sajor-caju (*)
P floridanus (*)
P ostreatus (*)        1.104[+ or -]0.06
P ostreatus (b,**)
A. bisporus (d,*)
A. campestris (b,**)
T. boudieri (a,**)
M. esculenta (c,**)

(*): culture, (**): wild,
(a): Sanliurfa, (b): Elazig, (c): Antalya, (d): Bitlis
ABTS: 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), DPPH:
2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, MDA: malondialdehyde
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2019 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:Original Article
Author:Akyuz, Mehmet; Kirecci, Ayse Dilek Ozsahin; Gokce, Zehra; Kirbag, Sevda; Yilmaz, Okkes
Publication:Journal of the Faculty of Pharmacy of Istanbul University
Date:Apr 1, 2019
Previous Article:Overview on nanotechnology based cosmeceuticals to prevent skin aging.
Next Article:Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis and in-vitro biological activity of Rheum ribes L. different parts.

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2020 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters